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707 

H27 

1900 

v. 1 

c. 1 

ROBA 



LlL.Jii4: 







COLLECTION G.M.A. 
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tt xrf 



An Anonymous Donor 



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W.H.SMITHaGON 

( NEALS LIBRARY) 

248.RuedeRivoli 



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PARIS 

VOL. I 



PARIS 



BY 



AUGUSTUS J. C. HARE 

AUTHOR OF 
'WALKS IN LONDON,' 'WALKS IN ROME,' 'DAYS NEAR PARIS, 

ETC. 



4 tSluacumque ingreMmur, in aliquant bistoriam vestigium ponimus ' 

CICERO de Fin. v. 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOL. I 

SECOND EDITION (REVISED) 



SEEN B\ 

PRESERVAT 

SERVICE 



DATE 



LONDON 

GEORGE ALLEN, 156, CHARING CROSS ROAD 
1900 

[All rights reserved] 



Three Shillings each Volume 







707 




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639800 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &* Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press 



PREFACE 

A BETTER book than this might easily have been published, 
but no one else has tried to write anything of the kind, 
and I have done my best. This volume and ' Days near 
Paris ' were the conscientious hard work of two years. As 
in my ' Cities of Italy,' the descriptions are my own, but, for 
opinions and comments, I have quoted from others, choos- 
ing those passages which seem pleasant to read upon the 
spot, and likely to impress what is seen upon the recollec- 
tion. The woodcuts, with very few exceptions, are from my 
own sketches, transferred to wood by Mr. T. Sulman. 

The second edition has been carefully revised and 
corrected on the spot. 

AUGUSTUS J. C. HARE. 



CONTENTS 

VOL. I 



PACK 

INTRODUCTION . i 



DULL-USEFUL INFORMATION 13 

CHAPTER I 

THE, TUILERIES AND LOUVRE l8 

CHAPTER II 

IN OLD PARIS 104 

CHAPTER III 

THE MARAIS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE HOTEL DE VILLE l6l 

CHAPTER IV 

THE FAUBOURG S. ANTOINE AND PERE-LACHAISE . . . 236 

INDEX 253 



PARIS 



INTRODUCTION 

A LMOST all educated Englishmen visit Paris some time 
** in their lives, yet few really see it. They stay at the 
great neighbouring capital to enjoy its shops and theatres 
and to drive in the Bois de Boulogne, and they describe it 
as a charming modern city, from which the picturesqueness 
of an historic past has been utterly obliterated. But, whilst 
it is true that much has perished, those who take the trouble 
to examine will be surprised to find how many remnants of 
past times still exist, more interesting than those in any pro- 
vincial town, because the history of France, more especially 
of modern France, is so completely centred in its capital. 

' C'est a Paris et a Versailles, son royal faubourg, que se fait 
1'histoire de France, a partir de Louis XIII. Paris rayonne sur la 
France et 1'absorbe. Tous les memoires, toutes les relations parlent 
de Paris.' Albert Babean. 

' La France est aujourd'hui le pays du monde ou la capitale 
presente 1'aspect le plus different du reste de la nation. En face de 
trente-cinq millions de provinciaux se dresse une ville, ou plutot un 
petit etat, superieur, par sa population, a la Grece, a la Serbie, au 
Danemark, a la Norwege et quelques autres royaumes plus ou moins 
constitutionnels. Cette republique, enclavee dans la grande, est 
representee par une assemblee agressive qui reclame tous les jours une 
autonomie plus complete. Elle se vante d'etre cosmopolite, et ne 
desespere pas de rompre un jour quelques-uns des liens qui subordon- 
nent son sort a celui de la patrie. Combattue par les lois, sa pre- 
ponderance a etc longtemps favorisee par la politique. Apres avoir 
impose trois ou quatre revolutions a la province, elle ne peut se 
consoler d' avoir perdu ce privilege. Tous les ans, un parti puissant 

VOL. I. A 



2 PA RIS 

celebre 1'anniversaire du jour ou ce petit Etat, exaspere par un siege 
de quatre mois, a tourne ses armes centre la volonte nationale. Les 
moeurs elles-memes semblent perpetuer des causes de mesintelligence 
entre ces deux fractions inegales du pays. En vain la population 
de la capitale est sans cesse renouvelee par des elements provinciaux, 
au point que sur dix Parisiens, il y en a au moins cinq dont la 
famille a une autre origine. II semble qu'en respirant 1'air de Paris, 
le meme individu change de caractere et de langage. II s'empresse 
d'oublier ses anciennes attaches. II croit echapper a la tyrannic des 
incidents mesquins et contradictoires ; il se jette a corps perdu dans le 
monde des idees generates. Paris est le sol beni des abstractions. On 
y juge de tout par principes. On y cueille la fleur de la civilisation 
sans se preoccuper de la tige et des racines. Paris nous vaut notre 
reputation de gens a theories et a maximes humanitaires. 

'A force de manier des idees plutot que des faits, la capitale 
aper9oit le reste de la France de loin, de haut, et sous une forme 
abstraite. Le spectateur, attentif au drame qui se joue sur le devant 
de la scene, distingue a peine, au fond du theatre, une foule confuse, 
qu'il designe par 1'expression commode et vague de " masses pro- 
fondes ; " c'est-a-dire une poussiere d'individus, un amas de ces 
monades dont parle Leibnitz.' Rent Belloc, ' Revue des Deux- 
MondesJ Ixx. 

Peter the Great said of Paris that if he possessed such 
a town he should be tempted to burn it down, for fear it 
should absorb the rest of his empire ; and the hearts of all 
Frenchmen, and still more of all Frenchwomen, turn to 
their capital as the wished-for, the most desirable of resi- 
dences, the most beautiful of cities, the intellectual, com- 
mercial, and political centre of their country. 

' Francigenae princeps populosa Lutetia gentis 

Exerit immensum clara sub astra caput. 
Hie cujus numerum, ars pretium, sapientia finem 

Exuperant, superant thura precesque Deos. 
Audiit obstupuitque hospes, factusque viator 
Vidit, et haud oculis credidit ipse suis.' 

Julius Caesar Scaliger. 

Long ago Charles V. declared ' Lutetia non urbs, sed 
orbis,' and now Paris covers an area of thirty square miles, 
and is the most cosmopolitan town in Europe, the city to 



A TTRA CTIONS OF PA RIS 3 

which members of every nationality are most wont to resort, 
for interest, instruction, and most of all for pleasure. 

' J'ai voulu voir Paris ; les fastes de 1'histoire 
Celebrent ses plaisirs, et consacrent sa gloire,' l 

is an impulse which every day brings throngs of strangers to 
its walls. To most of these the change from their ordinary 
life, which is to be found in the c distraction ' of Paris, forms 
its chief charm, and Londoners delight in the brightness 
and gaiety, and excess of its contrast to all they are accus- 
tomed to. But to Frenchmen Paris is far more than this : 
the whole country looks to it as the mother-city, whilst 
those who have been brought up there can seldom endure 
a long separation from it. 

' Paris a mon cceur des mon enfance ; et m'en est advenu comme 
des choses excellentes ; plus i'ay veu, depuis, d'autres villes belles, 
plus la beaute de celte-cy peult et gaigne sur mon affection ; je 1'aime 
tendrement, jusques a ses verrues et a ses taches.' Montaigne. 

' Ou tr,ouver une ville qui ait une physionomie a la fois plus vivante 
et plus caracteristique, plus a elle, mieux faite pour tenter le pinceau, 
la plume, pour amorcer le reve ou piquer la curiosite. 

' Paris vit, Paris a un visage, des gestes, des habitudes, des tics, 
des manies. Paris, quand on le connait, n'est pas une ville, c'est un 
etre anime, une personne naturelle, qui a ses moments de fureur, de 
folie, de betise, d'enthousiasme, d'honnetete et de lucidite ; comme un 
homme qui est parfois charmant et parfois insupportable, maisjamais 
indifferent. 

' On 1'aime ou on 1'execre ; il attache ou il repousse, mais il ne 
laisse personne froid.' D 1 Herisson. 

1 La voila done, me disais-je, cette ville qui depuis des siecles sert 
de modele a 1' Europe pour la mode et le gout ; cette ville dont le nom 
est prononce avec veneration dans toutes les parties du monde par les 
savants et les ignorants, par les philosophies et les petits-maitres, par 
les artistes et meme par les flaneurs ; nom que je connus presque 
aussitot que mon propre nom, que je retrouve dans d'innombrables 
romans, dans la bouche des voyageurs, dans mes reves et dans mes 
pensees. Voici Paris, et j'y suis ! Ah ! mes amis, ce fut la le 
moment le plus fortune de ma vie. Rien n'egale les vives sensations 
de curiosite et d'impatience que j'eprouvai alors.' Karamsine. 

1 Voltaire. 



4 PARIS 

1 Tous y trouvent ce qu'ils etaient venus chercher, et c'est du choc 
de tous les interets, c'est du contact de toutes les industries, de nom- 
breux talents dans mille branches diverses, de toutes les imaginations 
appliquees au travail, aux recherches de tout genre, que naissent cette 
activite, ce mouvement continuel de fabrication, les prodiges de 1'art 
et de la science, ces ameliorations journalieres, ces conceptions 
savantes et ingenieuses ; ces decouvertes surprenantes, enfin ces admir- 
ables merveilles qui saisissent, etonnent, captivent et font generale- 
ment considerer Paris comme sans egal dans 1'univers.' Balzac, 
1 Esquisses Parisiennes. ' 

However long a stay be made in Paris, there will always 
remain something to be discovered. All tastes may be 
satisfied, all pleasures satiated, and to the lovers of historic 
reminiscence its interest is absolutely inexhaustible. 

' Paris est un veritable ocean. Jetez-y la sonde, vous n'en con- 
naitrez jamais la profondeur. Parcourez-le, decrivez-le, quelque soin 
que vous mettiez a le parcourir, a le decrire, quelque nombreux et 
interesses que soient les explorateurs de cette mer, il s'y rencontrera 
toujours un lieu vierge, un autre inconnu, des fleurs, des perles, des 
monstres, quelque chose d'inoui, oublie par les plongeurs litteraires.' 
Balzac, ' Le Pere Goriot. ' 

* Notre etrange Paris, dans sa population et ses aspects, semble une 
carte d'echantillon du monde entier. On trouve dans le Marais des rues 
etroites a vieilles portes brodees, vermiculees, a pignons ava^ants, a 
balcons en moucharabies qui vous font penser a 1'antique Heidelberg. 
Le faubourg Saint- Honore dans sa partie large autour de 1'eglise russe 
aux minarets blancs, aux boules d'or, evoque un quartier de Moscou. 
Sur Montmartre je sais un coin pittoresque et encombre qui est 1'Al- 
ger pur. Des petits hotels bas et nets, derriere leur entree a plaque 
de cuivre et leur jardin particulier, s'alignent en rues anglaises entre 
Neuilly et les Champs-Elysees ; tandis que tout le chevet de Saint- 
Sulpice, la rue Feron, la rue Cassette, paisibles dans 1'ombre des 
grosses tours, inegalement pavees, aux portes a marteau, semblent 
detachees d'une ville provinciale et religieuse ; Tours ou Orleans par 
exemple, ou de grands arbres depassant les murs se bercent au bruit 
des cloches et des repons.' Daudet, ' Le Nabab' 

1 Ce que c'est que Paris? II n'y cut jamais un homme qui put 
repondre a cette question. Quand j'aurois les cent benches, les cent 
langues, et la voix de fer, dont parlent Homere et Virgile, je ne pour- 
rois pas compter la moitie de ses vertus, de ses vices, ni de ses ridicules. 
Ce que c'est que Paris ? C'est un assemblage de contradictions, un tissu 



PLEASURES OF PARISIAN LIFE 5 

d'horreurs et de delices, les unes et les autres rendues plus saillantes 
par leur proximite. C'est un pays plein d'etourderie et de profondeur, 
d'une grande simplicite et de preventions outrees. Les contrastes ne 
finiroient jamais.' Sherlock, I78I. 1 

' Ce fleuve trouble et agitee qu'on appelle la vie Parisien.' Guy de 
Maupassant. 

There are many points in Paris, many facts and phases 
of Parisian life, which interest strangers, whilst they pass 
unnoticed by those who live amongst them, for differences 
always excite more attention than similitudes, and no one 
thinks it worth while to describe what he sees every day 
manners, customs, or appearances with which he has 
been familiar from childhood. To a foreigner, especially 
to one who has never left his own country before, half an 
hour spent on the boulevards or on one of the chairs in the 
Tuileries gardens has the effect of an infinitely diverting 
theatrical performance, whilst, even 'to a cursory observer, 
it will seem as if the great object of French men and women 
in every class were to make life as easy and pleasant as 
possible to ignore its present and to forget its past troubles 
as much as they can. 

' Dans aucun pays et dans aucun siecle, un art social si parfait n'a 
rendu la vie si agreable. Paris est 1'ecole de 1'Europe, une ecole 
d'urbanite, oil, de Russie, d'Allemagne, d'Angleterre, les jeunes gens 
viennent se degrossir. Quand on a connu ces salons, on ne les quitte 
plus, ou, si on est oblige de les quitter, on les regrette toujours. " Rien 
n'est comparable," dit Voltaire, " a la douce vie qu'on y mene au sein 
des arts et d'une volupte tranquille et delicate ; des etrangers, des rois 
ont prefere ce repos si agreablement occupe et si enchanteur a leur 
patrie et a leur trone. . . . Le coeur s'y amollit et s'y dissout, comme 
les aromates se fondent doucement a un feu modere et exhalent un 
parfum delicieux.'" Taine, ' Origines de la France Contemporaine? 

' There is nothing wanting to the character of a Frenchman that 
belongs to that of an agreeable and worthy man. There are only some 
trifles surplus, or which might be spared.' Ben. Franklin. 

On the rare occasions when a Frenchman, destined by 

The first edition of Sherlock's Lettres <un Voyageur anglais, 1781, was pub- 
ished in French. 



6 PARIS 

his nature to be gay and animated, allows himself to be 
conquered by depression, he is indeed to be pitied. 

' Que je plains un francois, quand il est sans gaiete ; 
Loin de son element le pauvre homme est jette.' Voltaire. 

Pleasure at Paris becomes business ; indeed, a large por- 
tion of the upper classes of Parisians have no time for 
anything else. 

' Ici a Paris je ne m'appartiens plus, j'ai a peine le temps de causer 
avec mon mari et de suivre mes correspondances. Je ne sais comment 
font les femmes dont c'est la vie habituelle ; elles n'ont done ni famille 
a entretenir, ni enfants a clever.' Marie d'Oberkirk. 

An Englishman may learn many a lesson in outward 
forms of politeness on the public promenades of Paris, for 
the rules of good manners which were so rigidly inculcated 
by Louis XIV. bear their fruit still ; and if outward de- 
meanour could be received as a sign of inner character, 
Parisians would be the most delightful people in the world. 
Sometimes the grandiloquence of expressions used about 
trifles will strike the hearer with amusement 'Comment 
Madame veut-elle que sa robe soit organisee ? ' is an ordi- 
nary inquiry addressed by a dressmaker to her lady-employer. 

In all classes the routine of life is simplified, and made 
easier than with us. This is partly owing to all the apart- 
ments of a residence being usually on the same level. The 
letting- out of the houses at Paris in different floors is a 
comfortable arrangement which Londoners may well envy. 
Often each house, as Alphonse Karr says, becomes like 
a mountain inhabited from the valley to the summit, in 
which you may study the differences of manners and habits 
which have existed from all time between lowlanders and 
highlanders. 

Confined to the island of La Cite in its early existence, 
Paris has gone on spreading through centuries, swallowing 
up fields, forests, villages. The history of its gradual in- 
crease is written in the names of its streets. One may 



NOMENCLATURE OF PARIS 7 

almost trace the limits of the boundary of Paris under 
Philippe-Auguste or Charles V. in following the Rues des 
Fosses-S.-Bernard, des Fosses-S. -Victor, des Fosses-S.- Mar- 
cel, de la Contrescarpe-S. -Marcel, des Fosses-S.-Jacques, 
des Fosses- Monsieur-le- Prince, de la Contrescarpe-Dau- 
phine, des Fosses-S. -Germain-TAuxerrois, des Fosses-Mont- 
martre, des Fosses-du-Temple, du Rempart, &c. 

Of other streets, many take their names from churches 
and chapels ; some (as des Grands Augustins, des Blancs 
Manteaux, des Mathurins, Petits-Peres, Recollets, &c.) from 
convents; some (as Filles-du-Calvaire, Filles-S.- Thomas, 
Nonnains d'Yeres, Ursulines) from monasteries ; the streets 
of S. Anne, Bellefond and Rochechouart from three 
Abbesses of Montmartre. A number of streets are named 
from hotels of nobles, as d'Antin, de Duras, Garanciere, 
Lesdiguieres, de Rohan, du Roi de Sicile; others from 
nobles themselves, as Ventadour, de Choiseul, de Gram- 
mont, &c. In the Marais many of the streets are named 
from the palace of the Hotel de S. Paul and its surround- 
ings, as the Rue du Figuier-S.-Paul, from its fig-garden ; 
Beautreillis, from its berceau of vines ; Cerisaie, from its 
cherry-orchard ; Lions-S.-Paul, from its menagerie. A vast 
number of streets are named from bourgeois inhabitants, 
as Coquilliere, Geoffrey -Lasnier, Git-le-Cceur (Gilles le 
Queux), Simon-le-Franc (Franque); others from tradesmen, 
as Aubry-le-Boucher, Tiquetonne, &c. ; others from muni- 
cipal officers, as Mercier, Thevenot, &c. ; others from officers 
of Parliament, as Bailleul, Mesley, Popincourt, &c. Still 
greater in number are the streets named from the signboards 
which formerly hung over the shops, as de I'^rbalete, de 
1'Arbre Sec, du Chaudron, du Coq-Heron, du Coq-S.-Jean, 
des Deux-Ecus, de FHirondelle, des Ciseaux, du Sabot, du 
Cherche-Midi, &c. Many streets take names from history 
or legends, as the Rue Pierre-Levee, where a menhir is 
believed to have stood; the Rue des Martyrs, by which 
SS. Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius are supposed to have 



8 PA RIS 

gone to their death at Montmartre ; the Rue des Frondeurs, 
where the barricades of the Fronde were begun ; the Rue 
des Francs-Bourgeois, of which the inhabitants were free 
from taxation. The Rue de PEnfer, formerly Rue Infe'rieur, 
had its name corrupted in the reign of S. Louis, when the 
devil was supposed to haunt the Chateau de Vauvert. The 
evil character of their inhabitants gave a name to such 
streets as the Rue Mauvais- Gannons, Mauconseil, Vide- 
Gousset, &c. In the more modern Paris a vast number of 
streets are named from eminent men, as Bossuet, Corneille, 
Casimir-Delavigne, d'Aguesseau, Richelieu, Montaigne, &c. ; 
and some from victories, as Rivoli, des Pyramides, Cas- 
tiglione, d'Alger, &c. 

As in London, fashionable life has moved constantly 
from one quarter to another, and constantly westwards. The 
Boulevard Hausmann is now the centre of the haute finance, 
the Faubourg S. Honore of the haute bourgeoisie. The 
former, and works carried on at the same time, have de- 
stroyed much of the picturesqueness of the town. 

* On adopta ce systeme de lignes droites interminables qui ote aux 
villes tout caractere propre et les confonde dans la froide monotonie 
d'un meme type, fort contraire aux principes d'art. Des constructions 
sans originalite, imitees de tous les styles, surgissaient comme par 
enchantement le long de toutes ces avenues, tandis que le vieux Paris 
s'en allait pierre a pierre, monument apres monument. II semblait 
que ce pouvoir sans passe et sans avenir s'acharnat a effacer 1'histoire. 
Une foule de restes charmants et varies du vieux Paris, qu'il eut etc 
facile de faire servir a 1'ornement de la cite nouvelle, cloitres, chapelles, 
colleges, maisons sculptees, tourelles et antiques ramparts, tombaient 
d'heure en heure sous le marteau et sous la hache ; nombre de precieux 
vestiges du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance, caches dans 1'interieur 
des habitations n'apparissaient au milieu des demolitions que pour 
disparaitre a 1'instant ; on detruisait ce qu'on etait incapable de rem- 
placer.' Henri Martin, ' Hist, de France? 

'La vie de Paris, sa physiognomic, a etc, en 1500, rue Saint 
Antoine ; en 1600 a la Place Royale ; en 1700, au Pont Neuf; 
en 1800, au Palais Royal. Tous ces endroits ont etc tour a tour 
les boulevards ! La terre a etc passionnee la, comme 1'asphalte Test 
aujourd'hui sous les pieds des boursiers, au perron de Tortoni. . . . 



RELIGION AT PARIS 9 

Ces displacements de la vie parisienne s'expliquent. En 1580, la cour 
etait au chateau des Tournelles, sous la protection de la Bastille. En 
1600, 1'aristocratie demeurait a la fameuse Place Royale, chantee par 
Corneille, comme quelque jour on chantera les boulevards.' Balzac^ 
' Esquisses Parisiennes? 

The modern suburbs, over which Paris has spread of 
late years Montrouge, La Glaciere, Vaugirard, Crenelle, &c. 
are absolutely without interest, and are scarcely likely 
to be visited by foreigners. 

The suppression of the religious orders, who once 
occupied a third of the area of the town, has done more 
than anything else to remove the old landmarks in Paris, 
and many fine old monastic buildings have perished with 
their owners, who were such a mighty power before the 
Revolution. But in later years, the spirit of religion 
seems to have died in France, and the very churches are 
almost deserted now, except when any eminent preacher 
is announced, or a few fashionable churches, such as the 
Madeleine, S. Roch, or S. Thomas Aquin. A congrega- 
tion of twenty is not unusual at high-mass in the metro- 
politan cathedral of Notre Dame, though many still 
receive the sacrament at the earlier service. The number- 
less priests often officiate to bare walls and empty chairs. 
Only, in the parish churches, poor women are still con- 
stantly seen buying their tapers at the door, and lighting 
them before the image of the Madonna, l la Menagcre du 
ParadisJ or some favourite saint, praying while they burn 
a custom more frequent in Paris than anywhere else. 

' On dit par jour quatre a cinq mille messes a quinze sols la piece. 
Les Capucins font grace de trois sols. Toutes ces messes innombrables 
ont ete fondees par nos bons aieux, qui, pour un reve, commandoient a 
perpetuite le sacrifice non sanglant. Point de testament sans une fon- 
dation de messes ; c'eiit ete une impiete ; et les pretres auroient refuse 
la sepulture a quiconque evit oublie cet article, ainsi que les fails anciens 
le prouvent. 

' Entrez dans une eglise ; a droite, a gauche, en face, en-arriere, 
de cote, un pretre ou consacre, ou eleve 1'hostie, ou la mange, ou 
prononce !'//<?, missa est' Tableau de Paris ', 1782. 



io PARIS 

The great Revolution changed the whole face of Paris so 
completely, that it is difficult to imagine it as it was before 
that time : but the many other revolutions have passed 
by, leaving few marks upon the town, seldom even affecting 
the daily life of the people for more than a few days. 
Thus Balzac writes after that of 1830 : 

' 26 Sept. Les rues ont repris leur aspect accoutume ; les cabriolets 
elegants, les voitures, les fashionables roulent ou courent comme ci- 
devant ; et, sauf quelques arbres de moins, les boulevards sont 
toujours semblables a eux-memes. Les sommes destinees aux blesses 
s'encaissent, les blessures se guerissent, et tout s'oublie.' Lettres stir 
Paris. 

It will probably be remarked that there are far fewer 
idle waifs in Paris than in London. Industry is a passion 
'Les Frangais changeraient les rochers en or, si on les 
laisserait faire,' was a saying of the minister Colbert. 
' Dans ce Paris plein d'or et de misere,' 1 poverty is seldom 
apparent. Even in the Rue de Beaubourg and its side 
streets, which have the reputation of being the poorest 
parts of the city, there is an amount of movement and 
activity which is very different from the hunger-stricken in- 
anition of the poorer quarters in English cities. 

An old proverb says that, 'Paris is the paradise of 
women, the purgatory of men, and the hell of horses.' But 
however true the first of these dictums may be, its bad 
reputation in the last instance has long been a tale of the 
past. 

Absorbed in the pursuit of pleasure, setting the fashions 
of ladies' dress to the universe, Paris has probably had less 
influence upon literature or art than several of the other 
great capitals. 

' Cette ville oil il entre par tant de portes, et tous les jours, et 
incessament, des bestiaux, de la farine, du lait, des poetes, et dont il ne 
sort que du fumier.' Alphonse Kan-, ' Clovis Gosselin.' 

i Bdrangcr. 



INFLUENCE OF PARIS 11 

But its political state has always penetrated the rest of 
Europe ; it has never had a revolution without shaking the 
stability of other European powers. 

1 Ville qu'un orage enveloppe ! 
C'est elle, helas ! qui nuit et jour 
Reveille le geant Europe 
Avec sa cloche et son tambour ! 
Sans cesse, qu'il veille ou qu'il dorme, 
II entend la cite difforme 
Bourdonner sur sa tete enornie 
Comme un essaim dans la foret. 
Toujours Paris s'ecrie et gronde. 
Nul ne sait, question profonde, 
Ce qui perdrait le bruit du monde 
Le jour oil Paris se tairait.' 

Victor Hugo, ' Les Voix Interieures? 

The excitable nature of the French, their intense love 
of change, and their passion for everything noisy, natur- 
ally tends to revolutions, and, a revolution once effected, 
everything belonging to the last regime is swept away as 
soon as possible : buildings are pulled down, statues dashed 
to pieces, names recalling those lately adored are changed 
as unendurable, and their memories are insulted and dragged 
in the mire. 

' En France, pays de vanite, aussitot qu'une occasion de faire du 
bruit se presente, une foule de gens la saisissent ; les uns agissent par 
bon coeur, les autres par la conscience qu'ils ont de leur merite.' 
Chateaubriand. 

Nowhere is existence cheaper than at Paris for those who 
know how to manage. A bachelor who does not mind 
mounting five pairs of stairs may have a charming little 
apartment for about i/. a week. At the smaller private 
hotels, an admirably furnished room, with breakfast, lights, 
and attendance, seldom comes to more than iL los. At 
the admirable Restaurants Duval, which are scattered every- 
where over the town, an excellent dinner, with coffee and 
' petit verre,' costs from 2 fr. to 2 fr. 50 c. Almost all the 



12 PARIS 

museums and galleries are opened freely to the public, 
with a liberality unequalled in any other city of Europe. 
Carriages are reasonable, omnibuses ply in all directions, 
upon the most admirable and equitable of systems, and 
a complete circle of railways connects the city with its 
environs, containing a thousand charming spots, which the 
Parisian of the middle classes can choose for the point of 
the Sunday excursion which he almost invariably makes 
into the country. 

* Jamais un homme n'est parti de Paris gai ; ou il a perdu sa sante 
ou son argent ; ou il a laisse des attachemens qui peuvent difficilement 
se remplacer dans les autres pays, ou des connoissances interessantes, 
qu'il est impossible de quitter sans regret. Qu'elle qu'en soit la raison, 
on est toujours triste en sortant de Paris.' Sherlock, 1781. 

' Heureuse nation, qui avez de jolis appartements, de jolis meubles, 
de jolis bijoux, de jolies productions litteraires, qui prisez avec fureur 
ces charmantes bagatelles, puissiez-vous prosperer longtemps dans vos 
jolies idees, perfectionner encore ce joli persiflage qui vous concilie 
1'amour de 1'Europe, et toujours merveilleusement coesses, ne jamais 
vous reveiller du joli reve que berce mollement votre legere existence.' 
Tableau de Paris. 



PARISIAN HOTELS 13 



DULL-USEFUL INFORMATION. 

Travellers arriving late in Paris and leaving early the 
next morning by another line, may do well to sleep at 
one of the hotels near the Gare du Nord, such as Hotel 
du Chemin de Fer du Nord (good), opposite the station. Or 
they may prefer a hotel near the station of departure, such 
as near the Gare de VEst (for Strasbourg and Nancy 
or Basle), Hotel de FEurope (good), 74 Boulevard de 
Strasbourg : Hotel S. Laurent ', 4 Rue de Metz : H. de Bale, 
6 Rue de Metz : H. de Strasbourg, 78 Boulevard de Stras- 
bourg ; near the Gare de Lyon, Hotel du Chemin de Fer de 
Lyon\ near the Gare d* Or leans, H. du Chemin de Fer, 
8 Boulevard de 1'Hopital; near the Gare Montparnasse 
(for Chartres and Brittany), H. de France et de Bretagne, 
i Rue du Depart ; near the Gare S. Lazare (for Rouen 
and Normandy), H. Terminus ; H. de Londres et New York, 
15 Rue du Havre ; H. Anglo-Americain, 113 Rue S. Lazare. 

Hotels for those staying in Paris. The best are those 
on the western boulevards, in the Rue de Rivoli, Place 
Vendome, Rue de la Paix, and their neighbourhood. In 
these hotels the price of bedrooms varies from 4 to 10 fr., 
according to the size and floor. Pension in winter is from 
15 to 20 fr. a day. Hotels in the Rue S. Honore are less 
expensive and often more comfortable pension in winter 
from 10 to 15 fr. a day. 

The four largest hotels are H. Continental, 3 Rue de 
Castiglione, with a view of the Tuileries gardens ; Grand 
Hotel, 1 2 Boulevard des Capucins, close to the new Opera 
House; Grand Hotel du Louvre, 170 Rue de Rivoli; 
Terminus, Gare S. Lazare. 



I 4 PARIS 

Important and comfortable hotels are H. Bristol (the 
hotel of travelling royalty), 3 and 5 Place Vendome ; H. du 
Rhin, 4 and 6 Place Vendome; H. Ritz t 15 Place Vendome ; 
H. Meurice, 228 Rue de Rivoli ; H. Windsor, 226 Rue de 
Rivoli ; H. Brighton, 218 Rue de Rivoli; H. Wagram, 
208 Rue de Rivoli ; H. Mirabeau, 8 Rue de la Paix ; H. 
Westminster, n and 13 Rue de la Paix; H. de Hollande, 
20 Rue de la Paix; H. Splendide, 24 Rue de la Paix; H. 
Chatham, 1 7 Rue Daunou ; H. de P Empire, 7 Rue Daunou ; 
H. des Deux-Mondes, 22 Avenue de 1'Opera ; H. de 
rAmirante, 8 Rue Daunou; Ely see Palace Hotel, 103 
Avenue des Champs Ely sees. 

Comfortable hotels for a long residence are H. S.James 
(once the Hotel de Noailles), 211 Rue S. Honore; H. de 
Lille et d 'Albion, 223 Rue S. Honore; H. Richmond, u 
Rue du Helder. 

The hotels north of the boulevards or south of the Seine 
are much less expensive, and quite unfrequented by English. 

Bachelors making a long stay in Paris may live very 
comfortably and reasonably at such small hotels as Hotel 
Noel-Peter, Rue d'Amboise ; H. de Rastadt, 4 Rue Daunou, 
and many on the Quai Voltaire, and in the neighbouring 
streets. Travellers are never required to have luncheon or 
dinner in the Parisian hotels, but are generally expected to 
breakfast there. 

Pensions abound. Amongst those well spoken of are 
Raymond-Pognon, 7 Rue Clement Marot; Mme. Condat, 
18 Rue Clement Marot; Benquet, 10 Rue Chateaubriand; 
Caspar d, 35 Rue Cambon. 

Restaurants. The best as well as the most expensive 
restaurants are those on the boulevards and in the Palais 
Royal. Here a good dinner costs from 10 to 15 fr., exclusive 
of wine. Restaurants of high reputation are Voisin, 16 
Rue Cambon and 261 Rue S. Honore; Paillard, 38 Boule- 
vard des Italiens ; Durand, 2 Place de la Madeleine. We 
may also mention le Grand Vefour, 79 Galerie Beaujolais, 



RESTAURANTS AND CARRIAGES 15 

Palais Royal ; De la Paix, 5 Place de 1'Opera ; Cafe Car- 
dinal, i Boulevard des Italiens ; Bignon, 32 Avenue de 
1'Opera. 1 

Travellers who are not connoisseurs will, however, pro- 
bably be satisfied with the Restaurants Duval, which are 
admirably managed and very moderate in price. These 
establishments are scattered all over the town, and a list of 
them is found on the card which is presented to every one 
on entering, and on which the waitress (dressed in a costume) 
marks articles as they are ordered. Payment is made at 
a desk, three or four sous being left on the table for 
the attendant. Some of the most convenient Restaurants 
Duval are 194 Rue de Rivoli; 31 Avenue de 1'Opera; 
27 Boulevard de la Madeleine; 10 Place de la Madeleine; 
10 Boulevard Poissonniere ; 21 Boulevard Montmartre; 
26 Boulevard S. Michel (near Hotel de Cluny). 

Voitures de Place, or Fiacres, cost 

INSIDE PARIS 



From 6 A.M. in summer, from 
April i to September 30, and 
from 7A.M. in winter to 1 2. 30 P.M. 

The Course. The Hour, 
fr. ct. fr. ct. 

Of 2 places . i 50 20 
Of 4 places . 2 50 30 


From 12.30 P.M. to 6 A.M. in sum- 
mer, and to 7 A.M. in winter, 
from September 30 to April i. 

The Course. The Hour, 
fr. ct. fr. ct. 
Of 2 places . 2 25 2 50 
Of 4 places .30 3 50 



OUTSIDE THE FORTIFICATIONS 
(In the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, &c.) 

The Course Return 

or Hour. Fare. 

fr. ct. fr. ct. 

Of 2 places . . 2 50 i o 

Of 4 places . .30 20 

Those who engage a carriage by the hour should always 
ask a coachman for his number, and keep it in case of diffi- 
culties. 

1 Cafe's were introduced from the East under Louis XIV. 



1 6 PARIS 

Omnibuses. The fares in all Parisian omnibuses are the 
same, for any distance whatever within the barriers 30 c. 
inside, 15 c. outside. If no omnibus runs to the exact 
point a traveller wishes to reach, he demands correspondance 
(permission to change from one line to another) on entering 
a vehicle. Receiving a ticket, he will be set down at the 
point where the two lines cross, and the ticket will give him 
a prior right to a seat in the corresponding omnibus, and, in 
some cases, free him from a second payment. There are 
tramway-lines to S. Cloud, Versailles, and other places in 
the suburbs. 

Theatres. Tickets for theatres may be purchased before- 
hand at a bureau de location, where a plan of the theatre is 
shown. Seats secured thus are slightly more expensive 
than those demanded au bureau (at the door). The most 
important theatre is the Theatre Frangais on the S.W. of 
the Palais Royal. 

The performances of the Opera take place on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, and, in the winter, on Saturdays 
also. 

History. The founder of the Merovingian dynasty (of 
which few monarchs resided at Paris) was Clovis, c. 496. 
The Carlovingian dynasty was founded by Pepin-le-Bref, 
752. This dynasty was deposed, after the Norman in- 
vasion of 885, and the crown given to Count Eudes, who 
founded the Capetian dynasty, unbroken, in its male 
descent, for nearly five hundred years. From this time 
France was ruled by 

Hugues Capet, 987. 
Robert II. (le Pieux), 1031. 
Henri I., 1031. 
Philippe I., 1060. 
Louis VI. (leGros), 1108. 
Louis VII. (le Jeune), 1137. 
Philippe II. (Auguste), 1180. 
Louis VIII. (le Lion), 1223. 
Louis IX. (S. Louis), 1226. 



HISTORY 

Philippe III. (le Hardi), 1270. 
Philippe IV. (le Bel), 1285. 
Louis X. (le Hutin), 1314. 
Philippe V. (le Long), 1316. 
Charles IV. (le Bel), 1322. 

House of Valois : 
Philippe VI., 1328. 
Jean (le Bon), 1350. 
Charles V. (le Sage), 1364. 
Charles VI. (le Bien-aime), 1380. 
Charles VII., 1422. 
Louis XL, 1461. 
Charles VIII., 1483. 
Louis XII. (Pere du peuple), 1498. 
Fran9ois I., 1515. 
Henri II., 1547. 
Francois II., 1559. 
Charles IX., 1560. 
Henri III., 1574. 

House of Bourbon : 
Henri IV., 1589. 
Louis XIII., 1610. 
Louis XIV., 1643. 
Louis XV., 1715. 
Louis XVI., 1774. 

Republic. Sept. 22, 1792-1799. 
Napoleon I. First Consul, Dec. 25, 1799. 
Emperor, Dec. 2, 1804. 

House of Bourbon : 
Louis XVIII., 1814. 
Charles X., 1824. 

Louis Philippe (d'Orleans), 1830. 

Republic, 1848-1852. 

Napoleon III. President, Dec. 20, 1848. 

Emperor, Dec. 2, 1852. 
Republic proclaimed, Sept. 4, 1870. 



VOL. I. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE TUILERIES AND LOUVRE. 

who visit Paris now, and look down the avenues 
of the Champs Elysees and gardens which lead to 
nothing at all, or mourn over the unmeaning desolate space 
once occupied by the central fagade of the Tuileries, can 
scarcely realise the scene as it was before the Revolution of 
1871. Then, between the beautiful chestnut avenues, across 
the brilliant flowers and quaint orange trees of the gardens, 
beyond the sparkling glory of the fountains, rose the majestic 
facade of a palace, infinitely harmonious in colour, inde- 
scribably picturesque and noble in form, interesting beyond 
description from its associations, appealing to the noblest 
and most touching recollections, which all its surroundings 
led up to and were glorified by, which was the centre and 
soul of Paris, the first spot to be visited by strangers, the 
one point in the capital which attracted the sympathies of 
the world. 

It is all gone now. Malignant folly ruined it : apathetic 
and narrow-minded policy declined to restore and pre- 
serve it. 

Till the beginning of the XVI. c. the site of the 
Tuileries was occupied by a manufactory of tiles, which 
existed in some of the open grounds belonging to the cour- 
tille of the Hospital of the Quinze Vingts, founded in the 
middle of the XIII. c. on a site which is now crossed by 
the Rue de Rivoli. 

4 This Pallace is called Tuilleries, because heretofore they used to 
burn tile there, before the Pallace was built. For this French word 

18 



THE TUILERIES 19 

Tuillerie doth signifie in the French a place for burning of tile.' 
Coryafs ' Crudities,' 1611. 

It was in 1518 that Louise de Savoie, Duchesse d'Angou- 
leme, mother of Francois I., finding the Hotel des Tournelles 
an unhealthy residence, on account of its neighbourhood to 
the great drain of the Marais, obtained the Tuileries terra 
Tegulariorum from her son, with the neighbouring villa of 
Nicolas de Neufville, Secretaire des Finances. Louise died 
in 1531, and her villa continued to be a prize given to 
favourites in the royal household, till Catherine de Medicis 
greatly enlarged the domain of the Tuileries by purchase, 
and employed Philibert Delorme to build a magnificent 
palace there. He erected the facade towards the gardens, 
till 1871 the admiration of Europe, and his work 'le grand 
avant-corps du milieu' was continued by Jean Bullant, 
who built the pavilions at either end of his fa9ade. This 
was continued by Du Cerceau under Henri IV. to the 
Pavilion de Flore, close to the site then occupied by the 
Porte Neuve and the circular Tour du Bois belonging to 
the city walls, which ran behind the palace to the Porte S. 
Honore, across the present site of the Place du Carrousel. 
Du Cerceau also continued the south side of the palace 
from the Pavilion de Flore, parallel with the Seine, inter- 
rupting the line of the city walls by great galleries which 
connected his building with the Louvre. The space on the 
north still continued to be unoccupied, except by the de- 
tached buildings of the Grande Ecurie, until the north side 
of the palace, with the Pavilion de Marsan towards the Rue 
de Rivoli, was built for Louis XIV. by Levau and his son- 
in-law, Frangois d'Orbay. Under the second empire the 
Tuileries was finally united on the north side with the 
Louvre, with which it thenceforth formed one vast palace. 
The Pavilion de Flore was rebuilt 1863-68. 

The Tuileries was seldom inhabited by royalty till the 
present century. Under Louis XIV. Versailles became the 
royal residence. Louis XV. spent some time at the Tuileries 



20 PARIS 

during his minority and the regency, and comical are the 
accounts of the way in which his governess, Mme. de 
Ventadour, faced there the difficulties of his education. 

' Un jeune enfant, ne d'une pauvre famille, et de 1'age de Louis 
XV., fut choisi pour son compagnon d'etude, et devint 1'emule de ce 
roi, qui le prit en amitie. Chaque fois que Louis XV. raanquait a ses 
devoirs, negligeait ses etudes, on punissait ou fouettait son petit ami. 
Ce moyen inique eut peu de succes.' Mt moires de Duclos. 

After he grew up Louis XV. always resided at Versailles. 
Louis XVI. lived either at Versailles or S. Cloud, till he was 
brought to Paris as a prisoner to find the palace almost un- 
furnished. 'Tout y manquait, lits, tables, chaises, et jusqu' 
aux objets les plus necessaires de la vie.' In a few days 
some of the furniture of the royal apartments at Versailles 
was brought to Paris, and the royal family then established 
themselves the king, queen, and royal children in the 
central apartments on the ground floor and entresol of the 
left wing, Mme. de Lamballe on the ground floor, and 
Madame Elisabeth on the first floor of the Pavilion de 
Flore. Thus accommodated, they were compelled to reside 
at the Tuileries from October 6, 1789, to August 10, 1792. 
After the execution of Louis XVI. (condemned at the 
Manege) the Convention held its meetings at the Tuileries, 
till it was replaced by the Conseil des Anciens in 1796. 

On February i, 1800, Bonaparte came to reside at the 
Tuileries, which still bore placards inscribed with '10 Aout, 
1792. La royaute en France est abolie et ne se relevera 
jamais.' 'Eh bien, Bourienne, nous voila done aux Tuile- 
ries. Maintenant il faut y rester,' were the first words of 
the future emperor to his faithful secretary on arriving. 
Henceforward regiments defiled through the court of the 
Tuileries every five days. 

' C'est la que Bonaparte se laissait voir aux troupes et a la multi- 
tude toujours pressee d'accourir sur ses pas ; maigre, pale, penche sur 
son cheval, il interessait et frappait a la fois, par une beaute grave et 



THE TUILERIES 21 

triste, par une apparence de mauvaise sante dont on commen9ait a 
s'inquieter beaucoup, car jamais la conservation d'un homme n'avait 
etc autant desiree que la sienne.' Thiers. 

"\\e fleurs-de-lis were now picked out of the furniture 
of the Tuileries, and replaced by the bee of the Bonapartes. 
In the chapel Napoleon I. was married by Cardinal Fesch 
to Josephine (who had long been his wife by the civil bond), 
Berthier and Talleyrand being witnesses; in the palace 
he received Pius VII., who was given the Pavilion de 
Flore as a residence ; thence he went to his coronation ; 
there the different marriages of the imperial brothers and 
sisters took place ; there the divorce of Josephine was pro- 
nounced ; and there, in 1812, when intending to unite the 
Tuileries to the Louvre, he especially bade the architect to 
prepare vast apartments for the vassal sovereigns who would 
form part of his cortege on his triumphant return from 
Russia ! 

Napoleon I. fell, but the Tuileries continued to be the 
hai>itual seat, of the executive power till 1870. At the 
Restoration of 1814 the last survivor of the five prisoners of 
the Temple, the Duchesse d'Angouleme, was received there 
by two hundred ladies dressed in white embroidered with 
the Bourbon lily. There she watched over the last hours of 
Louis XVIII. , and there, through the reigns of Louis XVIII. 
and Charles X., she lived apart from the dissipations of the 
Court, in a room hung with white velvet, upon which lilac 
daisies had been worked by the hands of her mother and 
Madame Elisabeth, and in which, in an oratory, she kept 
the memorials of their last days the cap which the queen 
had made with her own hands to wear at her trial ; the 
handkerchief torn from the bosom of Madame Elisabeth on 
the scaffold ; the coat, white cravat, and black silk waist- 
coat in which Louis XVI. had gone to death all preserved 
in a drawer of the rude bench on which her brother had 
died. 

Another revolution, and the numerous members of the 



22 PARIS 

Orleans family crossed the road from the Palais-Royal to 
reside at the Tuileries. Louis Philippe at once began to 
prepare for a revolution by making a fosse concealed by 
lilacs and screened by an iron balustrade along the garden 
front of the palace. But eighteen years of alternations of joy 
and mourning, public sympathy and unpopularity, were 
allowed to pass over the family, increasing the respect felt 
for the virtues of Marie-Amelie, and the want of confidence 
in the feeble king, before the end came in February 1 848, 
two months after Louis Philippe had lost his right hand and 
directing moral influence in his strong - minded sister, 
Madame Adelaide, who died in the Pavilion de Flore, 
December 3 1, 1847. As King Louis Philippe passed out 
of the Tuileries into exile he uttered on the threshold the 
significant last words of his reign, * Tout comme Charles 
Dix!' 

From the time of the sudden death of the young Due 
d'Orleans, July 13, 1842, his widow had lived for six years 
in the apartment which had belonged to him in the Pavilion 
de Marsan, turning it into a sanctuary. 

' Pas un meuble ne fut change de place ; pas un objet tie 
fut enleve ; pres de la cheminee etait un grand fauteuil, sur lequel le 
prince avail jete, tout deplie, le numero du Joiirnal des Debats du 
meme jour, et ce journal ne fut pas releve pendant six ans ; le lit etait 
defait, on ne le fit pas ; la malle preparee pour le voyage de Plom- 
bieres, ou le due devait aller retrouver la duchesse, resta ouverte.' 
Imbert de S. Amand. 

After the flight of the rest of the royal family on Feb- 
ruary 24, 1848, the Duchess, with her two children, escorted 
by her faithful brother-in-law, the Due de Nemours, left 
the Tuileries to make her futile claim upon the protection 
and sympathy of the Chamber of Deputies. In the after 
sack of the Tuileries her rooms and the chapel were the 
only apartments respected. Two cartloads of the finest 
Sevres china alone were destroyed, and the Orleans collec- 
tion of pictures was cut to pieces. 



THE TUILERIES 23 

On January i, 1852, the second empire made its trium- 
phal entry into the Tuileries in the person of Louis Napoleon. 
There on January 29, 1853, he was affianced to the beautiful 
Comtesse de Teba ; there the Prince Imperial was born, 
March 16, 1856 ; there the empress, long the idol of fickle 
France, heard of the misfortune of Sedan ; and thence she 
fled from the fury of the mob on September 4, 1870. The 
apartments of Napoleon III. and the Empress Eugenie 
were situated between the Pavilions de 1'Horloge and de 
Flore. 1 

No sovereign should ever again inhabit the Tuileries. 
The palace, which had been four times already attacked by 
the people of Paris (June 20, 1792 ; August 10, 1792 ; July 
29, 1830; February 24, 1848), was wilfully ruined by the 
Commune by barrels of petroleum and gunpowder placed 
in the different rooms May 23, 1871, after the troops from 
Versailles had entered the city. Internally, it was com- 
pletely destroyed, but the walls, roofless and gutted, re- 
mained nearly entire, and the beautiful central pavilion of 
PhilibertDelorme was almost entirely uninjured. Yet, through 
want of energy for their restoration, these, by far the most 
interesting ruins in France, were razed to the ground, and 
its greatest ornament and its central point of interest were 
thus lost to Paris for ever. The site of the palace is now 
occupied by \hejardin du Carrousel, "ornamented" b.y a 
too demonstrative monument to Gambetta, "the fiery 
tribune," erected in 1888; the statue by Aube, the archi- 
tecture by Boileau. 

All that remains of the past now is the Tuileries garden, 
with its great orange trees in tubs and its vast population of 
statues. Most of these date from the Revolution ; but the 
older statues, brought hither from the gardens of Marly, are 
of the time of Louis XIV., and several of them deserve 
notice as works of art, though the best have been recently 
removed to the Louvre. Of those which remain, the lion 

1 Mme. Carette, Souvenirs Intimes. 



24 PARIS 

of Barye, the Hercules of Bosio, and the Phidias of Pradier, 
are perhaps the most remarkable. It was behind the statue 
of Venus Pudica, at one of the angles of the principal 
avenue, that Henri concealed himself when he fired upon 
Louis Philippe, July 29, 1846. The finest of all the sculp- 
tures are the equestrian statues by Antoine Coysevox, 
brought from Marly, and now placed on either side of the 
entrance from the Place de la Concorde. 

* Ces deux admirables groupes, La Renommee et Mercure, etaient 
tailles dans deux enormes blocs de marbe, par 1'artiste lui-meme, qui 
en avail fait les modeles et qui inscrivit sur la plinthe du Mercure : 
Ces deux groupes ont este faits en deux ans.' Paul Lacroix, ' Dix- 
hnitttme Siecle? 

The original plan of the gardens, as laid out by Regnard 
under Louis XIII. and afterwards by Levau and D'Orbay, 
was much altered by Lenotre, with a judgment which time 
completely justified. 

' II a eu 1'attention de ne commencer le convert du jardin qu'a 
quatre-vingt deux toises de la fa9ade du palais, pour laisser jouir cet 
edifice d'un air salubre, et il a enrichi le sol de cette partie decouverte 
par des parterres de broderies a compartiments, entremeles de massifs 
de gazon, qui peuvent etre regardes comme autant des chefs-d'oeuvres. 
BlondeL 

The portion of the gardens nearest the Champs Elysees 
is laid out in groves of chestnut trees. There is a tradition 
that one of these trees heralds spring by flowering on March 
22, on which day orthodox Parisians go to look for the 
phenomenon. It was here that Louis XIII. fired so care- 
lessly at little birds that he sent his shot into Anne of 
Austria's hair. 1 

On either side of the gardens are raised terraces. That 
on the south above the Seine formerly ended in the hand- 
some Porte de la Conference (on the walls of Charles IX.), 
which was destroyed in 1730. It derived its name from the 
Spanish ambassadors having entered there to confer with 

* See Memoirs of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Ambassador in France. 



TUILERIES GARDENS 25 

Mazarin about the marriage of Maria Theresa with Louis 
XIV. The north terrace, above the Rue de Rivoli, is still 
one of the most popular promenades in Paris. Its western 
end, being the warmest and sunniest part of the garden, has 
obtained the name of La Petite Provence. Here it was that 
Louis XV. first saw Mile, de Romans, brought hither as a 
beautiful little girl to see the show of the king's entry, sent 
to inquire at the lemonade stall (existing then as now) who 




THE GARDENS OF THE TUILERIES. 



she was, and then took her away from her parents to become 
his mistress and mother of the Abbe de Bourbon a a child 
who was taken away from her soon after his birth at Ver- 
sailles, and for whom she searched vainly for fifteen years. 
Along this same Terrasse des Feuillants his grandson, Louis 
XVI., and his family, escaped from the Tuileries on the 
terrible August 10, 1792, to take refuge in the National 
Assembly, then held in the Manege or riding-school, which 

1 Mme. Campan, Anecdotes. 



26 PARIS 

joined the old buildings of the Couvent des Feuillants. 
Only two of the queen's ladies were permitted to accom- 
pany them, Mme. de Lamballe as being a relation, and 
Mme. de Tourzel as being governess of the Children of 
France. 

' Dans le trajet a pas lents du palais aux Feuillants, Marie Antoi- 
nette pleure, elle essuie ses larmes et pleure encore. A travers la 
haie des grenadiers suisses et des grenadiers de la garde nationale, la 
populace 1'entoure et la presse de si pres que sa rnontre et sa bourse lui 
sont voices. Arrivee vis-a-vis le cafe de la Terrasse, c'est a peine si la 
reine s'ape^oit qu'elle enfonce dans des tas de feuilles. "Voila 
bien des feuilles," dit le roi ; " elles tombent de bonne heur cette 
annee ! " Au bas de 1'escalier de la Terrasse, hommes et femmes, 
brandissant des batons, barrent le passage a la famille royale. " Non ! " 
clame la foule, "ils n'entreront pas a 1'Assemblee ! 11s sont la cause 
de tous nos malheurs ; il faut que cela finisse ! A bas ! a bas ! " La 
famille passe enfin.' De Goncourt^ ' L!Hist. de Marie- Antoinette. ' 

Nothing remains now of the old convent of the Feuillants 
(destroyed to make the Rue de Rivoli), which gave the 
terrace its name, and where the royal family spent the days 
from August 10 to 13 (when they were taken to the 
Temple) in cells, beneath which the people constantly 
demanded the death of the queen with cries of ' Jetez-nous 
satete!' 1 

Close to the Terrasse des Feuillants is the Allee des 
Grangers, where orange trees in tubs, many of them historic 
trees of great age, are placed in summer. In the groves of 
trees between this and the southern terrace are two hemi- 
cycles of white marble Carres d } Atalante which are in- 
teresting as having been erected from a fancy of Robespierre 
in 1793, that the old men might sit there to watch the floral 
games of youth. 

In the gardens, where Horace Walpole was so surprised 
to find in reality the lopped trees and clipped and trimmed 
nature portrayed in the pictures of Watteau, we may recall 
many of the scenes of which those and other pictures of the 

1 Lettre de M. Aubier. 



TUILERIES GARDENS 27 

t'me are perhaps the best existing record. Here Louis XIII. 
as a boy was taught to build little fortresses. Here Arthur 
Young (January 1790) saw the Dauphin (Louis XVII.), 'a 
pretty good-natured-looking boy of five or six years old,' at 
work with his little rake and hoe in his miniature railed- 
off garden, but not without a guard of two grenadiers. 
Karamsin describes the Dauphin as led by the Princesse 
de Lamballe in the Tuileries gardens ' an angel of beauty 
and innocence, jumping and skipping in a dark-coloured 
vest, with the blue ribbon across his shoulder.' Here 
also, of the early days of the Revolution, Chateaubriand 
wrote : 

' Le palais des Tuileries, grande geole remplie de condamnes, 
s'elevait au milieu des fetes de la destruction. Les sentencies jouaient 
aussi en attendant la charrette, la tonte, la chemise rouge qu'on avail 
mise secher, et Ton voyait a travers les fenetres les eblouissantes 
illuminations du cercle de la reine.' Memoires cT Outre- Tom be. 

Here also it was that (March 20, 181 1) the vast breathless 
multitude waited for the sound of the guns which were to 
announce the birth of a child of Napoleon and Marie Louise, 
and burst into a shout of joy when the twenty-second gun 
made known that the child was a son the King of Rome. 

' Une tradition qui demeurera eternellement vivante, sera celle du 
20 mars 1811, lorsque le premier coup de canon annor^a enfin que 
Marie-Louise etait mere. . . . A ce premier retentissement, tout ce 
qui marchait s'arreta .... tout. Dans une seconde, la grande ville 
fut frappee de silence comme par enchantement. . . . Le mot d'affaires 
le plus important, la parole d'amour la plus delirante, tout fut sus- 
pendu . . . . et sans le retentissement du canon, on aurait cru etre 
dans cette ville des Mille et une Nuits, qu'un coup de baguette 
petrifia. . . . Puis un vingt-deuxieme coup tonna enfin dans le 
silence ! . . . . Alors un setil cri, un seul ! .... mais pousse par 
un million de voix, retentit dans Paris et fit trembler les murs de ce 
meme palais oil venait de naitre le fils du heros, et autour duquel la 
foule etait si pressee, qu'un moucheron n'aurait pu se poser en terre.' 
Alt' moires de la Duchesse cC Abrantes. 



28 PARIS 

A similar crowd waited here, March 16, 1856, for the 
birth of the brave and unfortunate prince who was the son 
of Napoleon III. and Eugenie de Guzman. 

In the palace which looked upon the garden Napoleon 
II. at five years old had been taught to * representer noble- 
ment et avec grace,' receiving a mimic Court every Sunday. 

But all the memories of the Tuileries sink into in- 
significance compared with those which surround the 
events of 1792. Weber, 'frere de lait' of Marie Antoi- 
nette, describes how he was driving by the Seine on the 
afternoon of June 20. 

' Revenant le long du quai, j'ai vu la porte vis-a-vis le Pout-Royal 
ouverte ; et tout le monde y entrant, je suis descendu de voiture et je 
me suis mele a la foule, ne doutant pas qu'il n'y cut la beaucoup 
d'honnetes gens prets a se jeter dans le chateau pour defendre les jours 
du roi, s'ils etaient menaces ; et en effet j'en ai trouve un grand nombre. 
J'ai demande a plusieurs combien ils etaient ; ils m'ont repondu, 
" Six a sept cents." II y avail quarante mille bandits ! Au reste, a peine 
entre dans le jardin, je n'ai plus vu 1'image du danger. Un triple 
rang de gardes nationales, les deux derniers ayant la baionnette au bout 
du fusil, bordait la terrasse, depuis la porte du Pout-Royal jusqu'a celle 
vis-a-vis S. Roch. Les bandits defilaient assez paisiblement : quelques 
pelotons seulement s'arretaient de temps en temps sous les fenetres des 
appartements royaux, agitant leurs armes, et criant : A has Veto! Vive 
la nation! J'ai entendu un de ceux qui portaient les armes les plus 
horribles et dont la bonne physionomie contrastait singulierement avec 
son costume feroce, dire en voyant les fenetres du roi fermees : Mais 
pourquoi dont ne se montre-t-il pas ? De quoi a-t-il peur ce pauvre cher 
hoinme? Nous ne voulons pas lui faire du mal. J'ai entendu repeter 
cet ancien propos, On le trompe ; unautre repliquait : Mais aussi pour- 
quoi croit-il plutot six hommes que sept cent quarante-cinq ? On Ini a 
donnt un veto, il ne sail pas le gouverner. Une machine enorme, 
taillee comme les tables de la loi de Moise, et sur laquelle etail ecrite 
en lettres d'or la declaration des droits de 1'homme, etait la grande 
relique de la procession. A cote des femmes qui portaient des sabres et 
des broches, on voyait des hommes porter des branches d'olivier. Les 
bonnets rouges etaient par milliers, et a chaque fusil ou a chaque pique 
pendait une banderole sur laquelle on lisait : La constitution ou la 
mart ! ' 

Later in the day the masses of the people advanced 



THE TWENTIETH OF JUNE 



29 



upon the palace. The guard then fraternised with the 
invaders, and a cannon was pointed at the inner entrance 
of the king's apartments. Louis XVI., perfectly calm in 
the midst of danger, urged Marie Antoinette to secure her 
children, and, followed only by his heroic sister Elisabeth, 
who insisted upon sharing his fate, went down to the 
entrance. 'Let them think I am the queen,' said the 
princess, as they shouted for the head of Marie Antoinette, 
' that she may have time to escape.' 







THE TUILERIES AND THE PONT-ROYAL. 

' " Toute defense est inutile," dit le roi ; " il n'y a plus qu'un parti a 
prendre, c'est de leur ouvrir la porte et de se presenter avec calme," et 
en meme temps il ordonna au suisse Edouard d'ouvrir. Celui-ci obeit, 
et toute cette foule, qui croyait le monarque cache, manifesta un instant 
de surprise. Ses amis profitent de ce moment pour le faire monter sur 
un entablement ou il fut moins expose aux fureurs individuelles de 
ceux qui en voulaient a sa vie. Ce fut M. de Bougainville qui imagina 
cet expedient. M. Deloque et ses autres amis se pressent autour de 
cette tablette et lui font un rempart. Le spectacle qui se presentait 
alors devant le roi etait horrible. Du milieu de cette populace im- 
monde, formee d'hommes de tous les pays, mais plus particulierement 
de gens sans aveu des contrees meridionales, il voyait s'elever trois 



3 o PARIS 

especes d'enseignes, 1'une formee d'un fer qui ressemblait a la machine 
fameuse appelee guillotine, avec cette inscription : " Pour le tyran." 
La seconde represenlait une femme a une potence, avec ces mots : 
" Pour Antoinette." Sur la Iroisieme, on voyait un morceau de chair 
en forme de coeur, cloue a une planche, avec cette inscription : " Pour 
les pretres et les aristocrates." 

* Pendant pres de quatre heures, ceux qui marchaient sous ces 
epouvantables etendards dirigerent, pardessus les tetes du groupe, 
leurs piques vers le roi, en lui disant de sanctionner le decret centre les 
pretres, a peine de decheance ou de mort, et il repondit constamment : 
" Je renoncerais plutot a la couroune que de participer a une pareille 
tyrannic des consciences." Pour prouver sa resignation, il se laissa, 
en disant ces mots, placer le bonnet rouge sur la lele par un Ires-beau 
jeune homme, nomme Clement. 

* On lui presenta une bouteille en lui proposant de boire aux 
patriotes. "Cela est empoisonne," lui dit tout bas son voisin, et il 
replique: " Eh bien, je mourrai sans sanctionner." II boit sans hesiter. 
"On a voulu seulement effrayer Votre Majesle," lui dit quelque temps 
apres un grenadier de la garde nationale, croyant qu'il avail besoin 
d'etre rassure. "Vous voyez qu'il est calme," lui dit le roi en lui 
prenant la main et la mettant sur son coeur; "on est tranquille en 
faisant son devoir.'" Beaulieu, ' Essais historiques? 

Mme. Campan describes the scene in the interior of 
the Palace. 

' La reine n'avait pu parvenir jusqu'au roi ; elle etait dans la salle 
du conseil, et on avail eu de meme 1'idee de la placer derriere la grande 
table, pour la garantir, autant que possible, de 1'approche de ces bar- 
bares. Dans cette horrible situation, conservanl un mainlien noble et 
decent, elle lenait le dauphin devant elle, assis sur la lable. Madame 
elait a ses cotes ; Mme. la Princesse de Lamballe, la Princesse de 
Tarante, Mmes. de Roche-Aymon, de Tourzel et de Mackau 1'en- 
vironnaient. Elle avait attache a sa tele une cocarde au Irois couleurs, 
qu'un garde nationale lui avait donnee. Le pauvre petit dauphin 
etait, ainsi que le roi, affuble d'un enorme bonnet rouge. La horde 
defila devant cette lable ; les especes d'etendards qu'elle portait etaient 
des symboles de la plus alroce barbaric. II y en avail un qui repre- 
senlail une polence a laquelle une mechanic poupee etait suspendue ; 
ces mots etaienl ecrits au bas : Marie- Antoinette a la lanterne. Un autre 
etait une planche sur laquelle on avait fixe un coeur de boeuf, autour 
duquel etait ecrit : Cccnr de Louis XVI. 

' L'une des plus furieuses jacobines qui defilaienl avec ces miser- 






THE TENTH OF AUGUST 31 

ables s'arreta pour vomir mille imprecations centre la reine. Sa 
Majeste lui demanda si elle 1'avait jamais vue : elle lui repondit que 
non ; si elle lui avail fait quelque mal personnel : sa reponse fut la 
meme ; mais elle ajouta: " C'est vous qui faites la malheur de la nation." 
"On vous 1'a dit," reprit la reine, "on vous a Irompee. Epouse d'un 
roi de France, mere du dauphin, je suis Franaise, jamais je ne 
reverrai mon pays, je ne puis etre heureuse ou malheureuse qu'en 
France ; j'etais heureuse quand vous m'aimiez." Cette megere se mit 
a pleurer, a lui demander pardon, a lui dire : " C'est que je ne vous 
connaissais pas ; je vois que vous etes bien bonne." 

II -elail huit heures quand le palais fut enlieremenl evacue. 
Meinoires, 

Yet the horrors of this terrible day paled before those 
of August 10, 1792. 

'A minuit, le tocsin se fit entendre aux Cordeliers: en peu d'instants 
il sonna dans tout Paris. On battit la generale dans tons les quartiers ; 
le bruit du canon se melait, par intervalles, a celui des tambours. Les 
seditieux se rassemblerent dans les sections ; les troupes de brigands 
accouraient de tous cotes. Des assassins, armes de poignardes n'at- 
tendaient que le moment de penetrer dans la piece qui renfermait la 
famille royale, et de 1'exterminer. Les colonnes factieuses s'ebranlerent 
et se mirent en marche sans rencontrer d'obstacles. Un officier muni- 
cipal avail aneanli, de sa propre autorite, la pluparl des dispositions 
de defense. Le Pont-Neuf, degarni de troupes et de canons, laissait 
aux seditieux toute la facilile de marcher sur le chateau. Des pelotons 
de troupes, distribues dans le jardin, dans les cours et dans 1'interieur 
du palais, etaient alors la seule ressource ; encore n'avaient-ils pour 
diriger leurs mouvement aucun chef experimente. Les officiers qui les 
commandaient, tires de la bourgeoisie de Paris et presque tous de 
professions etrangeres au metier des armes, n'avaient point cette con- 
naissance de la tactique, ni cette resolution que demandaient les con- 
j onctures. HIM, ' Memoir es. ' 

' Les suisses etaient ranges comme de veritables murailles, et dans ce 
silence militaire qui contrastait avec la rumeur perpetuelle de la garde 
bourgeoise ; le roi fit connaitre a M. de J., officier de 1'etat-major, le 
plan de defense que le general Viomenil avail prepare. M. de J. me dit 
apres cetle conference particuliere : " Metlez dans vos poches vos bijoux 
el votre argent : nos dangers sonl inevitables, les moyens de defense 
sonl mils ; ils ne pourraient se irouver que dans la vigueur du roi, el 
c'est la seule vertu qui lui manque." 

' A une heure apres minuil, la reine el Madame Elisabeth dirent 



32 PARIS 

qu'ils allaient se coucher sur un canape dans un cabinet des entresols, 
dont les fenetres donnaient sur la cour des Tuileries. 

' La reine me dit que le roi venait de lui refuser de passer son gilet 
plastronne, qu'il y avail consenti le 14 juillet, parce qu'il allait simple- 
ment a une ceremonie, ou Ton pouvait craindre le fer d'un assassin ; 
mais que dans un jour ou son parti pouvait se battre centre les revo- 
lutionnaires il trouvait de la lachete a preserver ses jours par un 
semblable moyen. 

'Pendant ce temps, Madame Elisabeth se degageail de quelques 
vetements qui la genaient pour se coucher sur le canape ; elle avail 
ote de son fichu une epingle de cornaline, el avanl de la poser sur la 
lable elle me la montra, et me dil de lire une legende qui y etait 
gravee autour d'une lige de lis. J'y lus ces mols : Oubli des offenses, 
pardon des injures. " Je crains bien," ajouta cetle vertueuse princesse, 
" que cette maxime ail peu d'influence parmi nos ennemis, mais elle ne 
doil pas nous en etre moins chere." 

' La reine m'ordonna de m'asseoir aupres d'elle ; les deux princesses 
ne pouvaient dormir ; elles s'enlrelenaienl douloureusemenl sur leur 
silualion, lorsqu'un coup de fusil ful tire dans la cour. Elles quitle- 
rent 1'une et 1'autre le canape en disanl : " Voila le premier coup de feu ; 
ce ne sera pas malheureusemenl le dernier ; monlons chez le roi." La 
reine me dil de la suivre ; plusieurs de ses femmes vinrenl avec moi.' 
Mine. Canipan, ' Memoires? 

* Enlre qualre et cinq heurs du matin, la reine et Madame 
Elisabeth etaient dans le cabinet du conseil. L'un des chefs de legion 
entra, "Voila," dit-il aux deux princesses, "voila votre dernier jour ; le 
peuple esl le plus fort : quel carnage il y aura." " Monsieur," repondit 
la reine, "sauvez le roi, sauvez mes enfanls." En meme lemps, celte 
mere eploree courul a la chambre de Monsieur le Dauphin : je la suivis. 
Le jeune prince s'eveilla ; ses regards el ses caresses melerenl quelque 
douceur aux senlimenls douloureux de 1'amour maternel. " Maman," 
dit Monsieur le Dauphin en baisant les mains de la reine, "pourquoi 
feraienl-ils du mal a papa? il esl si bon ! "' Hue, ' Memoires. ' 

' La reine vinl nous dire qu'elle n'esperait plus rien ; que M. 
Mandal, qui s'etail rendu a I'hotel de ville pour avoir de nouveaux 
ordres, venail d'elre assassine, el que sa lete elail promenee dans les 
rues. Le jour etail venu ; le voi, la reine, Madame Elisabeth, Madame 
et le Dauphin descendirenl pour parcourir les rangs des seclions de la 
garde nationale : on cria Vive le roi! dans quelques endroils. J'elais 
a une fenetre du cote du jardin ; je vis des canonniers quitter leurs 
postes et s'approcher du roi, lui mettant le poing sous le nez en 
1'insultant par les plus grossiers propos. MM. de Salverl el de Briges 
les eloignerenl avec vigueur. Le roi elail pale, comme s'il avail 
cesse d'exisler. La famille royale renlra ; la reine me dil que loul 



THE TENTH OF AUGUST 33 

etait perdu ; que le roi n'avait montre aucune euergie, et que cette 
espece de revue avait fait plus de mal que de bien. . . . Pendant ce 
temps les bandes nombreuses des faubourgs, armees de piques et de 
coutelas, remplissaient le Carrousel et les rues adjacentes aux Tuileries. 
Les sanguinaires Marseillais etaient a leur tete, les canon braques 
centre le chateau. Dans cette extremite, le conseil du roi envoya M. 
Dejoly, ministre de la justice, vers 1'Assemblee, pour lui demander 
d'envoyer au roi une deputation qui put servir de sauvegarde au 
pouvoir executif. Sa perte etait resolue : on passa a 1'ordre du jour. 
A huit heures le departement se rendit au chateau ; le procureur- 
syndic, voyant que la garde interieure etait prete a se reunir aux 
assaillants, entra dans le cabinet du roi, et demanda a lui parler en 
particulier.' Mme. Campan, l Memoir esS 

* M. Roederer se joignit aux ministres du roi, et d'un commun 
accord, tous le conjurerent de se sauver avec sa famille et de se 
refugier dans le sein de 1'Assemblee nationale. "Ce n'est que la, 
sire," dit M. Roederer, "au milieu des representants du peuple, que 
Votre Majeste, que la reine, que la famille royale peuvent etre en 
surete. Venez, fuyons : encore un quart d'heure, et la retraite ne 
dependra peut-etre plus de nous." Le roi hesitait ; la reine temoignait 
le plus vif mecontentement. " Quoi ! " disait-elle, "nous sommes 
seuls, personne ne peut agir . . . ." " Oui, madame, seuls; 1'action 
est inutile, la resistance impossible." ' Montjoie, ' Hist, de Marie- 
Antoinette? 

1 Les commissaires, s'apercevant que toutes les personnes qui, par 
devoir ou par zele, s'etaient reunies dans les appartements de leurs 
Majestes, resolues de les defendre ou de perir avec elles, se disposaient 
a les accompagner, firent tous leurs efforts pour s'y opposer .... 
Roederer s'adressant tantot au roi, tantot a la reine, leur representait 
avec chaleur qu'un " tel cortege, irritant encore plus la fureur du peuple, 
ne pouvait qu'ajouter a leurs dangers." Leurs Majestes ne songerent 
qu'a celui auquel se devouaient leurs serviteurs fideles ; et, ne pre- 
voyant point le peril plus grand encore auquel ils allaient rester 
exposes, nous priaient tous avec instance de ne pas les suivre.' 
Weber, ' Memoir es? 

'La reine n'emmena avec elle que Mme. la princesse de Lam- 
balle et Mme. de Tourzel. La princesse de Tarente et Mme. de 
Roche-Aymon se desolaient d'etre laissees aux Tuileries. Elles 
descendirent ainsi que toute la chambre dans 1'appartement de la 
reine. 

' Nous vimes defiler la famille royale entre deux haies formees par 
les grenadiers suisses et ceux des bataillons des Petits-Peres et des 
Filles-Saint-Thomas. Ils etaient si presses par la foule que pendant ce 
court trajet la reine fut voice de sa montre et de sa bourse. Un 

VOL. I. C 



34 



PARIS 



homme d'une stature epouvantable et d'une figure atroce, tel qu'on 
voit a la tete de toutes les insurrections, s'approche du dauphin que la 
reine tenait par la main, 1'enleve et le prend dans ses bras. La reine 
fit un cri d'effroi, et fut pres de s'evanouir. Get homme lui dit : 
" N'ayez pas peur, je ne veux pas lui faire de mal : " et il le lui rendit 
a 1'entree de la salle. 

4 Les assaillants ignoraient que le roi et sa famille se fussent rendus 
au sein de 1'assemblee ; et ceux qui defendaient le palais du cote des 
cours 1'ignoraient de meme : on a presume que s'ils en eussent etc 
instruits le siege n'eut pas eu lieu. 

' Les Marseillais commencent par chasser de leurs postes plusieurs 
Suisses, qui cedent sans resistance ; quelques-uns des assaillants se 
mettent a les fusilier ; les officiers suisses, outres de voir ainsi tomber 
leurs soldats, et croyant, peut-etre, que le roi etait encore aux Tuileries, 
ordonnent a un bataillon de faire feu. Le desordre se met parmi les 
agresseurs, le Carrousel est nettoye en un instant ; mais bientot ils 
reviennent animes de fureur et de vengeance. Les Suisses n'etaient 
qu'au nombre de huit cents ; ils se replient dans 1'interieur du chateau; 
des portes sont enfoncees par le canon, d'autres brisees a coups de 
hache ; le peuple se precipite de toutes parts dans 1'interieur du palais ; 
presque tous les Suisses sont massacres ; des nobles, fuyant par la 
galerie qui conduit au Louvre, sont poignardes ou tues a coups de 
pistolet ; on jette leurs corps par les fenetres. MM. Pallas et de 
Marchais, huissiers de la chambre du roi, sont tues en defendant la 
porte de la salle du conseil ; beaucoup d'autres serviteurs du roi 
lombent victimes de leur attachement pour leur maitre. Je cite ces 
deux personnes, parce que, le chapeau enfonce, 1'epee a la main-, ils 
criaient en se defendant avec une inutile mais louable valeur : " Nous 
ne voulons plus vivre, c'est notre poste, nous devons y mourir." M. Diet 
se conduisit de meme a la porte de la chambre a coucher de la reine ; 
il eprouva le meme sort. Mme. la princesse de Tarente avail heur- 
eusement fait ouvrir la porte d'entree de 1'appartement ; sans quoi, 
cette horrible bande, en voyant plusieurs femmes reunies dans le 
salon de la reine, cut pense qu'elle y eA.it, et nous cut sur-le-champ 
massacrees, si sa fureur cut ete augmentee par la resistance. Cepen- 
dant nous allions toutes perir, quand un homme a longue barbe, en 
criant de la part de Petion : Faites grdce aux fannies : ne deshotwrez 
pas la nation ! Un incident particulier me mil encore plus en danger 
que les autres. Dans mon trouble, je crus, un moment avant 1'entree 
des assaillants chez la reine, que ma soeur n'etait pas parmi le groupe 
des femmes qui y etaient reunies, et je montai dans un entresol ou. je 
supposais qu'elle s'etait refugiee, pour 1'engager a en descendre, 
imaginant qu'il importait a notre salut de n'etre pas separees. Je ne 
la trouvais pas dans cette piece ; je n'y vis que nos femmes de chambre 



THE LOUVRE 35 

et Tun des deux heiduques de la reine, homme d'une tres-haute taille et 
d'une physionomie tout a fait martiale. Je le vis pale et assis sur un lit ; 
je lui criai : " Sauvez-vous, les valets de pied et nos gens le sont deja." 
" Je ne le puis," me dit cet homme, " je suis mort de peur." Comme il 
disait ces mots, j'entends une troupe d'hommes monter precipitamment 
1'escalier : ils se jettent sur lui, je le vois assassiner. Je cours vers 
1'escalier, suivie de nos femmes. Les assassins quittent 1'heiduque 
pour venir a moi. Ces femmes se jettent a leurs pieds, et saisissent les 
sabres. Le peu de largeur de 1'escalier genait les assassins ; mais 
j'avais deja senti une main terrible s'enfoncer dans mon dos, pour 
me saisir par mes vetements, lorsqu'on cria a bas de 1'escalier : 
"Que faites-vous la haut?" L'horrible Marseillais qui allait me 
massacrer repondit un hein dont le son ne sortira jamais de ma 
memoire. L'autre voix repondit ces seuls mots : On ne tue pas les 
femmes. 

'J'etais a genoux, mon bourreau me lacha et me dit: Lfrve-toi, 
coquine, la nation te fait grace. La grossierete de ces paroles ne 
m'empecha pas d'eprouver soudain un sentiment inexprimable qui 
tenait presque autant a 1'amour de la vie qu'a 1'idee que j'allais revoir 
mon fils et tout ce qui m'etait cher. Un instant auparavant, j'avais 
moins pense a la mort que pressenti la douleur que m'allait causer le 
fer suspendu sur ma tete. 

' Cinq ou six hommes s'emparerent de moi et de mes femmes, et, 
nous ayant fait monter sur les parquettes placees devant les fenetres, 
nous ordonnerent de crier Vive la nation ! 

'Je passai par-dessus plusieurs cadavres: je reconnus celui du 
vienx vicomte de Broves. La reine, au commencement de la nuit, 
m'avait envoyee lui dire, ainsi qu'a un autre vieillard, qu'elle voulait 
qu'ils se retirassent chez eux. "Nous n'avons que trop obei aux ordres 
du roi, dans toutes les circonstances," me repondirent ces braves gens, 
"ou il aurait fallu exposer nos jours pour le sauver ; cette fois nous 
n'obeirons pas, et garderons seulement le souvenir des bontes de la 
reine." 

! Mme. la Roche-Aymon* et sa fille, Mile. Pauline de Tourzel, 
Mme. de Ginestoux, dame de la Princesse de Lamballe, les autres 
femmes de la reine et le vieux comte d'Affry, furent menes ensemble 
dans les prisons de 1'Abbaye.' Mme. Campan^ ' Memoires* 



The palace of the Tuileries is destroyed, but the Louvre 
still remains to us. 

On the site of a hunting lodge which Dagobert had 
built in the woods which then extended to the Seine, 



36 PARIS 

Philippe Auguste, in 1200, erected a fortress, to which S. 
Louis added a great hall which was called by his name. 
The fortress was used as a state prison, and its position was 
at first outside the city, in which it was enclosed in 1367. 
From the great dungeon tower in the centre of this castle, 1 
which was called the Louvre, all the great fiefs in France 
had their source. When the great feudatories came to take 
or renew the feudal oath, it was there that the ceremony 
took place. Thus when Francois I. destroyed the great 
tower of the Louvre in the building of his new palace, the 
expression that the fiefs were held de la tour du Louvre was 
changed to de la cour du Louvre? 

The Louvre was greatly enlarged by Charles V., who 
added many towers and surrounded it with a moat which 
was supplied from the Seine. He made the palace into 
a complete rectangle, always preserving the great central 
dungeon tower. In spite, however, of his additions, space 
was wanting in the labyrinthine apartments of the Louvre 
for his splendid receptions, such as that of the Due de 
Bretagne in 1388. so he only inhabited the fortress for a 
short time, and devoted himself principally to building the 
Hotel S. Paul, the royal residence till Charles VII. left it 
for the neighbouring Hotel des Tournelles, which was the 
Parisian palace of Louis XL, Charles VIII., Louis XII., 
and Francois I. When the Emperor Charles V. was coming 
to Paris, Frangois decorated the old palace of the Louvre 
for his reception. This drew attention to its dilapidated 
state, and he determined to rebuild it. The great tower, as 
strong as the day it was built, took five months (1527) to 
destroy. It was especially regretted by the populace, be- 

1 The prisoners in this tower included Ferrand, Comte de Flandres, 1214 (after 
the victory of Bouvines) ; Enguerrand de Coucy ; Guy, Comte de Fiandres, 
1299; Louis, Comte de Flandres, 1322; Enguerrand de Marigny; Jean IV., Due 
de Bretagne ; Charles II., King of Navarre ; le Captal de Buch, Jean de Grailly ; 
and Jean II., Due d'Alengon. 

2 A fragment of the XIII. c. fortress remains in one of the walls of the Salle des 
Cariatides. To the left of the window, concealed by a door, is a winding staircase 
of the original building. 



THE LOUVRE 37 

cause they lost the pleasure of seeing great lords imprisoned 
there. The cost of demolition was enormous, 'et fist ce 
faire le roy pour appliquer le chasteau du Louvre, logis de 
plaisance.' Under the renaissance, strongholds everywhere 
began to make way for lieux de plaisance. The existing 
palace was begun, under Pierre Lescot, in 1541. 

' Francois i er , voulant avoir dans Paris un palais digne de sa magni- 
ficence et dedaignant le vieux Louvre et 1'hotel des Tournelles, amas 
irregulier de toumtlles (tourelles) et de pavilions gothiques, avail fait 
demolir, des 1528, la grosse tour du Louvre, ce donjon de Philippe- 
Auguste duquel relevaient tous les fiefs du royaume. C'etait demolir 
1'histoire elle-meme : c'etait la monarchic de la renaissance abattant 
la vieille royaute feodale.' Martin, ' Hist, de France.'' 

Lescot continued his work through the twelve years' 
reign of Henri II. The palace which he built was the 
whole western side of the court of the Vieux Louvre, and 
the wing which contains the Galerie d'Apollon. The pavilion 
which connected the two wings was called Pavilion du Roi. 
After the death of Henri II., his widow, Catherine de Medicis, 
left the Palais des Tournelles, and came with her children 
to live in the new palace, which she enlarged by erecting a 
portico with rooms above it along the quay. It was whilst 
he was at work upon these buildings that the great sculptor 
Jean Goujon perished. On the day after the Massacre of 
S. Bartholomew he had gone as usual to his work upon a 
scaffold ; he thought that his art would save him, but a ball 
from an arquebus struck him down. In these buildings 
the Huguenot gentlemen, who were * marques a tuer,' fled 
from chamber to chamber, and from gallery to gallery, 
and were cut down one after another, except M. de Lezac, 
who took refuge within the ruelle of the bed of the Princess 
Marguerite, married six days before to the King of Navarre. 
' Moi,' says the queen in her memoirs, 'sentant cet homme 
qui me tenait, je me jette a la ruelle, et lui apres moi, me 
tenant toujours a travers le corps. Je ne connaissais point 
cet homme, et ne savais s'il venait la pour m'offenser, ou si 



38 PARIS 

les archers en voulaient a lui ou a moi. Nous crions tous 
deux et etions aussi effrayes 1'un que 1'autre.' The young 
bridegroom, Henri de Navarre, for whom Catherine de 
Medicis had made 'les noces vermeilles,' was amongst 
those whom she wished to save. But the queen-mother 
'grilla si bien, pour un matin, ses fenetres, qu'il ne put jamais 
echapper, comme il en avait volonte.' According to Bran- 
tome and d'Aubigne (neither of them at Paris at the time), 
Charles IX. stood at his chamber window, shooting down 
those who were taking refuge in the Pre-aux-Clercs. 1 

The Louvre was still inconveniently small for the 
number of persons who had to live in it. These, under 
Henri III., included four queens the reigning queen, 
Louise de Vaudemont; the queen-mother, Catherine de 
Medicis ; the Queen of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois ; and 
Elizabeth d'Autriche, widow of Charles IX., usually known 
as Ma reine Blanche.' When Marie de Medicis, who 
measured palaces by the Florentine Pitti, arrived in France, 
she could not conceal her astonishment at the inferiority of 
the Louvre. ' Plusieurs foys,' says Cheverny, * je lui ai ouy 
repe'ter depuys qu'elle ne fust jamais presqu'en toute sa 
vie si estonne'e et effrayee, croyant que ce n'estoit le Louvre, 
ou que Ton faisoit cela pour se moquer d'elle.' 

Henri IV., therefore, wished, in 1595, to unite the 
buildings of Catherine de Medicis with the other palace 
which she had built, and which, under the name of the 
Tuileries, was still outside the limits of the town. For 
this purpose, he ordered Jacques Androuet du Cerceau 2 to 
erect the (original) Pavilion de Flore beyond the south 
extremity of the Tuileries, and to unite it to the Tuileries 
of Philibert Delorme on one side, and to the Louvre on 
the other, by buildings extending to the pavilion which 
under Louis XV. took the name of de Lesdiguieres, from 

1 The window of the little gallery, marked by an inscription falsely recording 
this event as having taken place there, was in existence at the time of the massacre, 
but was walled up. 

2 All the plans of Du Cerceau still exist. 



THE LOUVRE 39 

a neighbouring hotel, enclosing the three arches called 
Guichets des S. Peres, 1 by which carriages cross from the 
banks of the Seine to the Rue de Rivoli. The porticoes 
of Catherine de Medicis were then enclosed, and an upper 
storey added to make them harmonise with the later con- 
structions. 

From this time no one touched the Louvre till the 
supremacy of Richelieu, who demolished all that remained 
of the old feudal buildings (the north and east facades) 
and employed Antoine le Mercier to continue the palace. 
Intending to double the dimensions of the original plan, 
this great architect used each of the existing wings as the 
half of a fagade for his new Louvre, and built two others on 
the same plan, so as to make the building a perfect square. 
Whilst the minority of Louis XIV. lasted, Anne of Austria 
lived with her children at the Palais-Cardinal, now Palais- 
Royal, but Levau was employed to continue the works at 
the Louvre, and an apartment there was bestowed upon the 
exiled Henrietta Maria of England (daughter of Henry IV.), 
who was treated with the greatest generosity by her sister- 
in-law. A number of hotels of the nobility de Bourbon, 
de Longueville, de Villequier, d'Aumont had hitherto occu- 
pied the ground close to the Louvre, but those on the east 
side were now demolished, and all the architects of France 
were invited to compete in designing a fagade which 
should be of such magnificence as to satisfy Colbert, while 
Bernini, then at the height of his fame, was summoned from 
Italy for the same purpose. The plans chosen were those 
of Claude Perrault, who built the east fagade, adorned with 
twenty-eight Corinthian pillars, called the Colonnade du 
Louvre, for Louis XIV., 1665-70. Levau died of grief be- 
cause his plan a very noble one was not chosen. Still, the 
Louvre remained unfinished, so that Parisians used to say 
the only chance of seeing it completed would be to make it 
over to one of the four great mendicant Orders, to hold 

1 The arches are modern, and bear the name of their builder, Lefuel. 



40 PARIS 

their chapters and lodge their General there. Louis XV. 
and XVI. did nothing more than repair the buildings 
already existing, and then came the Revolution. Even in the 
time of Napoleon I., the space between the Louvre and the 
Tuileries was invaded by a number of narrow, dirty streets, 
which, with the royal stables and several private hotels, 
destroyed the effect of the two palaces. After the Revo- 
lution of 1848 these were swept away, and Napoleon III., 
from the commencement of his power, determined to unite 
the Louvre and the Tuileries into one great whole. This 
plan was carried out and the building completed in 1857. 
The difference of the axis of the two palaces was then 
cleverly concealed by the arrangement of buildings which 
enclose the ''Square du Louvre? though the destruction of 
the Tuileries has since rendered the design ineffectual. 

Entering the Louvre from the Rue de Rivoli by one of 
the five entrances under the Pavilion de Rohan in the north 
fagade, we find ourselves in the Place du Carrousel of 
Napoleon L, which is a great enlargement of the little 
square in front of the Tuileries occupying the site of the 
' Jardin de Mademoiselle ' (de Montpensier), and originally 
named from a carrousel or tournament which Louis XIV. 
gave there in 1662. In the centre of the grille of what was 
formerly the court of the Tuileries still stands the graceful 
Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, built in 1806, by Fontaine 
and Percier, for Napoleon I. The car and horses which 
surmount it are modelled in imitation of the famous horses 
of S. Mark, restored to Venice by the Allies ; the figures and 
reliefs commemorate the successes of the first emperor at 
Austerlitz, Ulm, Presburg, Vienna, and Munich. The 
initials and monograms of their different builders mark 
many of the surrounding buildings. Opposite the point at 
which we entered, is the Pavilion des Lesdiguieres, dividing 
the renaissance Louvre of Charles IX., adorned with 
Tuscan columns supporting mezzanini, from the later build- 
ings continued under Louis XIV., which have no mezzanini / 



PLACE DU CARROUSEL 41 

and where the pediments rest on coupled Corinthian 
columns as a stylobate. The modern buildings on the 
north-east occupy the site of the Hotel de Longueville, 
famous for the intrigues of the Fronde, 1 and those on the 
south-east, beyond the entrance of the Square du Louvre, 
that of the church of S. Thomas du Louvre, which fell in 
upon its congregation, October 15, 1739. The buildings of 
Napoleon III. are surrounded by statues of eminent French- 
men. All around is magnificence 

' Le palais pompeux, dont la France s'honore. ' 

Voltaire , ' Henriade' 

The most interesting associations of the Place du Car- 
rousel are those which belong to the fruitless flight of the 
royal family on June 20, 1790. 

' Madame Elisabeth sortit la premiere avec Madame Royale, suivie, 
a peu de distance, de Mme. de Tourzel emmenant Monseigneur le 
Dauphin. L'un des trois gardes du corps l'accompagnait. Soit 
hasard, soit fait expres, une des sentinelles des cours, qui, en se prome- 
nant, croisait le chemin par cm les deux princesses devaient passer, 
tourna le dos au moment ou il etait pres d'elles, et allait les recontrer. 
Madame Royale le remarqua, et dit tout has a Madame Elisabeth : 

1 This famous mansion, originally called Hotel de Vieuville, was built by Cle"- 
ment Me"tezeau for the Marquis de Vieuville. He sold it, 1620, to the Due de 
Luynes (the tyrant minister of Louis XIII.), who died in the following year. His 
widow sold it to Claude de Lorraine, Due de Chevreuse, whom she afterwards 
married, and who received the Duke of Buckingham here when he came over to 
fetch Henrietta Maria. The duchess, celebrated in a thousand love-affairs, was 
driven into exile by the enmity of Richelieu, and at his death only came back to be 
again banished for a time by the influence of Mazarin. She returned, however, 
to make her hotel a centre for the intrigues of the Fronde, seconded by her 
daughter, 'qui avait les yeux capables d'embraser toute la terre ' (Mme. de Motte- 
ville), and by the Duchesse de Longueville, ' 1'he'roine de la Fronde,' who eventually 
purchased the hotel and gave it a new name. Her daughter-in-law, the Duchesse 
de Nemouis, bequeathed the hotel to Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Neuchatel, 
whose daughter brought it back by marriage into the family of Luynes. The hotel 
existed in a degraded condition till 1832, when it was pulled down to enlarge the 
Place du Carrousel. Another building, demolished about the same time, was the 
church of S. Louis du Louvre, where a Protestant congregation continued to wor- 
ship during the great Revolution (John Moore, Journal of Residence in France, 
December 1792), and which contained the tomb of Cardinal Fleury, the Prime 
Minister of Louis XV. (who had proposed to pull down the Louvre and sell the 
materials), represented expiring in the arms of Religion. 



42 PARIS 

Ma tante, nous sommes rcconnues. Cependant elles sortirent des cours 
sans etre remarquees, et se rendirent, suivies, comme je 1'ai deja dit, de 
Mme. de Tourzel et du jeune prince, sur le Petit-Carrousel, au cour 
de la rue de 1'Echelle, ou M. de Fersen les attendait avec une voiture. 
C'etait un carrosse de remise, ressemblant assez, par sa forme et les 
chevaux qui le menaient, a ce qu'on appelle a Paris un fiacre ; il 
1'avait loue dans un quartier eloigne, et c'etait lui qui servait de 
cocher, habille comme le sont ces especes de cochers. II etait si 
bien deguise\ que pendant qu'il attendait, ayant deja dans sa 
voiture les deux princesses, Monseigneur le Dauphin et Mme. de 
Tourzel, un fiacre vide s'etant arrete pres de lui, le cocher, qui 
croyait parler a 1'un de ses camarades, 1'altaqua de conversation sur ce 
qui peut en faire le sujet ordinaire entre gens de cette espece : elle 
dura assez longtemps, et M. de Fersen la soutint avec assez de pre- 
sence d'esprit dans le jargon de cocher de remise, pour ne donner 
aucun soup9on a son confrere. II s'en debarrassa apres lui avoir 
donne une prise de tabac dans une mauvaise tabatiere qu'il avait. Peu 
de temps apres, le roi arriva, accompagne du second garde du corps ; 
il y cut un assez long intervalle entre sa sortie et celle de la premiere 
bande, mais elle ne fut pas moins heureuse, quoiqu'une de ces boucles de 
souliers s'etant cassee assez pres du sentinelle de la porte du Carrousel, il 
fut oblige de la raccommoder presque sous ses yeux. La reine, qui 
devait sortir la derniere, se fit attendre plus d'une demi-heure, et 
donna bien des inquietudes aux voyageurs. On lui avait laisse le 
troisieme garde du corps pour 1'accompagner et lui donner le bras. 
Tout alia bien jusqu'a la grande porte de la cour royale ; mais, au 
moment ou elle sortait, elle voit venir la voiture de M. de la Fayette, 
avec des flambeaux et ses gardes ordinaires ; il rentrait chez lui, et 
traversait le Carrousel pour gagner le Pont-Royal. La reine avait un 
chapeau qui lui couvrait le visage. La nuit etait fort obscure : elle 
se rangea pres de la muraille, pour laisser passer la voiture de M. de 
la Fayette. Apres avoir echappe a ce danger, elle dit a son garde du 
corps de la conduire sur le Petit-Carrousel, au coin de la rue de 
1'Echelle, c'est-a-dire a deux cents pas de 1'endroit oil ils etaient. Son 
guide connaissait encore moins Paris qu'elle ; il etait trop dangereux de 
demander le chemin, si pres de la porte des Tuileries ; ils tournerent 
au hasard a droite, tandis qu'ils devaient prendre a gauche, passerent 
les guichets du Louvre, traverserent le Pont-Royal, et errerent assez 
longtemps sur les quais et dans la rue du Bac. II fallut enfin se resoudre 
a demander leur chemin. Une sentinelle du pont le leur indiqua : il 
leur fallut revenir sur leurs pas, repasser sous les guichets, et longer les 
cours des Tuileries pour arriver a la rue de 1'Echelle. Ils parvinrent 
enfin a la voiture, sans autre accident que du temps perdu. Mais e'en 
etait un trop reel ; le prix de chaque minute etait incalculable. 



PLACE DU CARROUSEL 43 

Toute 1'illustre caravane etant reunie, on se mit en route pour aller 
joindre la voiture qui attendait au dela de la barriere Saint-Martin.' 
Weber > ' Memoires? 

Under the Consulate, the Place du Carrousel was the 
scene of the weekly reviews of Napoleon I. 

' C'etait un spectacle curieux que celui de ces parades, surtout 
celles du consulat. Sous 1'empire, elles pouvaient etre plus magni- 
fiques ; mais en 1800, leur splendeur etait tout nationale ; c'etait la 
gloire de la France qu'on voyait dans ces escadrons, ces bataillons, qui, 
soit qu'ils fussent consents ou vieux soldats, faisaient autant trembler 
1'etranger qui les regardait des fenetres du palais.' Memoires de la 
Duchesse cTAbrantts. 

The Place was constantly used for military pageants 
under the first empire, and of these none took a greater 
hold upon the spectators than the reviews of the Old Guard 
by Napoleon I. 

' C'etait dans ce vaste carre que se tenaient les regiments de la 
vieille garde qui allaient etre passes en revue. Us presentaient en face 
du palais d'imposantes lignes bleues de vingt rangs de profondeur. 
Au dela de 1'enceinte, et dans le Carrousel, se trouvaient sur d'autres 
lignes paralleles plusieurs regiments d'infanterie et de cavalerie prets, 
au moindre signal, a manceuvrer pour passer sous 1'arc triomphal qui 
orne le milieu de la grille, et sur le haut duquel se voyaient, a cette 
epoque, les magnifiques chevaux de Venise. La musique des regi- 
ments avail ete se placer de chaque cote des galeries du Louvre, et ces 
deux orchestres militaires y etaient masques par les lanciers polonais 
de service. Une grande partie du carre sable restait vide comme une 
arene preparee pour les mouvements de tous ces corps silencieux. Ces 
masses, disposees avec la symetrie de 1'art militaire, reflechissaient les 
rayons du soleil par le feu triangulaire cie dix mille ba'ionnettes 
etincelantes. L'air agitait tous les plumets des soldats en les faisant 
ondoyer comme les arbres d'une foret courbes sous un vent impetueux. 
Ces vieilles bandes, muettes et brillantes, offraient mille contrastes de 
couleurs dus a la diversite des uniformes, des parements, des armes et 
des aiguillettes. Cet immense tableau, miniature d'un champ de 
bataille avant le combat, etait admirablement encadre, avec tous ses 
accessoires et ses accidents bizarres, par ces hauts batiments majes- 
tueux dont chefs et soldats imitaient en ce moment 1'immobilite. 

' Un enthousiasme indescriptible eclatait dans 1'attente de la multi- 



44 PARIS 

tude. La France allait faire ses adieux a Napoleon, a la veille d'une 
campagne dont le moindre citoyen prevoyait les dangers. 

' L'horloge du chateau sonna une demi-heure. En ce moment 
les bourdonnements de la foule cesserent, et le silence devint si pro- 
fond, que Ton eut entendu la parole d'un enfant. 

'Ce fut alors que ceux, qui semblaient ne vivre que des yeux, 
purent distinguer un bruit d'eperons, un cliquetis d'epees tout particu- 
liers, qui retentit sous le sonore peristyle du palais. 

' Un petit homme, vetu d'un uniforme vert, d'un pantalon blanc, 
et chausse de bottes a 1'ecuyere, parut tout a coup en gardant sur sa 
tete un chapeau a trois cornes aussi prestigieux qu'il 1'etait lui-meme. 
Un large ruban rouge de la Legion d'Honneur flottait sur sa poitrine. 
Une petite epee etait a son cote. 

' II fut apercu par tout le monde et de tous les points a la fois. 

* A son aspect, les tambours battirent aux champs, et les musiques 
debuterent par une phrase dont 1'expression guerriere deploya tous les 
instruments, depuis la grosse caisse jusqu'a la plus douce des flutes. A 
leurs sons belliqueux les ames tressaillirent, les drapeaux saluerent, 
les soldats porterent les armes par un mouvement unanime et re- 
gulier, qui agita les fusils retentissants depuis le premier rang jusqu'au 
dernier qu'on put apercevoir dans le Carrousel; des mots de com- 
mandement se repeterent comme des echos, et des cris de : Vive 
1'Empereur ! . . . furent pousses par la multitude enthousiasmee ; tout 
remua, tout s'ebranla, tout frissonna. 

' L'homme entoure de tant d'amour, d'enthousiasme, de devoue- 
ment, de vceux, pour qui le soleil meme avail chasse les nuages du 
ciel, resta immobile sur son cheval, a trois pas en avant du petit 
escadron dore qui le suivait, ayant le grand-marechal a sa gauche, le 
marechal de service a sa droite. Au sein de tant d'emotions excitees 
par lui, aucun trait de son visage ne s'emut. 

1 Oh ! mon Dieu, oui. II etait comme $a a Wagram, au milieu du 
feu, et a la Moscowa, parmi les morts.' Balzac, ' Le Rendez-vons.' 



The first French sovereign who formed a collection of 
pictures was Fran9ois I. This was enormously increased, 
under Louis XIV., by Colbert, who bought for a ridiculously 
small sum the greater part of the collection of pictures and 
drawings of Charles I. of England, of which the original 
purchaser was Everard Jabach the banker, who was after- 
wards compelled by poverty to re-sell them. This became 
the germ of the existing collection, enriched under Louis XV. 



LA MUSEE DU LOUVRE 45 

from the sale of the Prince de Carignan and by works 
ordered from the best French artists of the time, and, under 
Louis XVI., by a collection of Flemish pictures. Under the 
Republic, the pictures at Versailles were added to those 
of Paris, and the collections were shown to the public as 
Le Museum de la Republique. With the Italian campaigns 
of Napoleon L, such a vast number of works of art deluged 
Paris as even the immense galleries of the Louvre were 
quite insufficient to contain. 

' Sous quels debris honteux, sous quel amas rustique 

On laisse ensevelir ces chefs-d'oeuvres divins ! 
Quel barbare a mele sa bassesse gothique 

A toute la grandeur des Grecs et des Remains ! ' 

Voltaire. 

'Vous avez enrichi le Musee de Paris de plus de cinq 
cents objets, chefs-d'oeuvre de Pancienne et de la nouvelle 
Italic; et qu'il a fallu trente siecles pour produire,' said 
Napoleon to his soldiers after the taking of Mantua. But 
nearly the whole of this collection was restored to its 
rightful owners in 1815. Under Louis Philippe and the 
second empire a vast number of bequests added greatly to 
the wealth of the original Museum. 

The collections of the Louvre are of various kinds 
paintings, drawings, engravings, ancient sculpture, sculpture 
of the middle ages and renaissance, modern French sculp- 
ture, Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, Greek and 
Etruscan antiquities, Algerine museum, marine museum, 
ethnographical museum, collection of enamels and jewels, 
the Sauvageot museum, the Campana museum, the La Gaze 
museum, the Oriental museum, the Le Noir museum. It is 
not possible to visit many of these collections separately 
without crossing and re-crossing others. 

The picture galleries of the Louvre are open daily, except on 
Mondays, from 9 to 5 from April I to Sept. 30; from 10 to 4 from 
Oct. I to March 3 1 . 



46 PARIS 

As those who are only in Paris for a short time will prefer 
to take first the more important collections on the first floor, 
we will begin with those, entered on the right of the Pavilion 
Sully, which faces the Arc du Carrousel in the centre of 
the front of the Louvre. The staircase (in part of the 
building of Frangois I.) is due to Henri II., and bears his 
chiffre, arms, and emblems frequently repeated ; its sculp- 
tures are by Jean Goujon. Reaching the first floor, a door 
on the right opens into the Salle des Seances, containing the 
collections bequeathed to the Louvre by M. Louis La Caze, 
1870. Each room should be visited from right to left We 
may notice in this room 

488. Largilliere Le Van Dyckfrancais : Portrait of President de 

Laage. 
1943. Philippe de Champaigne : Le Prevot des Marchands et les 

Echevins de la ville de Paris. 
50. Boucher : Female Portrait. 
983. Watteau : ' Gilles 'of the Comedie Italienne. 

792. Rigaud: Portrait of De Crequi, Due de Lesdiguieres. 
2454. N. Maes, 1648 : Grace before Meat. 

1468. Tintoret : Susanna and the Elders. 
1470. Tintoret : Portrait of Pietro Mocenigo. 
335. Gtrard : The Empress Marie Louise. 
1725. JKibera, 1642 : ' Le Pied-Bot 'a young beggar. 

93. Chardin : Children's grace. 
1736. Velasquez-. Portrait of the Infanta Maria Theresa, afterwards 

Queen of France. 

2557. Rembrandt, 1651 : Male Portrait. 
791. Rigaud ': Portrait of Cardinal de Polignac. 

793. Rigated : Portrait of President de Berulle. 

The pictures of Watteau here, and in the rooms devoted 
to the French school, are chiefly interesting as the best 
representations we possess of the aristocratic society of 
France in the time of Louis XV. and Mme. de Pompa- 
dour 

1 A voir cette societe brodee, poudre et musquee, dont Watteau 
nous a laisse un si aimable portrait, qui cut pu croire qu'elle portait 
dans ses flancs la plus grande et la plus furieuse revolution que 



SALON DBS SEPT CHEMINEES 47 

1'histoire puisse raconter ? Comment taut d'energie et de colere 
pouvaient-elles couver sous cette enveloppe d'esprit, de galanterie et 
de gaiete ?' Balzac, ' Six Rois de France.' 

The next room, Salle de Henri //., only contains some 
pictures by French artists, of no great importance, though 
popular pictures have always been 

17. Benonville^ 1821-1859: The Death of S. Francis of Assisi. 

361. Girodet Trioson : Endymion asleep. Painted in 1792 in the 
Villa Medici at Rome. From the collection of Louis XVIII. 

The Salon des Sept Cheminees (forming part of the 
Pavilion du Roi, and once inhabited by the Cardinal de 
Guise, uncle of Marie Stuart) is devoted to the French 
school. Its works are exceedingly stiff and mannered. Yet 
there are few visitors to the Louvre, especially young 
visitors, who have not in time become interested in these 
pictures ; therefore we may especially mention 

332. Gtrard : Portraits of M. Isabey and his daughter most realistic. 

362. Girodet-. Attala borne to the Tomb. Bought from Chateau- 

briand for 50,000 francs. 
393. Gutrin : The Return of Marius Sextus from Exile. lie 

finds his daughter weeping by his dead wife. Collection 

of Charles X. 
328. Gerard: Psyche receives the first Kiss of Love. From the 

collection of Louis XVIII. Gerard was the most popular 

painter of the Restoration. Three sovereigns of France, 

Russia, and Prussia sat to him on the same day. 
526. Mme. Lebrun, 1786 : Portrait of Mme. Mole Raymond, of the 

Comedie Frangaise. From the collection of Napoleon III. 
202. David: Portrait of the artist as a young man. David gave 

this portrait to Isabey ; M. Eugene Isabey gave it to the 

Louvre. 

391. Gros : Napoleon I. at Arcola. 
2O2#. David-. The Coronation of Napoleon I. a gigantic picture. 

' Le manteau imperial est pour 1'empereur, qui est de petite taille, 
un somptueux, mais pesant fardeau. II le porte d'ailleurs avec majeste. 
II a mis sur sa tete une couronne de laurier d'or ; le laurier de Cesar ; 
a son cou, le collier de la Legion d'honneur en diamants. . . . Les 
pans de la robe de Josephine sont soutenus par les princesses Joseph, 



48 PARIS 

Louis, Elise, Pauline, et Caroline. ... II a eu a Rome une longue 
negotiation pour savoir si Tempereur serait couronne par le pape, ou 
s'il se couronnerait lui-meme. La question est restee dans le vague, 
mais 1'empereur, qui observe chaque mouvement du pape, lui prend le 
signe du pouvoir supreme, et, fierement, le pose lui-meme sur sa 
tete. . . . Ainsi couronne, il va couronner Fimperatrice. C'est le 
moment le plus solennel de la vie de Josephine. Napoleon s'approche 
avec emotion de cette compagne de ses beaux jours, de la femme qui 
lui a porte bonheur. Elle est prosternee devant lui, le visage inonde 
par les pleurs de joie et de reconnaissance, joignant les mains et fre- 
missante. C'est avec un elan d'allegresse qu'il pose le diademe imperial 
sur cette tete charmante et cherie.' S. Antand. 

198. David, 1805 : Portrait of Pius VII. The Pope holds a letter, 
on the back of which is inscribed ' Pio VII. bonarum 
artium patrono.' A grand portrait, executed during the 
residence of the Pope at the Tuileries. 

522. Mine. Lebrun : Portrait of the artist and her daughter a 
lovely picture. From the collection of Louis Philippe. 

338. Gtricault : Scene on the Raft of the Medusa, when, on the 
twelfth day after its shipwreck, the brig Argus appears on the 
horizon. From the collection of Charles X. This picture 
is said to have inaugurated modern emotional French art. 

747. Prud'hon, 1808 : Justice and Divine Vengeance pursuing 
Crime. Ordered for the Criminal Court in the Palais de 
Justice, by Frochot, prefet de la Seine. 

755- Prud'hon, 1796: Portrait of a Girl (Marie- Marguerite 
Lagnier). From the collection of Napoleon III. 

751. Prud'hon: Portrait of the Empress Josephine. 

188. David, 1799 : The Sabine women awaiting the battle with the 
Romans ; designed in the prisons of the Luxembourg during 
the Great Revolution. 

' Au fort de son travail, le guichetier arrive suivi de gens armes. 
"On demande le citoyen David au tribunal," dit une voix rauque. 
David continue sans rien repondre. Heureusement le guichetier avail 
ete sobre en ce jour-la, et les homines qui 1'accompagnaient n'etaient 
point par trop ivres. Sans quoi notre grand peintre aurait pu avoir 
le sort d'Archimede. "Aliens, citoyen," reprend le porte-clefs, "tu 
griffonneras la muraille a ton retour ; le tribunal attend." "Je ne 
demande qu'une heure," repond David en se retournant a peine : " mais 
il me la faut, je n'ai pas le temps a present." Le geolier sortit tout 
stupide : la reponse fut portee au tribunal : on mentionne le tout dars 



GALERIE D'APOLLON 49 

un proces- verbal. Ainsi 1'artiste faisait-il faire antichambre au 
bourreau. Par bonheur, ce dernier attendit en vain.' Fdix 
Joncieres. 

Passing through a room containing Etruscan jewels 
and ornaments of marvellous beauty, from the left of the 
circular vestibule we enter the Galerie d'Apollon. At its 
portal is a splendid XVII. c. grille brought from the 
chateau of Mansart at Maisons-sur-Seine. 

This magnificent gallery is decorated with paintings by 
Lebrun, and stucco ornaments by Girardon and other great 
masters. The central painting of the ceiling the victory 
of Apollo over the Python is one of the finest works of 
Delacroix (1849). The gallery contains a collection of gems 
and jewels. Amongst historic relics, we may notice 

Case /. 

Reliquary of the arm of Charlemagne. Early XIII. c. 

Reliquary of S. Henri. End of XII. c. 

' Cassette de S. Louis.' 

Precious objects from the altar of the S. Esprit. 

Case IV. 

Crown used at the coronation of Louis XV. 

Crown of Napoleon I. 

Sword and diamonds of Napoleon I. 

Case VI L (in a central window} 

Bed-candlestick and mirror of Marie de Medicis, given by the 
Republic of Venice on her marriage with Henri IV. 

Livre d'heures of Catherine de Medicis, with miniatures repre- 
senting all the family of Valois. 

Sceptre of Charles V. 

Hand of Justice and Sceptre, used at the coronations of Kings 
of France. 

Clasp of the mantle and ring of S.' Louis. 

Case at the end of room on the left ( from the Treasury of the Abbey 
of S. Denis} 

Reliquary or Jeanne d'Evreux, given to the Abbey in 1329. 

Porphyry vase of the XII. c. 

Crystal vase of Eleanor of Aquitaine, XII. c. 

Case at the end of room on^ the right 

Casket of Anne d'Autriche. 
VOL. I. D 



50 PARIS 

The Salon Carre contains the masterpieces of all the 
different schools collected in the Louvre 

' Qui sur tous les beaux arts a fonde sa gloire.' x 

Thus, every picture in this room is more or less worthy 
of study ; we must at least notice, beginning at 

ist Wall, right of entrance 

1958. Philippe de Champaigne, 1602-74: Portrait of Cardinal 

Richelieu. From the Hotel de Toulouse. 
1198. Paolo Veronese (Paolo Cagliari), 1528-88: Jupiter annihilating 

Crime. Brought from the ceiling of the Hall of the Council 

of Ten in the Ducal Palace at Venice to decorate the 

chamber of Louis XIV. at Versailles. 

' Les Crimes sont la Rebellion, la Trahison, la Luxure, et la Con- 
cussion, punis par le Conseil des Dix, et Paul Veronese les a carac- 
terises d'une maniere ingenieuse et poetique. II peignit ce plafond 
apres tin voyage a Rome, ou il vit 1'antique et Michel-Ange. ' 
Theophile Gautier. 

1516. Andrea del Sarto (d'Agnolo), 1487-1553: Holy Family. 
Collection of Fran9ois I. 

' Chose singuliere, ce peintre si malheureux en realite, donne a ses 
figures un air de bonheur candide et de bonte naive ; une sorte de joie 
innocente retrousse le coin de leurs levres, et elles rayonnent illuminees 
d'une serenite douce dans 1'atmosphere tiede et coloree dont 1'artiste 
les entoure. On peint son reve et non sn vie.' Theophile Gautier. 

2545. Rembrandt (van Ryn), 1608-69 : Male Portrait. 

*373- Mantegna, 1431-1506: Calvary a fragment from the pre- 

della of the altar-piece of S. Zeno at Verona. The two 

other portions of the predella are in the museum at Tours. 

The way in which the head of the Crucified is thrown back 

is very striking. 
1706. Herrera (Francisco de), 1576-1656: S. Basil dictating his 

Rule. From the collection of Marshal Soult. 
*I584. Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), 1477-1576: The Entombment. A 

replica of the noble picture at Venice, which has belonged 

in turn to the Duke of Mantua, Charles I. of England, and 

Louis XIV. 

l Voltaire. 



SALON CARRE 51 

' It is a wonderful picture, take it for all in all, perhaps the most 
perfect picture that ever was painted. The low, sombre key of its 
colour is so perfectly in accord with the solemn sentiment of the scene ; 
the colouring in itself is so rich, massive, and powerful ; the light and 
shade so admirably distributed ; the composition so finely balanced ; 
and the individual characters of the persons so justly discriminated in 
their expression and action, that it seems to me the first of religious 
pictures. It is all felt as a painter should feel, in every part. The 
landscape, the sky, the colouring, harmonise with the pathos of the 
scene, and are beautiful and solemn in themselves.' W. W. Story, 

Angle 

1454. Guido Reni, 1575-1642 : Dejanira and the Centaur Nessus. 

Collection of Louis XIV. 
*2542. Rembrandt: The Carpenter's Home. Signed 1640. 

' Rembrandt prend pour fond un humble interieur hollandais avec 
ses murs bruns de ton, sa cheminee a hotte perdue dans 1'ombre et sa 
fenetre etroite par laquelle penetre un rayon de lumiere a travers les 
vitres jaunes ; il penche une mere sur le berceau d'un enfant, une 
mere, rien de plus, avec sa gorge illuminee d'une fenetre oblique ; 
pres d'elle, une vieille matrone, et a cote de la fenetre un menuisier 
qui travail] e et rabote quelques pieces de bois. Telle est sa maniere 
de comprendre la Vierge, sainte Anne, 1'enfant Jesus et saint Joseph. 
II rend la scene plus intime, plus humaine, plus triviale, si vous 
voulez, qu'on ne 1'a jamais peinte. Vous etes libre de n'y voir que la 
pauvre famille d'un menuisier, mais le rayon qui frappe le berceau de 
1'enfant Jesus montre bien que c'est un Dieu, et que de cet humble 
berceau jaillira la lumiere du monde.' Theophile Gauticr. 

' A rustic interior. Mary, seated in the centre, is suckling her 
Child. S. Anne, a fat Flemish grandame, has been reading the 
volume of the Scriptures, and bends forward in order to remove the 
covering, and look in the Infant's face. A cradle is near. Joseph is 
seen at work in the background. 'Jameson, ' Legends of the Madonna.' 

1118. Correggio (Antonio Allegri), 1494-1534: Jupiter and An- 
tiope. 

' Antiope sleeps in a gracefully fascinating attitude : Love sleeps 
near her ; Jupiter steals upon them in the form of a beautiful young 
fawn. ' Kugler. 

2496. Adrian van Ostade, 1610-1685: The Schoolmaster. Signed 
1662. Collection of Louis XVI. 



52 PARIS 

2nd (Right) Wall 

1048. Jehann Percal^ or Jehann de Paris : Madonna and the 

Donor a very fine example of the early French school. 
*i5oo,. Bart. Montagna (of Vicenza), c. 1523 (long attributed to 
Raffaelle and now to Perugino) : Apollo and Marsyas. An 
exquisitely beautiful little picture. From the Palazzo Litta 
at Milan. 

723. N. Poussin, 1594-1665 : S. Francis Xavier raising a Girl to 
Life at Cangorima in Japan. Painted 1640. Collection of 
Louis XV. 

1976. Vandyke (Anton van Dyck), 1599-1641 : A Male Portrait. 

2587. Gerard Terburg, 1617-1681: A Soldier offering Gold to a 
Young Woman. Collection of Louis XVI. 

2459. Gabriel Metsu, 1613-1667 : An Officer receiving the Visit of 

a Lady. 

*I332. Sebastian del Piombo (Sebastiano Luciani), 1485-1547: The 
Visitation. Signed 1521. The design has been attributed 
to Michelangelo. 

1947. Philippe de Champaigne ' His own Portrait. His birthplace, 

Brussels, is seen in the background. Painted 1668. 
*2348. Gerard Dou, 1598-1674: The Woman with the Dropsy. 
Signed 1663. This picture was bought by the Elector 
Palatine for 30,000 florins, and given by him to Prince 
Eugene. At the death of the Prince it was placed in the 
Royal Gallery at Turin. At the moment of his abdication, 
Charles Emmanuel IV. gave it to Clausel, Adjutant-General 
of the army of Italy, in gratitude for the loyalty with which 
he had carried out the mission entrusted to him. Clausel 
gave it to the French nation. 

87. Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo), 1502-1572: Portrait of a 
Sculptor. Collection of Louis XIV. 

*539- Murillo (Bartholome Esteban), 1616-82: The Immaculate 
Conception. 'The Soult Murillo.' Bought, 1852, from 
the heirs of Marshal Soult, for 615,500 francs. 

' And there appeared a great wonder in heaven ; a woman clothed 
with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a 
crown of twelve stars.' Rev. xii. I. 

1193. Paolo Veronese: The Supper at the House of Simon the 
Pharisee. Painted 1570-75 for the refectory of the Servi at 
Venice, and given by the Republic to Louis XIV. in 1665. 
This is only one of four great ' Cenas ' painted by the 
master. 



SALON CARRE 53 

'Ces quatre cenes, merveilleuses agapes de la peinture, se rencon- 
trerent ensemble a Paris en 1'an vii. et viii. Prodigieux spectacle 
dont on ne voit pas que 1'art de cette epoque ait beaucoup profile sous 
le rapport de la couleur.' Theophile Gautier. 

1977. Vandyke: Male Portrait. 

^1590. Titian : Alfonso I. of Ferrara (fourth husband of Lucrezia 
Borgia), and Laura de' Dianti, first his mistress, after- 
wards his wife, whom he called ' Eustochia ' the happy 
choice. From the collection of Charles I., afterwards of 
Louis XIV. 

*I5I4. Andrea del Sarto: Charity. Signed 1518. Collection of 
Francois I. Interesting as a memorial of the painter's visit 
to France, c. 1516-1520, in the reign of Francis I. 

*i644. Incognito (probably Franciabigio) : Portrait of a Young Man. 
In the Pitti Palace at Florence is an almost similar portrait 
by Franciabigio. 

'A sombre portrait of a young man standing, with his elbow on 
a ledge. His hollow eyes are sunk under a marked bony brow. His 
hair, cap, and dress are black. The forms of the face and hands are 
scant in flesh, and broken in contour, the cavities and retreating parts 
in deep unfathomable shadow.' Crowe and Cavalcaselie. 

*I497. Raffaelle, 1483-1520: Madonna and Child. ' La Vierge au 
Voile' or 'au Diademe.' The Madonna lifts a veil to show 
the Infant to S. John, who kneels in adoration. This picture 
belonged to Phelypeaux, Marquis cle la Vrilliere, then to 
the Comte de Toulouse, and afterwards to the Prince de 
Carignan, who sold it to Louis XV. 

*i6oi. Lionardo da Vinci, 1452-1519: Portrait of Mona Lisa 
('La Joconde'), wife of Francesco del Giocondo, the friend 
of the artist. This portrait, a miracle of painting, in which 
the art of portraiture has probably approached nearest to 
perfection, occupied the artist four years, and he then pro- 
nounced it unfinished. A thousand explanations have been 
given of this ' sphinx of beauty.' The picture was bought 
by Fran9ois I. There are more and finer examples of this 
rare master in the Louvre than anywhere else. 

1219. Annibale Caracci, 1560-1609 : Appearance of the Virgin to 
SS. Luke and Catherine. Painted for the cathedral of 
Reggio. 

1967. Vandyke-. Charles I. of England a magnificent full-length 
portrait, full of graceful dignity. From the Orleans gallery 



54 PARIS 

in the Palais Royal, where the picture seemed to have a 
touching association with the palace in which the widow 
and children of Charles had so long received a generous 
hospitality. 

' Sous pretexte que le page qui accompagna Charles I r dans la 
fuite de ce monarque etait un du Barry ou Barrymore, on fit acheter a 
Londres, a la comtesse du Barry, le beau portrait que nous avons a 
present dans le Museum. Elle fit placer le tableau dans son salon, et 
quand elle voyait le roi incertain sur la mesure violente qu'il avail a 
prendre pour casser son parlement et former celui qu'on appela le 
parlement Maupeou, elle lui disait de regarder le portrait d'un roi qui 
avail flechi devant son parlement.' Mme. Campan, 'Anecdotes. 1 

1 Le malheureux Louis XVI. avail comme un presenlimenl de sa fin 
Iragique. II avail lu le proces de Charles I r avec soin ; il en parlail 
souvenl, el il disail a ses familiers que celle leclure lui avail ete profil- 
able. Une de ses plus conslanles preoccupations, pendanl les Irois 
dernieres annees de son regne, ful d'eviler les faules qui, selon lui, 
avaienl perdu le roi d'Anglelerre. 

' On le voyail frequemmenl jeter les yeux sur le chef-d'oeuvre de 
Van Dyck, qui represente Charles I r a pied, ayant derriere lui son 
cheval maintenu par un ecuyer. Ce tableau avail ete achete, sous le 
regne precedenl, par Mme. du Barry, pour la somme de vingl mille 
livres, et place par elle dans un salon ou il elail conlinuellemenl sous 
les yeux de Louis XV.' Memoires secrets. 

1533. Andrea Solaria, c. 1460-1515 : Head of S. John Ihe Baplist. 

Angle 

*I499. Raffaelle'. Holy Family. The Madonna holds up the Child 
in his cradle : S. Elizabeth presenls Ihe lillle S. John. 

* In care and uniformity of execulion, in fulness and grandeur of 
Ihe nude, in breadth and delicacy of drapery, in lightness and freedom 
of molion, and in powerful effects of colour, Ihis work approaches mosl 
nearly lo Ihe Transfiguralion.' Waagen. 

1221. Ann. Caracci: The Deposition. 

1498. Raffaelle: Virgin and Child wilh S. Anne and S. John 
Baplisl ' La grande Sainte Famille de Frar^ois I.' 

Wall (yd) of Exit 

1510. School of Raffaelle: Abundance evidently executed under 
the direction of Raffaelle. 



SALON CARRE 55 

2077. Rubens (Peter Paul), 1577-1640 : The Adoration of the Magi. 
740. N. Poussin: l Diogene jetant son ecuelle" chosen on ac- 
count of its beautiful, highly finished landscape. 
437. Jean Jonvenet : The Descent from the Cross, 1697. 

' Jouvenet, qui rappelle en quelque maniere le Veronese par 1'etendue 
de ses compositions, artiste grave et sage avec une certaine majeste, qui 
est a Poussin et a Lesueur ce que sont les Carraches et le Dominiquin 
a Leonard et a Raphael.' Henri Martin. 

1932. Philippe de Champaigne : The Dead Christ. From the 

church of Port Royal. 
*2539. Rembrandt (Hwmensz. van Ryn) : The Supper at Emmaus, 

1648. Collection of Louis XVI. 
*I496. Raffaelle \ 'La Belle Jardiniere,' 1507. The Madonna sits 

amongst flowering shrubs ; the Infant Christ stands at 

her knee ; S. John kneels. The picture was painted by 

Raffaelle for the city of Siena, and bought by Francois I. 

It has been injured in parts, and over-painted. 
320. Claude Lorraine (C. Gellee), 1600-1682 : Landscape. 
*I986. Jean Van Eyck, 1390-1441 : ' La Vierge au Donateur.' The 

Holy Child blesses the kneeling old man, who ordered 

this picture as an ex-voto ; an angel crowns the Madonna. 

Bought by Fra^ois I. from the Duke of Urbino. Perhaps 

the masterpiece of the artist. 

' The Virgin is seated on a throne, holding in her arms the infant 
Christ, who has a globe in his left hand, and extends the right in the 
act of benediction. The Virgin is attired as a queen, in a magnificent 
robe falling in ample folds around her, and trimmed with jewels ; an 
angel, hovering with outstretched wings, holds a crown over her head. 
On the left of the picture, a votary, in the dress of a Flemish burgo- 
master, kneels before a prie-dieu, on which is an open book ; and with 
clasped hands adores the Mother and her Child. The locality repre- 
sents a gallery or portico paved with marble, and sustained by pillars 
in a fantastic Moorish style. The whole picture is quite exquisite for 
the delicacy of colour and execution.' Jameson, 'Legends of the 
Madonna? 

783. 7?ztt^/(Hyacinthe), 1659-1743 : Portrait of Jacques- Benigne 
Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux ; painted for his family, after- 
wards in the collection of Louis XVIII. 

129. Francois Clouet (Jehannet), c. 1500-1572: Elizabeth of 
Austria, Queen of Charles IX. 



56 PARIS 

Angle 

2715. Holbein (Hans} le Jettne, 1498-1554: Portrait of Erasmus. 
Collection of Charles I., afterwards of Louis XIV. 

1143. Gttercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri), 1591-1666: The 
Patron Saints of Modena Gemignano, George, John Baptist, 
and Peter Martyr. Ordered by the Duke of Modena in 
1651 for the church of S. Pietro. 

*!3o8. Lionardo da Vinci: Madonna and Child with S. Anne ' La 
Sainte Anne.' An authentic and important picture, brought 
from Italy by Cardinal de Richelieu, and taken from the 
Palais Cardinal to the collection of Louis XIV. The 
sketches for this picture are at Windsor. 

1134. Antonello da Messina-. Male Portrait. From the Palazzo 
Martinengo at Venice, afterwards in the Galerie Pourtales. 

* Une merveille, un chef-d'oeuvre, un miracle de la peinture.' 
Theophile Gautier. 

4th (Left} Wall 

2083. Rubens : The Crucifixion. 

*288. Jean Foucquet, 1452-1480 : Portrait of Guillaume Juvenal 
des Ursins, Chancellor under Charles VII. and Louis XI. 
A very noble work. 

1136. Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli), 1478-1514: A rural Concert. 
From the collection of Charles I., afterwards of Louis XIV. 
Two young men and two young women are represented 
with musical instruments ; one of the latter draws water 
from a well. One of the rare undoubted pictures of the 
master. 
743. N. Poussin, 1650 : A noble Portrait of the artist, aged 56. 

1 192. Paolo Veronese : The Feast of Cana. A picture 30 feet 
wide, from the refectory of the monastery of S. Giorgio at 
Venice. An important picture, if only from the portraits 
introduced, including Francis I., Eleanore of Austria, and 
Charles V. Amongst the group of musicians are Titian and 
Tintoret, Bassano, and Paul Veronese himself. The artist 
only received the equivalent of ^40 for this vast work. 

* The scene is a brilliant atrium, surrounded by majestic pillars. 
The tables at which the guests are seated form three sides of a parallelo- 
gram ; the guests are supposed to be almost entirely contemporary 
portraits, so that the figures of Christ and the Virgin, of themselves 
sufficiently insignificant, entirely sink in comparison. Servants with 



SALON CARRE 57 

splendid vases are seen in the foreground, with people looking on from 
raised balustrades, and from the loggie and roofs of distant houses. 
The most remarkable feature is a group of musicians in the centre in 
front, round a table ; also portraits Paul Veronese himself is playing 
the violoncello, Tintoretto a similar instrument, the grey-haired Titian, 
in a red damask robe, the contra-bass.' Kugler. 

'Dans cette gigantesque composition, Paul Veronese a introduit les 
portraits d'un grande nombre de personnages contemporains celebres. 
Une tradition ecrite, conservee dans le couvent de Saint-Georges 
majeur, ou les Noces de Cana etaient primitivement placees, et commu- 
niquee a Zanetti, en indique les noms. Selon ce clef, 1'epoux, assis a 
gauche de la table, serait don Alphonse d'Avalos, marquis du Guastalla. 
Un negre, debout de 1'autre cote, lui offre une coupe du vin miraculeux. 
La jeune femme, placee a cote du marquis, representerait Eleanore 
d'Autriche, reine de France. Derriere elle, un fou, bizarrement 
coiffe du bonnet a grelots, passe la tete entre deux colonnes. Tout 
pres de la jeune femme, on voit Franois I r ; ensuite vient la reine 
d'Angleterre, Marie, vetue d'une robe jaune. Plus loin, Soliman I r , 
empereur des Turcs, ne parait nullement surpris de se trouver aux 
noces de Cana, a quelques pas de Jesus-Christ ; il a, du reste, a qui 
parler. Un prince negre, descendant sans doute du roi mage abyssinien 
ou du Pretre-Jean, parle a des serviteurs, tandis que Vittoria Colonna, 
marquise de la Pescaire, machonne le bout d'un cure-dent : et, a 1'angle 
en retour de la table, 1'empereur Charles Quint, sans souci de la 
chronologic, porte tranquillement au col 1'ordre de la Toison-d'Or.' 
Theophile Gautier. 

2555. Rembrandt: His own Portrait. 
*i;i3. Murillo: Holy Family. 

1117. Correggio: Marriage of S. Catherine. Painted by the artist 
as a wedding-gift for his sister Catarina, on her marriage 
in I5!9- This is the picture which Vasari saw in the 
possession of a doctor at Modena, and said that its ' heads 
seemed to belong to Paradise,' and that ' it would be 
impossible to see more beautiful hair or hands, or a more 
truthful and natural colouring.' Mazarin vainly tried to 
persuade the Barberini family of Rome to sell him this 
picture, which was constantly refused. At last he induced 
Anne of Austria to ask for it, when it was reluctantly given 
up to her entreaties, and was soon transferred by her to the 
Palais Mazarin, to the great mortification of the donors. 
After the death of Mazarin it passed to the gallery of 
Louis XIV. 

1592. Titian : A man holding a glove. Collection of Louis XIV. 



58 PARIS 

Angle 

1435. Francia (Francesco Raibolini), 1450-1517: The Nativity. 

Collection of Napoleon III. a miniature picture. 
*I5<D4. Raffaelle : S. Michael and the Dragon, painted for Franyois I. 
in 1517. The king left the choice of the subject to the 
painter, and he selected ' the Warrior of God ' the military 
patron of France, and of that knightly order of which the 
king was Grand Master. 

' Like a flash of lightning the heavenly champion darts upon Satan, 
who, in desperation, writhes at his feet. The angel is clad in scaly 
armour, and bears a lance in his hands, with which he aims a death- 
blow at his antagonist. The air of grandeur, beauty, and calm majesty 
in the winged youth, the rapidity of the movement, the bold fore- 
shortening of Satan, hurled on the lava rocks, have a most impressive 
effect.' Kugler. 

' S. Michael not standing, but hovering on his poised wings, and 
grasping the lance with both hands sets one foot lightly on the 
shoulder of the demon, who, prostrate, writhes up, as it were, and 
tries to lift his head and turn on his conqueror with one last gaze of 
malignant rage and despair. The archangel looks down upon him 
with a brow calm and serious ; in his beautiful face is neither vengeance 
nor disdain in his attitude no effort ; his form, a model of youthful 
grace and majesty, is clothed in a brilliant panoply of gold and silver ; 
an azure scarf floats on his shoulders ; his widespread wings are of 
purple, blue, and gold ; his light hair is raised, and floats outward on 
each side of his head, as if from the swiftness of his downward motion. 
The earth emits flames, and seems opening to swallow up the adversary. 
The form of the demon is human, but vulgar in its proportions, and of 
a swarthy red, as if fire-scathed ; he has the horns and serpent-tail ; 
but, from the attitude into which he is thrown, the monstrous form is 
so foreshortened that it does not disgust, and the majestic figure of the 
archangel fills up nearly the whole space fills the eye fills the soul 
with its victorious beauty. 

' That Milton had seen this picture, and that when his sight 
was quenched the 'winged saint' revisited him in darkness, who can 
doubt ? 

' " Over his lucid arms 
A military vest of purple flow'd 
Livelier than Meliboean, or the grain 
Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old 
In time of truce. 



SALLE DBS SEPT METRES 59 

By his side, 

As in a glittering zodiac, hung the sword, 
Satan's dire dread, and in his hand the spear." ' 

Jameson's ' Sacred and Legendary Art? 

Un. Hans Memling, c. 1430-1494 : Lovely miniature pictures. 

To the right of the Salon Carre is a small room con- 
taining some beautiful frescoes by Luini from the Palazzo 
Litta at Milan, whither they were brought from a ruined 
church; also (1887) from the legacy of the Comtesse 
Duchatel 

2480, 2481. Sir Antonio More (Moro van Dashorst), 1512-1581 : 
Portraits supposed to represent Louis del Rio, Maitre des 
requetes, and his wife. 
*2O26. Memling : The Virgin and Child adored by the Donors. 

421. Ingres (J. A. Dominique), 1780-1867: Oedipus explaining 

the Enigma. 

422. Ingres: 'La Source,' 1856 considered the most perfect 

example of the nude in modern painting. 

Leaving the Salon Carre by the door opposite that by 
which we entered, we reach the Grande Galerie, immediately 
to the right of which opens the Salle des Sept Mtires^ con- 
taining a precious collection of the earlier Italian schools 
chiefly brought together by Napoleon III. Over the door 
is a fresco from the villa of La Magliana, near Rome, where 
Leo X. died. 

Right Wall 

1268. Carlo Crivelli, c. 1430-1495 : S. Bernardino da Siena. 

1400. Marco Palmezzano (of Forli), 1456-1537 : The Dead Christ. 
*I2H. Vittore Carpaccio, flourished 1490-1519: The Preaching of 
S. Stephen at Jerusalem. 

1350. Lorenzo Lotto (of Traviso), c. 1480-1555 : S. Jerome in the 
Desert. Signed, 1500. 

1374. Bart. Montagna (of Vicenza), 1450-1523 : A Concert of 
Children. 

1156. Gentile Bellini, c. 1426-1507 : Two Male Heads. 

1 158. Giovanni Bellini, 1427-1516 : Holy Family. From the collec- 
tion of the Prince of Orange, afterwards of Lord Northwick. 



60 PARIS 

1537. Cosimo Tura (of Ferrara), c. 1432-1495 : A Monastic Saint. 
1590. Lo Spagna (Giovanni di Pietro), c. 1530 : Madonna and 

Child. 

*I384. Giov. Massone (end of XV. c.): An Altar-piece. In the 
centre is the Nativity ; on left, S. Francis as protector of 
Sixtus IV. ; on right, S. Antonio of Padua as protector of 
Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, afterwards Julius II. From 
the sepulchral chapel of Sixtus IV. at Savona. 
1573. Perugino : Virgin and Child with a number of Angels. 
*i26o. Lorenzo Costa (of Ferrara), 1460-1555 : The Court of Isabella 
d'Este, Duchess of Mantua. Painted for the palace at 
Mantua. 

*I375- Andrea Mantegna (of Padua) : The Parnassus. Originally 
in the possession of Isabella d'Este-Gonzaga ; taken in the 
sack of Mantua in 1 630. 

*I374. Mantegna: ' La Vierge de la Victoire.' A dedication picture 
for the victory which Gonzaga of Mantua obtained over 
Charles VIII. of France in 1495. F. di Gonzaga and his 
wife kneel at the feet of the Virgin. Behind are SS. 
Michael and Andrew. On the right S. Elizabeth kneels ; 
the little S. John stands by the Virgin, with SS. George 
and Longinus, distinguished by his lance. This is the 
most celebrated easel picture of the master. From S. Maria 
della Vittoria at Mantua. 

1376. Mantegna : Wisdom victorious over Vice. 
*I567. Perugino: Contest between Love and Chastity. From the 

gallery of Isabella d'Este. 
1568. Periigino: S. Jerome in the Desert; The Dead Christ; 

S. Francis receiving the Stigmata. A predella. 
* 1 566. Perugino : S. Sebastian. 

1279. Gentile da Fabriano, I37O?-I45O ? : The Madonna holds the 
Child, who blesses the kneeling Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord 
of Rimini. 

1564. Perugino : Madonna and Child with Angels. 
1278. Gentile da Fabriano : The Presentation in the Temple. 

End Wall 

*I3I2. Giotto (di Bondone), I276P-I337: S. Francis receiving the 
Stigmata. In the predella the Vision of Innocent III. ; 
the Pope approving the Order of S. Francis ; S. Francis 
preaching to the Birds. Signed. From S. Francesco at 
Pisa. 



SALLE DBS SEPT METRES 61 

' A picture full of awe and devotion, and although signed without 
the prefix "Magister," certainly of later date than the works in the 
Arena by the argument of the single nail in the feet of the crucifix, a 
type adopted by Giotto subsequent to his works there.' Lord Lind- 
say's ' Christian Art? 

1260. Cimabue (Giovanni Gualtieri), I24O?-I3O2?: Madonna and 
Child with Angels. From S. Francesco at Pisa. 

1302. Taddeo Gaddi (Agnolo di), I333?-I396?: A Predella, with 
the Death of S. John Baptist, the Condemnation of Judas, 
and the Martyrdom of a Saint. 

1151. Bartolo diFredi, 13307-1410 : The Presentation in the Temple. 

Left Wall 

1301. Taddeo Gaddi \ The Annunciation. 

1273. Paolo Uccello (Paolo di Dono), 1397-1475 : A Battle. 

1319. Benozzo Gozzoli, 1420-1498: The Triumph of S. Thomas 

Aquinas. From the cathedral of Pisa. 

1414. Pesellino (Francesco di Stefano), 1422-1457 : S. Francis 
and the Stigmata ; SS. Cosmo and Damian healing a sick 
man full of simplicity and beauty. 

*I290. Fra Angelica (Fra Giovanni da Fiesole), 1387-1455 : The 
Coronation of the Virgin. In the predella the Story of 
S. Dominic. Vasari says that Fra Giovanni surpassed him- 
self in the execution of this picture, which was the best 
altar-piece in the church of Fiesole. 

' It is especially in the Coronation of the Virgin that Fra Angelico 
has so profusely displayed the inexhaustible riches of his imagination. 
It may be said that painting with him served as a formulary to express 
the emotions of faith, hope, and charity. In order that his task might 
not be unworthy of Him in whose sight it was undertaken, he always 
implored the blessing of Heaven before he began his work ; and when 
an inward feeling told him that his prayer was answered, he considered 
himself no longer at liberty to deviate in the slightest degree from the 
inspiration vouchsafed him from on high, persuaded that in this, as in 
everything else, he was only an instrument in the hand of God.' 
Rio> ' Poetry of Christian Art' 

1392. Neri di Bicci (of Florence), 1419-1486 : Madonna and Child. 

1320. Benozzo Gozzoli'. Altar-piece. 

1295. Botticelli (Alessandro Filipepi), 1447-1510: Madonna and 

Child with Angels. 

*I296. Botticelli'. Madonna and Child with S. John. A most 
beautiful picture from the collection of Louis XVIII. 



62 PARIS 

*I244. Fra Filippo Lippi (di Tommaso), 1406-1469 : Virgin and 

Child with Angels ' La Vierge Glorieuse.' From S. 

Spirito at Florence. 
*I343. Filippo Lippi : The Nativity. 
1322. Ghirlandajo (Domenico Grillandajo), 1449-1494: Old Man 

and Child very characteristic. 
*I32I. Ghirlandajo-, The Visitation. An admirable picture from 

S. Maria degli Angeli at Florence. 
*I482. Cosimo Rossclli (of Florence), 1438-1507 : Madonna in glory, 

with SS. Bernard and Mary Magdalen. 
*I263- Lorenzo di Credi(&\ Andrea d'Oderigo), 1459-1537: Madonna 

and Child with SS. Julian and Nicholas. From S. Maria 

degli Angeli at Florence. 
1167. F. J. Bianchi (of Ferrara), c. 1510: Madonna and Child 

with SS. Benedict and Quentin. 
1607. Bart. Vivarini (da Murano), worked 1450-1499: S.Giovanni 

Capistrano. Signed 1459. 

La Grande Galerie^ begun by Catherine de Medicis and 
continued by Henri IV., is divided by marble columns 
plundered from the churches of Paris, in which they usually 
served to support a baldacchino. Though more fatiguing, 
it will be found better to visit the whole of each division of 
the gallery before proceeding to the next, as the schools 
are divided first Italian, then Spanish, then German, 
Flemish, and Dutch. Numbers of artists are usually 
engaged in copying the pictures. Manon Vaubernier, after- 
wards the famous Comtesse du Barry, was discovered by 
Lebel, a myrmidon of Louis XV., when she was a copyist 
in this gallery. 

FIRST DIVISION. 
Right 

1539. Lo Spagna : The Nativity, c. 1530. Given by the town of 
Perugia to the Baron di Gerando. 

' L'enfant Jesus repose a terre, le doigt dans la bouche comme un 
marmot qui n'a pas encore conscience de sa divinite.' Theophile Gautier. 

1303. Raffaellino del Garbo, 1466-1524: The Coronation of the 
Virgin. From S. Salvi at Florence. 



LA GRANDE GALERIE 63 

1 1 20. Niccolo Ahmno (of Foligno), XV. c.: Scenes from the Passion. 
' Of an animated and dramatic character, amounting almost to 
caricature.' Kugler. 

1369. Giannicola Manni, XVI. c. : The Baptism of Christ. 

1526. Luca Signorelli (of Cortona), 1441-1523 : Adoration of the 

Magi. 
1416. Picro di Lorenzo, 1462-1521 ? : The Coronation of the Virgin. 

1527. Luca Signorelli: A grand fragment. 

1241. Jacopo Carrucci da Pontortiio (of Empoli), 1494-1557 : Por- 

trait of a young Jeweller. 
1324. Ghirlandajo'. The Coronation of the Virgin, with kneeling 

saints. 
1414. Marietta Albertinelli, 1474-1515 : Virgin and Child, with 

kneeling saints. 

1242. Jacopo (Carucci) da Pontormo, 1494-1557 : The Salutation. 
1115. Fra Bartolommeo, 1475-1517 (attributed here to Albertinelli): 

Christ appearing to the Magdalen. 

137. Gian. Manni, d. 1547 : The Adoration of the Magi. 
1133. Fra Bartolommeo : The Annunciation. 1515. Collection of 

Francois I. 

'The Virgin seated under a niche, and attended by standing or 
kneeling saints, bends backwards as she sees the messenger who flies 
down to her. It is clear that the latter was thrown off on the back- 
ground of architecture at the moment when the rest was finished. 
Fra Bartolommeo has reached a point where he defies every sort of 
difficulty.' Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

' A most brilliant and original composition, in which the Virgin, 
instead of being represented kneeling in some retired spot, is seated on 
a throne receiving the homage of various saints, when the angel Gabriel 
appears before her.' Rio, ' Christian Art' 

*H54. Fra Bartolommeo: Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 
1515. Andrea del Sarto : Virgin and Child, with S. Anne, S. John 

Baptist, and angels. 

*!5o6. Bacchiaca (Francesco Ubertini) : Portrait of a Youth. Often 
attributed to Raffaelle, and formerly supposed to be his 
own portrait. 

1418. Gitdio Romano (G. Pippi), 1492-1516: The Nativity very 
dark and heavy. From S. Andrea at Mantua, afterwards 
in the gallery of the Duke of Mantua, then of Charles I., 
and finally of Louis XIV. 

1509 bis. Raffaelle ? : Study for a head of S. Elizabeth. 
1502. Raffaelle : S. Michael a miniature picture. 
* 1 503. Raffaelle : S. George and the Dragon miniature. 



64 PARIS 

*I5O5- Raffaelle: Portrait of Balthazar Castiglione, the famous author 
of 'II Cortegiano.' Collection of Charles I., afterwards of 
Mazarin and Louis XIV. 

1 183. Bronzino : Christ and the Magdalen. Mentioned by Vasari as 
existing in S. Spirito at Florence an intensely vulgar picture. 
1507. Raffaelle : Joanna of Arragon, wife of Ascanio Colonna, Con- 
stable of Naples. Painted for Cardinal Bibbiena, who 
gave it to Francois I. Vasari says that only the head was 
executed by Raffaelle. 

1511. School of Raffaelle : S. Catherine of Alexandria. 
*I5OO. Raffaelle : S. John Baptist as a boy in the Desert. This 
picture differs much in composition from that in the Tri- 
bune at Florence. Morelli attributes this to Sebastian del 
Piombo. 
*i5oi. Raffaelle: S. Margaret. Collection of Fra^ois I. 

' The famous S. Margaret of Raffaelle was painted for Fra^ois I. 
in compliment to his sister, Margaret of Navarre. It represents the 
saint in the moment of victory, just stepping forward with a buoyant 
and triumphant air, in which there is also something exquisitely sweet 
and girlish : one foot on the wing of the dragon, which crouches open- 
mouthed beneath ; her right hand holds the palm, her left sustains her 
robe. The aim of Raffaelle has evidently been to place before us 
an allegory: it is innocence triumphant over the power of sin.' 
Jameson's ' Sacred Art? 

*!5o8. Raffaelle-. Two Male Portraits supposed to represent Raf- 
faelle and his fencing-master ; by some ascribed to Pon- 
tormo or Sebastian del Piombo. 
1258. Jacopo (Chimenti) da Empoli, 1554-1640: 'La Vierge 

Glorieuse.' 
1420. Giulio Romano : The Triumph of Vespasian and Titus. 

Left Wall, returning- 
1170. BonifaziO) 1491-1553: The Raising of Lazarus. Formerly 

in S. Luigi dei Francesi at Rome. 

' La gravite de la scene est un peu troublee d'un detail trop 
familierement naturel : un des Juifs present au miracle se bouche le 
nez pour ne pas sentir la fetide odeur du sepulcre ouvert. C'est un 
manque de gout ; mais le geste est si vrai, et le personnage si bien 
peint 1 ' Thtophile Gautier. 
1585. Titian : S. Jerome. 

1672. Venetian School: Very fine Male Portrait. 
* J 593 Titian: Male Portrait. Collection of Mazarin, afterwards 
of Louis XIV. 



LA GRANDE GALERIE 65 

1 580. Titian : Holy Family, in a woody landscape. From the 

collection of Mazarin, afterwards of Louis XIV. 
1552. Titian: Christ bound. 
*I577. Titian : Virgin and Child, with SS. Stephen, Ambrose, and 

Maurice. Collection of Louis XIV. There is a repetition 

of this picture in the gallery at Vienna. 
*I587. Titian: Jupiter and Antiope, known as 'La Venus del 

Pardo,' with a glorious landscape. Given by Philip IV. 

of Spain to Charles I., afterwards in the collection of 

Mazarin, then of Louis XIV. 

1591. Titian : Male Portrait. Collection of Louis XIV. 
1 586. Titian : The Council of Trent. Collection of Louis XV. 
*I588. Titian : Portrait of Fra^ois I. The king wears a medallion 

of S. Margaret round his neck. From the collection of 

Franois I. 

1518. Girolamo Savoldo (of Brescia), XVI. c. : Male Portrait. 
1589. Titian : An allegory in honour of Alfonso of Naples, 

Marquis of Guastalla. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*i58i. Titian: The Supper at Emmaus. A subject often painted 
by the master. Gallery of the Duke of Mantua, Charles I., 
and Louis XIV. 

' Titien, selon la tradition, fait asseoir a la droite du Sauveur, sous 
1'habit du pelerin, 1'empereur Charles V., et, a sa gauche, sous le meme 
travestissement, le cardinal Ximenes. Le page qui apporte un plat 
sur la table serait Philippe II., plus tard roi des Espagnes.' Thtophile 
Gautier. 

1583. Titian: The Mocking of Christ. From S. Maria delle 

Grazie at Milan. 

1351. Lorenzo Lotto: Holy Family. 
1173. Bonvicino (II Moretto of Brescia), 1498-1555 : S.Bernardino 

of Siena and S. Louis of Toulouse. 
1318. Girolamo dai Libri (of Verona), 1474-1556 : Virgin and Child, 

with cherubs. 
*I57S. Titian: 'La Vierge au Lapin.' Signed. Collection of 

Louis XIV. The Virgin holds a white rabbit, towards 

which the infant Christ, in the arms of S. Catherine, eagerly 

stretches his hand. 
1176. Bonvicino : S. Bonaventura and S. Anthony of Padua. 

1519. G, G. Savoldo : Male Portrait. 

1356, Bernardino Lttini, c. 1475-*:. 1533 : The Forge of Vulcan, 
1169. Beltraffio (Giovanni Antonio), of Milan, 1467-1516: The 
Madonna of the Casio family, with the donors, Altar-piece 
VOL. I. E 



66 PARIS. 

painted for the church of the Misericordia near Bologna, 
the last work of the artist. 

*i6o2. Lionardo da Vinci'. Bacchus. Collection of Louis XIV. 
Probably intended at first for S. John Baptist, and altered 
to represent the pagan god. 

1531. A ndrea Solaria, 1460-1515 ?: Portrait of Charles d'Amboise. 
*l6oo. Lionardo da Vinci (sometimes attributed to the Milanese 

Bernardino de' Conti) : Female Portrait, called in France 
'La Belle Feronniere,' mistress of Fra^ois I., but really 
representing Lucrezia Crivelli, a lady beloved by Ludovico 
Sforza. 

'An earnest and exquisitely beautiful head.' Kugler. 

*I599. Lionardo da Vinci: 'La Vierge aux Rochers.' Collection 
of Fran9ois I. A replica, with some difference, of the 
picture in the National Gallery from the collection at 
Charlton in Wilts. 

*I597- Lionardo da Vinci: S. John Baptist preaching half figure. 
Given by Louis XIII. to Charles I. ; afterwards in the 
collection of Louis XIV. 

1532. A. Solaria: The Crucifixion. 

*I53O. A.Solario; ' La Vierge a 1'oreiller vert.' Named from the 
pillow upon which the Child is lying. The picture, 
perhaps from a drawing of Lionardo, was given by Marie 
de' Medici to the convent of the Cordeliers at Blois, whence 
it passed to the gallery of Cardinal Mazarin. The best 
work of the artist. 

1285. Gaudinzio Ferrari (of Valduggia, near Novara), c. 1484-1 546 : 
S. Paul. Signed 1543. From S. Maria delle Grazie at 
Milan. 

Un. ' Bernardinus Favolus de Papia faciebat, 1418' : Virgin and 
Child a striking picture. 

1265. Attributed to Lionardo : Annunciation a tiny long picture. 

1181. Borgognone (Ambrogio Stefani da Fossano), I45o?-i523: 
The Presentation in the Temple. 

1355. Liiini : Salome receiving the head of S. John Baptist. 

1284. Lorenzo Fasoli di Pavia, c. 1520: The Family of the Virgin. 

1488. Pier Francesco Sacchi (of Pavia), XVI. c. : The Four Doctors 
of the Church. 

1382. Marco da Oggiono (of Milan), c. 1460-1530: Holy Family 
at Bethlehem. 

1353. Luini: Virgin and Child, with S. Joseph. 

1276. Dosso Dossi (Giov. Lutero), of Ferrara, c. 1479-1512: S. 
Jerome. 



LA GRANDE GALERIE 67 

1436. F. Francia (Francesco Raibolini), 1450-1517 : The Cruci- 

fixion. From S. Giobbe at Bologna. 
1553. Garofalo (Benvenuto Tisi), of Ferrara, 1481-1559 : The Sleep 

of the Infant Jesus. 
1381. Gir. Marchesi (da Cotignola), 1480-1550?: The Cross 

Bearing. Signed. 

1437. F. Francia : Madonna and Child, with a monk. 

1462. (On a screen.) Daniele da Volterra (Ricciarelli), 1509-1566: 
David and Goliath. 

* Violent and hard, but of such power of expression as to have long 
gone by Michelangelo's name.' Kugler. 

SECOND DIVISION. 
Right Wall 

1150. Fed. Barocci (of Urbino), 1528-1612 : The Virgin in glory. 

1438. Giulio Romano (ascribed to Bagnacavallo) : Circumcision. 

The picture was bought by Charles Le Brun at the sale of 

Fouquet, and resold to Louis XIV. 
1140. Fed. Barocci: The Circumcision. From an oratory at 

Florence. 

1475. Romanelli (of Viterbo), 1610-1662 : The Fall of Manna. 
1485. Matteo Rosselli (of Florence), 1578-1650: The Triumph of 

David. 
1163. Pietro da Cortona (P. Berrettini), 1596-1669: Virgin and 

Child, with S. Martina offering a lily. 

1 121. Caravaggio (Michelangelo Amerighi), 1569-1609 : The 

Death of the Virgin. 

1202. Bern. Campi (of Cremona), XVI. c. : Pieta. 
1288. Domenico Feti, 1589-1624: Melancholy. 

1 1 22. Caravaggio: The Fortune-teller. 

1124. Caravaggio: Portrait of Alof de Vignacourt, Grand-Master 
of Malta in 1601. 

1123. Caravaggio: A Concert. 

1495. Sassoferrato(G\o. Batt. Salvi), 1605-1685 : The Annunciation. 
1379. Carlo Maratta (of Camerano), 1625-1713 : Portrait of Maria 

Maddalena Rospigliosi. A very favourable specimen of the 

master. 
1479. Salvator Rosa (of Renella), 1615-1673 : Battlepiece. 

' An admirable picture, with an angry yellow light." Kugler. 

1478. Salvator Rosa : Appearance of Samuel to Saul. 
1232. Annibale Caracci (of Bologna), 1560-1609 : Fishing. 



68 PARIS 

1447. Guido Reni (of Bologna), 1575-1642: Ecce Homo. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. 

1439. Gttido Reni : David and the head of Goliath. 
1613. Domenichino (Dom. Zampieri), of Bologna, 1581-1641 : S. 

Cecilia. 

1233. Ann. Caracci: Hunting. 
1450. Guido Reni : S.Sebastian. Collection of Mazarin, afterwards 

of Louis XIV. 
*!2i8. Ann. Caracci: ' La Vierge aux Cerises.' Sometimes called 

the ' Silence ' of Caracci. 

The first name is in allusion to the legend, often repeated in old 
carols, that, before the birth of our Saviour, the Virgin longed for 
cherries which grew high on a tree, and that when Joseph was about 
to get them for her, the bough bent to his hand. 

1227. Ann. Caracci: The Martyrdom of S. Stephen. 

Left Wall) returning 

1739. Zurbaran (Francisco), 1598-1662: The Funeral of S. Pietro 

Nolasco. 
1716. Murillo : The Miracle of S. Diego ' La Cuisine des Anges.' 

The angels prepare the dinner of a monk absorbed in his 

devotions. Signed 1646. Collection of Marshal Soult. 
1735. Velasquez (Diego Rodriguez de Silva), 1599-1660: Portrait 

of the Infanta Maria Theresa, afterwards Queen of France. 

1722. Jose de Ribera (L'Espagnolet), 1588-1656 : The Burial of 

Christ. 

1758. Zurbaran\ S. Pedro Nolasco and S. Raymond of Penaforte. 
1708. Mtirillo: The Immaculate Conception. 
1710. Murillo : The Birth of the Virgin. 
1721. Ribera: Adoration of the Shepherds. Signed 1650. 

1723. Ribera : S. Paul the Hermit. 

1734. Velasquez: A Group of Men. Velasquez and Murillo are 

represented on the left. 
1715. Murillo: Christ bound to the Column, and S. Peter on his 

knees. A miniature. 

*I732. Velasquez : Philip IV. A full length, with a dog. 

*I7I7- Murillo: The Young Beggar- Boy. Collection of Louis XVI. 

1408. G. P. Panini (of Piacenza), 1695-1768 : Interior of S. Peter's. 

1203. Canaletto (Ant. Canale), 1697-1768: Grand Canal, Venice. 

1469. Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti), of Venice, 1519-1594: Virgin 

and Child with SS. Francis and Sebastian, and a donor in 

adoration. 
1465. Tintoretto : Sketch for the ' Paradise' at Venice. 



LA GRANDE GALERIB 69 

1464. Tintoretto : Susanna and the Elders. 
1467. Tintoretto : Fine Male Portrait. 

1179. Pan's Bordone (of Treviso), 1501-1570: Male Portrait. 

1195. Paolo Veronese-. Calvary. 

1196. Paolo Veronese: The Supper at Emmaus, with a crowd of 

figures. 

1 1 80. Paris Bordone : Man and Child. 

1190. Paolo Veronese: Virgin and Child, with saints and donor. 

From the collection of the Comte de Brienne, afterwards 

of Louis XIV. 

1172. Bonifazio: Virgin and Child, with two saints. 
1171. Bonifazio: Holy Family, and saints. Collection of Mazarin, 

afterwards of Louis XIV. 
1194. Bonifazio : Christ falling under the Cross. 

1 1 88. Paolo Veronese : Susanna and the Elders. 

1399. Palma Vecchio (Jacopo), of Serinalta, c. 1480-1528 : The 

Adoration of the Shepherds. 
1199. Paolo Veronese: Portrait of a Young Woman. 

1189. Paolo Veronese: The Swoon of Esther. Collection of 

Louis XIV. 

*H35. Giorgione: The Holy Family, with SS. Sebastian and Cathe- 
rine, in a poetic landscape. Collections of the Duke of 
Mantua, Charles I., Mazarin, and Louis XIV. 

1349. Lorenzo Lotto : The Woman taken in Adultery. 

1579. Titian : Holy Family. 

THIRD DIVISION (between the columns, which were given 
by Louis XIV. to S. Germain des Pres, and brought 
here on the Revolution). 
Right Wall: Early French School 

1008. Francois Clouet? : Frangois I. 

*I55- Jean Cousin (of Soucy, near Sens), c. 1500-1589 : The Last 
Judgment. Painted for the Minimes of Vincennes. 

1009. Francois Clouet? : Charles IX. 

131. Francois Clouet? : Frangois de Lorraine, Due de Guise. 

Left Wall 

289. Jean Foucquet, c. 1450 : Charles VII. 

304 foV. Nicolas Froment (pi. Avignon), worked 1461-1482: Portrait 

of King Rene and his second wife, Jeanne de Laval. 

Executed for the king as a gift to Jean de Matheron, of 

Aix, in Provence. 
126. Jean Clouet?: Frangois I. 



70 PARIS 

FOURTH DIVISION. 

The twenty-three large pictures which hang on either 
side the gallery called 'La Galerie Medicis' were ordered 
from Rubens by Marie de Medicis in 1620, to decorate 
the gallery at the Luxembourg which she had just built. 
Painted especially for their places in the Luxembourg, and 
exceedingly interesting there, as commemorating the foun- 
dress and first inhabitant of that palace, they are out of 
place here. Godefroy was also employed to * restore ' the 
pictures in 1857, so that the work of Rubens is irretrievably 
lost. 1 The pictures are not hung in their order, which is 

The Destiny of Marie de Medicis. 
Her Birth at Florence, April 26, 1575. 
Education of Marie de Medicis. 
Henri IV. receives her Portrait. 
Her Marriage with Henri IV. 
Her Landing at Marseilles, Nov. 3, 1600. 
Her Marriage at Lyons, Dec. 10, 1600. 
Birth of Louis XIII. at Fontainebleau, Sept. 27, 1601. 
Henri IV. leaving for the war in Germany and placing the govern- 
ment in the hands of the Queen. 
The Coronation of Marie de Medicis. 
The Government of Marie de Medicis. 
Journey of the Queen to Pont-au-Ce, in Anjou. 
Exchange of the French and Austrian princesses, Nov. 9, 1615. 
Happiness of the Regency. 
Majority of Louis XIII. 

The Escape of the Queen from Blois, Feb. 21, 1619. 
Reconciliation of Louis XIII. with Marie de Medicis. 
Conclusion of the Peace. 

Interview between Marie de Medicis and her son. 
The Triumph of Truth. 
Marie de Medicis as Bellona. 

Her father, Fra^ois de Medicis, Grand Duke of Tuscany. 
Her mother, Joanna of Austria, daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand I. 

' Marie de Medicis, qui avait vingt - sept ans quand Henri IV. 
1'epousa, etait une grande et grosse femme, fort blanche, qui, sauf de 
beaux bras, une belle gorge, n'avait rien que de vulgaire.' Michelet. 

1 For the way in which Godefroy carried out his destructive process, see the 
Memoirs de Comte Horace de Vie I Cast el. 



LA GRANDE GALE RIB 71 

The outlines were drawn in chalk under the personal 
supervision of the queen, but the paintings were executed 
at Antwerp ; the sketches for them are at Munich. 

The collection of Dutch pictures is a very fine one, 
though when Louis XIV. looked at those which were here 
in his time he exclaimed, ' Otez-moi ces magots ! ' We 
may notice : 

Right Wall^- 

2071. Franz Porbus, 1569-1622. Henri IV. 

Un. fan Breughel, 1568-1625 : The Parable of the Swine. 
*2O74. Franz Porbus : Portrait of Guillaume le Vair, Chancellor 

of France under Louis XIII. 

1927. Philippe de Champaigne : The Supper in the Pharisee's 
House. 

2159. David Teniers (le Jeune), 1610-1690 : Village Festival. 

21 12. Rubens : Elizabeth of France, daughter of Henri IV., who 
married the Infante of Spain, afterwards Philippe IV. 
Collection of Louis XIV. 

2108. Rubens : Marie de Medicis as Bellona. 

2160. David Teniers : The Wineshop by the River. 
2162. David Teniers : Interior of Alehouse. 

2359. Gerard Dou : His own Portrait. 

2354, Gerard Dou : Man weighing gold. 

2355, Gerard Dou: The Dentist. Collection of Louis XIV. 

2356, Gerard Dou : Old Woman reading the Bible to her peasant 

husband. 

2487. Netscher, 1639-1684 : The Violin Lesson. 
2600. Ary de Voys, c. 1634-1680 : His own Portrait. 
2473. W. van Mien's, 1662-1747 : The Cook. 

Left Wall, returning 

2589. Terburg (Gerard ter Borch), 1617-1681 : A Concert. 
2460. Metsu (Gabriel), 1630-1667 : The Chemist. 
2508. Van Ostade (Adriaen), 1610-1685 : Tne Halt. 
2497. Van Ostade : The Fish Market. 
2329. Paid Potter^ 1625-1654: The Wood at the Hague. Dated 

1650. 

2495. V an Ostade : The Family of the Painter. 
2525. Hendrik Pot : Charles I. of England. 
2465. Mirevelt (Michiel Jan), 1567-1641: Portrait of Olden 

Barnevelt. 



72 PARIS 

2106. Rubens'. Full length of Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke 

of Tuscany. 

2107. Rubens'. Giovanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, 

mother of Marie de Medicis. 
2084. Riibens : Tomyris, Queen of Scythia, causes the head of Cyrus 

to be plunged into a bath of blood. Collection of Louis XIV, 

A repetition of subject, somewhat altered, is in the gallery 

of Lord Darnley, at Cobham in Kent. 
2115. Rubens: A Kermesse. 

FIFTH DIVISION. 
Right Wall 

2067. Jakob van Oost, 1600-1671 : S. Carlo Borromeo during the 

Plague at Milan in 1576. 

*I939- Philippe de Champaigne : Portrait of Robert Arnauld 
d'Andilly, 1650. 

' This portrait is well conceived and highly finished in execution ; 
the tone is warm, and the hand is peculiarly beautiful.' Waagen. 

1942. Philippe de Champaigne'. Portrait of a Girl. 

2158. David Tenters: The Temptation of S. Anthony. Collection 

of Louis XVIII. 

*I934. Philippe de Champaigne : Portrait of Suzanne, the daughter 
of the artist, a nun of Port Royal, recovering from dangerous 
illness (fever and paralysis) in answer to the prayers of Sister 
Catherine Agnes Arnauld a most graphic picture, of un- 
paralleled care in the treatment of its homely details. From 
the Convent of Port Royal. 

1491. Philippe de Champaigne : Portrait of a Girl. 

1954. Gaspard de Grayer, 1584-1669 : Equestrian Portrait of 
Ferdinand of Austria, Governor of the Netherlands. 

2411. Honthorst (Gherardo della Notte), 1590-1656: Portrait of 
Prince Rupert. 

2479. Ant. Moro (van Dashorst), c. 1512-1576: The Dwarf of 
Charles V., with a dog. 

2410. Honthorst : Charles Louis of Bavaria. 

2636. Jan IVynants, c. 1625-1682 : The Edge of the Forest. 

2383. Franz Hals, c. 1580-1666 : Portrait of Rene Descartes. 

2387. F. Hals : Portrait of the wife of Nicolas van Beresleyn. 

2388. F. Hals : The Family of Beresleyn of Haarlem. 
2386. F. Hals : Portrait of Nicolas Beresleyn. 

Un. Antonis Palamides, 1601-1673 : Beautiful Male Portrait. 



LA GRANDE GALERIE 73 

Left Wall, returning 

2343. A. Cttyp, 1620-1691 : A Riding Party. 

2341. A. Cuyp : Landscape and Cattle. 

2342. A. Cuyp : Starting for a Ride. Collection of Louis XVI. 

2344. A. C^^yp : Children. 

*I97I. Vandyke-. Equestrian Portrait of Francisco de Moncada, 
Governor-General in the Netherlands. From the chamber 
of Louis XIV. 

*I970. Vandyke: Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria, Infanta of 
Spain, Governess of the Netherlands, as a widow. Col- 
lection of Louis XIV. 

*i96g. Vandyke: Charles Louis of Bavaria and his brother, Prince 
Rupert. From the collection of Charles I., afterwards in 
the Salon d'Apollon at Versailles, 
1983. Vandyke : His own Portrait. 
1964. Vandyke : S. Sebastian succoured by Angels. 
*I973. Vandyke: Portrait of a Gentleman, supposed to be the 
brother of Rubens, and little girl. Collection of Louis 
XIV. 
1962. Vandyke : ' La Vierge aux Donateurs.' Collection of 

Louis XIV. 
*I972. Vandyke : Portrait of a Lady, supposed to be the sister-in-law 

of Rubens, and her daughter. Collection of Louis XIV. 
1978. Vandyke: Male Portrait. 
* J 975- Vandyke: Portrait of the Duke of Richmond. Collection of 

Louis XIV. 

1968. Vandyke : The Children of Charles I. (Charles II., James II., 
and Mary of Orange). A charming miniature sketch for the 
great picture at Turin. 

1985. Vandyke : Jean Gresset Richardot, President of the Privy 
Council of the Netherlands, and his son. Sometimes 
attributed to Rubens. Collection of Louis XVI. 

SIXTH DIVISION. 
Right Wall 

2328. Ferd. Bol, 1616-1680 : Philosopher in Meditation. 
2511. Van Ostade: A Frozen Canal. 
*2527. Paul Potter: The Prairie. Signed and dated 1652, when the 

artist was twenty-six (two years before his death). 
2578. fan Steen, 1626-1679 : Flemish Festival in an Alehouse. 
2330. Ferd. Bol: Portrait of a Mathematician. Collection of 
Louis XV. 



74 PARIS 

2404. Hobbema (Meindert), 1638-1709: The Water-mill. Signed. 

Collection of Napoleon III. 
2588. Terburg, 1660 : The Music Lesson. From the Collection of 

Louis XVI. 

Left Wall, returning 

2560. Ruysdael (Jacob van), 1629-1682 : Landscape, * Le Coup 
de Soleil.' 

2538. Rembrandt : S. Matthew. 

2458. Metsu : The Herb Market at Amsterdam. 

2555. Rembrandt; His own Portrait when old. Collection of 
Louis XVI. 

2537. Rembrandt : The Samaritan's House. Dated 1648. Collec- 
tion of Louis XVI. 

2553. Rembrandt : His own Portrait. 

2558. Ruysdael : Storm on the Dutch Coast. 

2543. Rembrandt : Venus and Cupid. 

The third door we have passed on the right of La Grande 
Galerie is the entrance to five small rooms. Here we may 
notice : 

ist Room (IX.) 

Containing interesting examples of Flemish Art 

Un. Ant. Moro : Edward VI. of England. 

*2O2O. Quentin Matsys, 1460-1530 : A Banker and- his Wife. 
Signed 1518. The painting of the fur and other accessories 
is marvellous in execution. 

2196. Van der Weyden (Roger), c. 1400-1464 : The Deposition. 

2072. Porbus lejeune, 1569-1622 : Portrait of Marie de Medicis : a 
picture of great interest, as the only one preserved from the 
fire of Feb. 6, 1661, from the portraits of kings and queens 
of France (by Porbus, Bunel, and his wife Marie Bahuche) 
which hung, in la galerie des rois of Henri IV., between the 
windows, nine on the west, twelve on the east. That of 
Henri IV. is only known by the engraving of Thomas de Leu. 
This picture happened to have been moved into another 
room, during alterations, just before the fire occurred. 

2nd Room (X.) : Miscellaneous 

2722. Angelica Kauffmann, 1741-1807 : Baronne de Krudner and 

her daughter. 
School of Cologne, XVI. c. : The Descent from the Cross. 



WORKS OF LESUEUR 75 

*27I7. Holbein (Hans), 1497-1543 : Portrait of Sir Thomas More, 

Chancellor of England. Collection of Louis XIV. 
2716. Holbein : Male Portrait. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*27I4. Holbein : Portrait of William Warham, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 1527. Collection of Louis XV. A noble example 
of the master. 

*27<D9. A. Diirer, 1471-1528 : Head of an Old Man. 
*27I3. Holbein : Portrait of Nicholas Kratzer, Astronomer to Henry 

VIII. Collection of Louis XIV. 
*27i8. Holbein :; Portrait of Anne of Cleves, Queen of England, 

fourth wife of Henry VIII. Collection of Louis XIV. 
2703. Lucas Cranach, 1472-1553 : Venus. Dated 1529. 
2719. Holbein : Portrait of Sir Richard Southwell. 

$rd Room 

Pictures by English artists none remarkable the best 
George Romney, 1734-1806: Sir John Stanley? 

4t/i Room (XI.) 

A noble collection of pictures of Eustache Lesueur 
(1617-1655) representing the life of S. Bruno, and executed 
for one of the cloisters of a Carthusian monastery which 
stood on the site now occupied by the Luxembourg. 

'Lesueur avait vingt-huit ans, lorsqu'il fut charge de peindre la 
galerie des Chartreux ; en moins de trois ans (1645-1648), aide par ses 
freres et son beau-frere dans les parties les moins importantes de 1'oeuvre, 
il cut execute les vingt-deux tableaux de la vie de S. Bruno. L'admira- 
tion publique ne s'exprima point par une explosion bruyante, niais par 
une espece de saisissement. Cette serenite, cette purete celeste, cette 
couleur limpide et transparente comme un beau ciel d'ete, ce sentiment 
religieux d'une suavite si penetrante, qui reunit 1'elan de 1'extase et le 
calme de 1'ame en repos dans la lumiere, furent comme une revelation 
nouvelle. Lesueur apres Poussin, c'etait 1'Evangile apres 1'Antiquite 
et 1'ancien Testament.' Martin, ' Hist, de France? 

The pictures are 

1. Raymond, a learned doctor at Paris, and canon of Notre Dame, 

is lecturing on theology to his pupils, one of whom, sitting 
in front, with a book under his arm, is S. Bruno, a native of 
Cologne. 

2. Raymond dies. A priest attended by two students, one of 



76 PARIS 

whom is S. Bruno, extends the crucifix. A demon awaits 
the departing soul. 

3. As, three several times, the people were attempting to carry 

Raymond to the grave, when they were chaunting the words 
' Responde mihi quantas habes iniquitates,' the dead man 
lifted himself up and with terrible voice exclaimed : ' By 
the justice of God I am condemned.' On the third occasion 
the body was flung aside, as unworthy of Christian burial. 
S. Bruno witnesses the awful scene. 

4. S. Bruno kneels before the crucifix. In the background 

Raymond is being buried in unconsecrated ground. 

5. Bruno teaches theology at Rheims. 

6. Bruno, dreading the temptations of the world, persuades six 

friends to adopt the life of anchorites. 

7. S. Bruno and his companions prepare to set out to Grenoble 

and distribute their goods to the poor. 

8. Hugo, Bishop of Grenoble, has a vision of seven moving stars, 

which become stationary at a fixed point in his diocese ; 
when Bruno and his companions appear, he sees the inter- 
pretation of his vision and gives them a retreat on a moun- 
tain near Grenoble. 

9. Bruno and his friends, preceded by S. Hugo on a mule, 

journey to the village of Chartreux. 

10. S. Bruno founds the monastery of the Grande Chartreuse. 

11. S. Hugo invests Bruno with the habit of his order. 

12. The rule of Bruno is confirmed by Pope Victor III. 

13. S. Bruno, as abbot, receives young novices. 

14. Pope Urban II., who had been a pupil of Bruno at Rheims, 

sends for S. Bruno to aid him in his affairs : the summons 
causes consternation. 

15. Bruno received by Urban II. 

1 6. Bruno refuses the Archbishopric of Reggio. 

17. Bruno, unable longer to endure Court life, retires to a desert 

in Calabria. 

18. Bruno has obtained leave to found a convent in Calabria; he 

prays and the monks clear the ground. 

19. Count Roger of Sicily, lost in the forest, finds the hermitage 

of S. Bruno. 

20. Whilst besieging Capua, Count Roger has a vision of S. Bruno, 

who warns him of treachery in his camp, so that he is able 
to guard against it. 

21. The death of S. Bruno (noo), surrounded by his monks. 

22. The apotheosis of S. Bruno the worst, as the last was the best, 

of the series. 



GALE RIB MOLLIEN 77 

$th Room 

Pictures by Eustache Lesueur, chiefly from the Hotel 
Lambert, in the Isle S. Louis. 

' La decoration de 1'hotel Lambert, partagee entre les deux rivaux 
Lesueur et Lebrun, fut encore pour Lesueur 1'occasion d'un triomphe. 
II y donna un caractere tout nouveau a 1'allegorie mythologique, deja 
traitee par Poussin avec une grande profondeur, mais dans un autre 
style. C'est, ainsi que le dit tres-bien M. Vitet, c'est 1'antiquite comme 
la comprendra Fenelon, devenue chretienne sans cesser d'etre hellenique. 
Ce n'est pas 1'antiquite d'Homere, mais celle de Platon et de Virgile. 
Ces ravissantes nymphes de Lesueur sont des idees descendues de 
1'empyree platonicien, si voisin du ciel de Saint Jean.' Henri Martin, 

We may especially notice 
554. Tobias instructed by his father. Very beautiful in colour. 

From this room one may turn (right) at the head of 
a staircase to the Galerie Mollien^ containing a vast col- 
lection of the works of N. Poussin and Claude. 

Right Wall 

78. Bourdon (Sebastien), of Montpellier, 1616-1671 : Interesting 

Portrait of Rene Descartes. 
504. Le Brttn (Charles), 1619-1690: Martyrdom of S. Stephen. 

' C'est en quelque sorte le specimen de ce qu'on peut appeler 1'ecole 
academique ; un grand talent de composition, un style noble, une execu- 
tion habile, mais une maniere theatrale, declamatoire, tout a la surface, 
ou manque la serenite de 1'art vrai, ou on sent I'ame absente.' Henri 
Martin. 

This picture was a votive offering executed by Lebrun at the age 
of thirty-two, for the Confrerie des Orfevres, who presented it, on 
May i, 1651, to the chapter of Notre Dame. 

742. N. Poussin : Apollo and Daphne. The last work of the 
artist ; left unfinished. 

558. Lesueiir : The Appearance of Christ to the Magdalen. 

494. Le Brun (Charles), 1619-1690: The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds. 



78 PARIS 

713. N. Ports sin : Holy Family. 

710. N. Poussin : The Philistines stricken with the Plague. 

560. Lesueur : S. Paul preaching at Ephesus. 

' Depuis La Dispute dti Saint- Sacrement et VEcole d' Athenes il 
n'avait rien paru qui put comparer au Saint Paul, creation qui est 
peut-etre le chef-d'oeuvre de 1'ecole fra^aise. Un ideal souverain re- 
spire dans toute cette composition ; un souffle divin fait frisonner la 
chevelure de I'ap6tre ; 1'esprit de Dieu brille dans son regard.' Henri 
Martin. 

501. Le Brun : Crucifixion, with angels. 

529. Lefebvre (Claude), 1632-1675 : A Master and Pupil. 

315. Claude Lorraine : David consecrated by Samuel. 

456. Lattrent de Lahyre^ 1606-1656 : Pope Nicholas V. witness- 
ing the opening of the grave of S. Francis of Assisi. 
The pope (1449) descends into the tomb at Assisi, which 
has never been opened since the death of the saint. He 
finds the body entire and standing upright ; kneeling, he 
lifts the robe to examine the traces of the stigmata ; atten- 
dants and monks with torches stand around. 

317. Claude Lorraine : A Seaport. 

*44i. Jouvenet : Fagon, physician of Louis XIV. A most powerful 
and speaking portrait. 

Left Wall, returning 

545. Le Nain, XVII. c. : Portrait of Henri, Due de Mont- 
morenci, Marshal of France. 

722. N. Poussin : The Vision of S. Paul. 

314. Claude Lorraine : The Landing of Cleopatra. 

735. N. Poussin : Time saving Truth from the attacks of Envy 
and Discord. Executed in 1641 for Cardinal Richelieu, 
afterwards in the ' grand cabinet du roi ' at the Louvre. 

316. Claude Lorraine : Ulysses restoring Chryseis to her Father. 
211. N. Poussin'. The Judgment of Solomon. 

628. Mignard : Madonna and Child, with a cluster of grapes. 

781. Rigaud: Louis XIV. An interesting portrait (1701) of the 
great king, 'silencieux et mesure,' as S. Simon describes 
him, whose minutest actions endured the scrutiny of his 
courtiers, from whose presence he was never relieved, a 
prince of the blood handing him his shirt, a duke holding 
a mirror whilst he shaved, &c. 

704. N. Poussin : Eleazar and Rebecca. 



LE PA VILLON DEN ON 79 

On a Screen 

2035. A. F. van der Meulen, 1634-1690 : The Entrance of 
Louis XIV. and Marie Therese into Arras, 1667. Louis XIV. 
and Monsieur, on horseback, follow the carriage, which 
shows how ladies used to sit ' a la portiere.' 

At the end of this gallery we enter Le Pavilion Denon, 
recently devoted to portraits of artists. We may notice 

1272. Paolo Uccello : Heads of Giotto, Paolo Uccello, Donatello, 
Brunelleschi, and Giovanni Manetti. 

640. Pierre Mignard, 1612-1695 : By himself. 
5251. Mme. Le Brztn : J. Jouvenet. 

1944. Philippe de Champaigne : The architects F. Mansart and 

Claude Perrault. 

482. Largilliere : The king's painter, Charles Le Brun. 
1380. Carlo Maratta, 1625-1713 : His own Portrait. 
*53i. Mme. E. L. Vigte Le Brim : Herself and her child. 
796. Rigaud: His own Portrait. 
302. Fragonard, 1780-1850: His own Portrait. 
80. Bourdon : His own Portrait. 

On the right opens a gallery in which a collection of 
the Modern French School has been recently arranged. We 
may notice : 

Right Wall 

641. Millet (Jean Franois), 1814-1875 : Church of Greville. 
702. A. A. Pils, 1815-1875: Rouget de PIsle singing the first 

Marseillaise at the house of the Mayor of Strasbourg. 
841. Ary Scheffer, 1795-1858 : SS. Monica and Augustin. 
189. David (Jacques Louis), 1748-1825 : The Vow of the Horatii. 
417. Ingres: The Apotheosis of Homer. 

889. Constant Troyon, 1810-1865 : Oxen at work. 
840. Scheffer : The Temptation. 

Left Wall, returning 

50. Boiichot (Frangois), 1800-1842 : Le 18 Brumaire. 
609. Lethiere (Guillaume-Guillon), 1760-1832: Brutus condemning 
his sons to death. 

890. Troyon : The Return to the Farm. 

213. Delacroix (Ferdinand), 1798-1863: The Capture of Constan- 
tinople by the Crusaders. 



So PARIS 

141. CV?ntf (Jean-Baptiste), 1796-1875 : A characteristic Landscape 

of Willows and Water. 

*I99. David: Portrait of Mme. Recamier. A masterpiece of the 
artist. 

' Toute sa personne etait un compose de grace naive, de finesse et 
de bonte ; et tout cela uni ensemble,, accord e par cet attrait que forme 
seul le charme par lequel on est aimee. C'etait son ame qui animait 
ses yeux, et s'y montrait a travers de longues paupieres baissees, 
ainsi que sur le front rougissant sous le bandeau de limon, seule parure, 
pendant longues annees, d'une si charmante tete. Dans le sourire qui 
entr'ouvrit si souvent les levres rosees, il fallait egalement voir la joie 
naive d'une jeune et ravissante creature, heureuse de plaire, heureuse 
d'etre aimee, ne voyant que des joies dans la nature et repondant au 
salut d'amour qui 1'accueillait en tous lieux par une expression de tacite 
bienveillance. Elle remerciait la vie d'etre si belle et si joyeuse.' 
Memoir es de la Duchesse d^Abrantes. 

217. Delaroche (Paul), 1797-1856 : The Sons of Edward IV. of 
England in the Tower. 

Entrance Wall 

644. Millet : The Gleaners. 

Returning to the Pavilion Denon, we enter the Gakrie 
Daru, with pictures of the French School of the XVIII. c. 

Right Wall 

463. Lancret (Nicolas), 1690-1743 : Summer. 

275. Dumont (Jacques), 1700-1781 : Madame Mercier, nurse of 

Louis XV., and her family. 

224. Desportes (Frangois), 1661-1743 : A Sportsman. 
*37S- Greuze (Jean Baptiste), 1725-1805 : Lovely head of a child. 
900. Van Loo (Carle), 1705-1765 : Portrait of Queen Maria 

Leczinska, 1747. 
32, 33. Boiicher (Franois), 1703-1770: Pastoral Scenes. Good 

specimens of the artist. 

99. Chardin (Jean Baptiste), 1699-1779: ' La Pourvoyeuse.' 
666. Oudry (Jean Baptiste), 1686-1755 : Blanche, a favourite dog 

of Louis XV. 

658. Nattier (J. M.), 1685-1766: Madame Adelaide de France, 
fourth daughter of Louis XV. 



GALERIE DARU 81 

End Wall 

194. David-. Paris and Helen. A characteristic example of the 

French classical school. 

*370. \ Greuze : The Father's Curse and the Son's Punishment. 
371. / Collection of Louis XVIII. 

Left Wall 

867. Louis Tocqtie, 1696-1772: Portrait of Queen Maria Leczinska. 

*92. Chardin : ' Le Benedicite.' 
91. Chardin: ' La Mere laborieuse.' 

266. Drouais (Fran9ois H.), 1727-1775 : Portraits of Charles- 
Philippe de France, Comte d'Artois, afterwards Charles X., 
at six, and his sister, Marie Adelaide Clotilde, afterwards 
Queen of Sardinia, at four. 
*372. Greuze : The Broken Pitcher. 

638. Mignard : ' Le Grand Dauphin ' and his family. 

229. Desportes: Folle and Mitte, dogs of Louis XIV. 

369. Greuze : The Village Bride, ' L'Accordee du Village.' The 
father has just paid the dowry of his daughter and is com- 
mending her to the care of her bridegroom ; the mother 
exhibits satisfaction at the match ; the younger sister grief 
at the parting. 

On leaving the last hall of the French School we find 
ourselves at the top of the Escalier Daru, to which the 
grand 'Victory of Samothrace' a draped figure in rapid 
motion has been removed. It dates from 305 B.C., and 
was discovered in 1863 in one hundred and twenty frag- 
ments. Crossing the landing half-way up the staircase, 
entering the Vestibule, and leaving the Galerie d'Apollon 
to the right, we reach again the Salle des Sept Cheminees. 
If we cross this, through the furthest door on the opposite 
wall we may enter the Musee Campana, containing the 

Salle Asiatique. (The ceiling has ' Poussin presented to Louis 
XII. by Richelieu,' by Alaux.} Phoenician terra-cottas, Babylonian 
alabasters, &c. 

Salle des Terres-cuites. (Ceiling, ' Henri IV. after the Battle or 
Ivry,' by Ste^tben.} Terra-cottas, chiefly from Magna Graecia. 

Salle des Vases Noirs. (Ceiling, ' Puget presenting to Louis XIV. 
his Group of Milo of Crotona,' by Deveria.) Very ancient Etruscan 
vases. 

VOL. I. F 



82 PARIS 

Salle dtt Tombeau Lydien. (Ceiling, ' Francis I. receiving the 
Statues brought from Italy by Primaticcio,' by Fragonard.} In the 
centre of the room is the great terra-cotta tomb of a husband and wife, 
from Cervetri, which was the masterpiece of the Campana collection. 

Salle des Vases Corinthiens. (Ceiling, 'The Renaissance of the 
Arts in France,' and eight scenes of French history from Charles VIII. 
to the death of Henri II.) All the vases in this hall are anterior 
to Pericles. 

Salle des Vases a Figurines Noires. (Ceiling, ' Francis I. armed 
by Bayard,' by Fragonard.) Vases before the time of Alexander 
the Great. 

Salle des Vases a Figurines Rouges. (Ceiling, ' Charlemagne and 
Alcuin,' by Schnetz.) 

Salle des Rhytons. (Ceiling, ' Louis XII. at the States-General of 
Tours in 1506,' by Drolling.} Many of the rhytons are unique. 

Salle des Fresqnes. (Ceiling, ' Egyptian Campaign under Bona- 
parte,' by Cogniet.) Frescoes and relics from Pompeii. Three frescoes 
of first-rate excellence were given by Francis I. of Naples. 

Returning to the Salle des Vases Corinthiens, the visitor 
may enter, on the left, the Musee Charles X., or des Anti- 
quites Grecques, and, beginning with the furthest room, visit 

Salle d'Homere : Greek Pottery and Glass. Objects in wood and 
plaster from the tombs of Kertch. 

Salle des Vases Feint 's, a figures rouges. 

Salle Grecque. 

Salle des Vases Feints, a figures noire s. 

The five succeeding halls and staircase of the Musee 
Egyptien contain a very precious and important collection. 
Their names express their contents 

Salle des dieux et monuments divers. 

Salle des dieux. 

Salle des monuments funeraires. 

Salle des monuments relatifs a la vie civile. 

Salle des monuments historiques. 

(Staircase) Larger sculptures. Statue of Rameses II. 

Turning left, we find Les Andennes Salles du Musee des 
Souverains, which were formerly brimming with interest, 
but collections chiefly due to the energy and historic 



MUSEE DBS SOUVERAINS 83 

judgment of the Empress Eugenie have been, for the most 
part, dispersed by the Republican government. 

Salle /. is panelled from the apartments which Louis XIII. pre- 
pared for Anne of Austria in the chateau of Vincennes. 

Salle II. , 'La Chambre a Alcdve? is panelled from the apartment of 
Henri II. in the Louvre, which occupied the site of the Salon carre de 
1'Ecole Francaise. The four enfants in the alcove, sustaining a canopy, 
are by Gilles Guerin. This alcove is especially interesting, as the body 
of Henri IV. was laid there, after his murder by Ravaillac. 

' On retrouve, non-seulement les emblemes "croissants et fleurs-de- 
lys," les devises et chiffres qui rappellent les amours de Henri II. avec 
Diane de Poitiers, mais encore une partie des details qu'avait admires 
Sauval en la decrivant : le plafond en noyer, sculpte, rehausse d'or 
moulu, du centre duquel " sortent," dit-il, "les armoiries de France, 
foulant un grand monceau de casques, d'epees, de lances, &c.," et aux 
portes, en meme temps que "le dessin et la tendresse des demi-reliefs " 
. . . deux merveilleuses viperes "aux ecailles dedicates et serrees.'" 
Paris a travers les dges. 

Salle III., 'La Chambre de Parade' The faded tapestries belonged 
to Mazarin. The wood panelling is from the chamber of Henri II. 

' Les curieux et les musiciens la trouvaient si accomplie que non- 
seulement ils la nommaient la plus belle chambre du monde, mais pre- 
tendent qu'en ce genre c'est le comble de toutes les perfections dont 
1'imagination se puisse former une idee.' Sartval. 

The silver statue of Peace in the centre of the room is by Claudet, 
1806. Over the chimney is a portrait of Henri II. 

Salle IV. Collections of majolica. 

In the Pavilion Central (covered with bees) which Napoleon I. 
intended to use as a throne-room, and which bears his name on the 
ceiling, are a number of works of art the best, Italian. Opening from 
this room is a hall containing various works of art, gifts to the Louvre. 
It was by a door opening upon the colonnade from the Musee des 
Souverains that the insurgents broke into the Louvre in July 1830. 

By the landing of the Assyrian staircase we reach the 
Collections of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. 

Salle des terres-cuites et Delia Robbia. 

Salle des faiences italiennes et des faiences de Nevers. 

Salle des faiences hispano-moresques et italiennes. 



84 PARIS 

Salle des faiences frar^aises. A case of exquisite XVI c. 
Salle des petits bronzes. Many most beautiful. 
Salle des ivoires. 
Salle des verreries 

Salle Sauvageot. Mediseval art. (Called after a former con- 
servator.) 

The Musee des Dessins occupies fourteen rooms. The 
drawings of the French School are very interesting, 
especially the lovely pastel portraits of Maurice Quentin 
de la Tour, and the careful pencil studies of Ingres. 
The foreign collection includes exquisite sketches by Fra 
Bartolommeo, Raffaelle, Michelangelo, Perugino, Titian, 
Lionardo da Vinci, Albert Diirer, &c. 

Passing the head of a staircase, a wrought-iron gate from 
Maisons leads to the Salle des Bronzes, containing a precious 
collection, including 

Beautiful Head of a Young Man, from Beneventum. 
Apollo in gilt bronze, found at Lillebonne, 1823. 
Apollo from Piombino, with an inscription in silver let into the 
left heel. 

We now find ourselves at the head of the stairs by which 
we entered, or, if we care to ascend the staircase we have 
just passed, we may visit the Musee de Marine, the Salle 
Ethnographique, and the Musee Chinois, which are not of 
general interest to an English traveller. 



The Sculpture Galleries on the ground floor of the 
Louvre are entered by the Pavilion Denon, on the right of 
the Place du Carrousel. Following the gallery on the left, 
adorned with fragments or copies of antique sculpture, 
ascending several steps, and leaving the new staircase to 
the right, we descend to the 

Vestibule Darn, where we should notice 

Eight bas-reliefs from the palace at Thessalonica. 
Sarcophagus from Salonica, with Battle of the Amazons. 



GALERIBS DE SCULPTURE 85 

Salle de la Rotonde. The ceiling is coloured with figures in stucco 
by Michel Auguier. We must notice 

In Centre (866). The Borghese Mars. 
r. 76. Lycian Apollo. 

(Turning right.) Salle de Mecene 

Almost all the statues here and in most of the other rooms are so 
much 'restored' that they have little interest; the heads, though 
antique, seldom belong to the statues. 

The Salle des Saisons was decorated by Romanelli with the alle- 
gories of the Seasons, alternating with the story of Apollo and Diana. 
Under Louis XV. this was the hall of audience of the Minister of War 
and of the President of the Great Council. 

The great Mithraic relief (569) here is very important, as the first 
known to antiquaries, and as bearing inscriptions which have given 
rise to great discussion. It comes from the cave of Mithras on the 
Capitoline Hill, and was in the Borghese collection. 

Salle de la Paix (or Salle de Rome) named from paintings by 
Romanelli, framed in bas-reliefs by Auguier which formed the first of 
the apartments of Anne of Austria, and which looks upon the little 
garden, called Jardin de F Infante (from the Spanish Infanta, who came 
in 1721 as an intended bride for Louis XV.) : a garden laid out by 
Nicolas Guerin, and admired by Evelyn. 

In the Centre (465). A much restored statue of Julia Mammea 
as Ceres. 

Salle de Septime- Severe 

r. 315. Antinous. A most beautiful bust, formerly in the Chateau 

d'Ecouen. 
/. Six busts of Septimius Severus. 

Salle des Anlonins 

/. 12. Colossal head of Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus. Found at 

Carthage, 1847. 
/. Fine busts of Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius. From the 

villa of Lucius Verus, at Acqua Traversa, near Rome. 

Salle d* Augusts 

Centre. Colossal bust of Antinous, represented as an Egyptian 
god with the lotus in his hair. From the Villa Mondragone, 
at Frascati. 
*i84. Roman Orator, as Mercury. Signed by the Athenian 

sculptor Cleomenes ; from the Villa Borghese. 
468. Colossal bust of Rome, with two wolves suckling Romulus 
and Remus on the helmet. From Villa Borghese. 



86 PARIS 

End Wall. A beautiful statue of Augustus, once in the Vatican. 
Amongst the busts, those of Octavia, sister of Augustus, and 
Vitellius are the best. 

Returning to the Salle de la Rotonde, we find, on the 
right, the 

Salle de Phidias 

Centre. Headless statue of Juno (Hera) from her temple at Samos. 
r. 9, 10, II. Reliefs from Thasos. Above 125 fragments of the 
frieze of the Parthenon. 126 : Metope from the Parthenon. 
/. Relief of the Story of Orpheus and Eurydice. 

Reliefs from the Temple of Assos in the Troad. 
Side near Court, 1st Recess. Relief from the tomb of Philis, 

daughter of Clemedes of Thasos. 
Salle du Tibre 

*449. The Tiber found at Rome in the XIV. c. with the wolf 
suckling Romulus and Remus, discovered with the Nile 
of the Vatican in the XIV. c. 
*98. Diana of Versailles, or Diane a la Biche, formerly at Meudon. 

From the collection of Fra^ois I. 
Salle du Htros Combattant 

Centre. 97. Diana (?). From Gabii. 

276. Bust of Satyr. Found at Vienne. 

* * The Borghese Gladiator ' from the Villa Borghese 
really the statue of an armed runner in the 
hoplitodromos. The inscription bears the name 
of the sculptor Agesias of Ephesos. Found at 
Antium in the XVII. c. 

135. Venus Genitrix. The Venus d'Arles, which was 
restored by Girardon, and placed by Louis XIV. 
in the Grande Galerie of Versailles. 
Salle de Pallas 

70. Apollo Sauroctonos. A copy of Praxiteles. 
*I37. Venus. Found at Aries in 1651. Considered to be an 

original Greek statue. 
493. ' Le Genie du Repos Eternel.' 

*II4. The famous Pallas of Velletri, the best statue of Minerva 
known ; found in 1797. This is a Roman copy of a Greek 
work of the best period. 
Salle de Melpomene 

*386. Colossal statue of the Tragic Muse. Ceded to France by 
the treaty of Tolentino. 



THE VENUS OF MILO 87 

(Left.) Salle de la Venus de Milo 

*I36. The Melian Venus, found February 1820, near the moun- 
tain-village of Castro, in the island of Melos, by a peasant 
named Jorgos and his son, Antonio Bottonis. They 
offered it for sale for 25,000 francs to the French consul, 
Louis Brest, but he hesitated to disburse so large a sum 
for his Government, and it was the account which Dumont 
d'Urville, a young lieutenant on board the man-of-war 
'La Chevrette,' took to the Marquis de la Riviere, am- 
bassador at Constantinople, of the marvellous statue he 
had seen upon his voyage, which secured the Melian Venus 
for Paris. The statue was at first believed to be the 
work of Praxiteles, till, on the pedestal, the Messieurs 
Debay found, in Greek characters, the inscription 
' Andros, Menides' son, from Antioch on the Meander, 
made the work.' But the pedestal underwent a change 
in the workshop of the Louvre : the inscription is no 
longer there, its ever having existed is denied by many, 
and the author of the statue is still uncertain. It is, how- 
ever, universally allowed that when the statue was first 
found, its left arm was in existence, outstretched, and hold- 
ing an apple perhaps a symbol of the island of Melos. 

' In every stroke of the chisel, art judges will discover evidence of 
the fine perception the Hellenic master had for every expression, even 
the slightest, of a nobly-developed woman's form. In the whole, and 
in every part, one finds the full-blown flower of womanly beauty. In 
every contour there is a moderation that includes luxuriance and ex- 
cludes weakness. To the flesh the words of Homer have been applied, 
" it blooms with eternal youth," and anything comparable to it will not 
have been seen, be it in the sculptured works of the old or the new. 
Even the manner in which the outer skin, the "epidermis," is repro- 
duced in the marble, is praised as unsurpassable. After rubbing with 
pumice stone, it was customary with the Hellenic sculptors of the good 
period, to let the chisel skim lightly over the surface of the marble, 
when they wished to produce the effect of a skin warm with life, and 
soft as velvet. On far too many antique works, however, this outer 
skin has been destroyed by polishing. Here nothing of the kind has 
taken place ; the naked parts shine like an elastic cellular tissue, in the 
warm tint of the Parian marble.' Viktor Rydberg. 

Salle de la Psyche 

1. 371. Greek statue of Pysche. From the Villa Borghese. 

r. 265. Dancing Faun. From the collection of Cardinal Mazarin. 



88 PARIS 

Salle d' Adonis 

I. 172. Sarcophagus front, representing the Departure, Accident, 
and Death of Adonis. 

Salle de f Hermaphrodite 

r. 461. Hermaphodrite. From Velletri. 

Salle de Medee 

/. 282. Splendid sarcophagus representing the Vengeance of 
Medea. 

Corridor de Pan, whence, on the right, we enter the 
Salle des Cariatides formerly the Salle des Gardes, or des Cent 
Suisses (of the hundred Swiss guards) which preceded the apartments 
of Catherine de Medicis. The beautiful caryatides, which sustained 
the tribune, are masterpieces of Jean Goujon. 

' L'art de la renaissance n'a rien produit de plus beau que les 
quatre figures de femmes donnees par Jean Goujon pour supports a la 
tribune. Toujours gracieux et delicat, Jean Goujon s'est encore sur- 
passe lui-meme cette fois. Aucune de ses oeuvres ne nous semble 
atteindre le meme degre de distinction et de serenite majestueuse, la 
meme purete de forme et de sentiment. Des colonnes se groupent sur 
les parois et se disposent en portique vers la cheminee. Les bandeaux 
qui traversent la voiite, sont couverts de sculptures, une Diane chas- 
seresse, une Venus sortant de 1'onde, des attributs de chasse, des 
chiens, des guirlandes de fleurs et de fruits.' De Guilhermy. 

Here, in March 1583, the hundred and twenty pages of Henri 

III. were soundly whipped for having laughed at the king as he was 
walking in the procession des flagellants. Here was celebrated the 
marriage of Henri IV. with Marguerite de Valois ; and here the 
wax effigy of the king lay in a chapelle ardente after his murder, 
May 14, 1610. It was also here that the Huguenot sister of Henri 

IV. would edify the Court by her preachings, and then comfort their 
hearts by dancing in a ballet. And in this room Moliere played his 
first pieces, and the Institute used to hold its meetings. 

Centre. 217. Bacchus. From the chateau of Richelieu. 

32. Jupiter "de Versailles." Given by Marguerite 
d'Autriche to Cardinal de Granville, and brought 
from Besa^on to Versailles after being presented 
to Louis XIV. 

*235. Borghese Vase. From the Gardens of Sallust. 
217. Bacchus (de Richelieu). 
112. Minerva. From Crete. 



SCULPTURE DU MOYEN AGE 89 

r. Bust of Sophocles. 

' The face is that of an elderly and very thoughtful man, with 
noble features, and of great beauty, but not without an expression of 
patience and of sorrow such as became him who has been well called 
der Prophet des Weltschmerzes? Mahaffy. 

I. In a window. Dog, from Gabii ; very beautiful. 

/. In a window. 374. The Borghese Hermaphrodite. The sculptor 
Ghiberti declared that 'no tongue could 
describe the learning displayed in this 
statue, or do justice to its masterly style.' 

The Musee de Sculpture du Moyen Age et de la Re- 
naissance (open from n to 5) is entered from the south 
fagade of the court of the Louvre, on the east side of the 
south gate. It is full of interest to any one who has travelled 
much in France. The tombs and sculptures removed from 
still existing churches in Paris would be of much greater 
interest in the places for which they were intended, but, in 
the city of constant revolutions, they are safer here. Many 
of the best works here come from the Musee des Monuments 
Frangais founded at the Petits Augustins by Alexandre 
Lenoir, from the relics of buildings destroyed during the 
great Revolution. 

Corridor d' entree 

849. Diana a bronze from the antique by Barthtlemy Prieur,i6o$. 
First in the orangery at Fontainebleau, and afterwards in 
the garden at Malmaison. 

The Corridor leads to the Salle de Jean Goujon 

Centre. 228. Diana. From the Chateau d'Anet. Ryjean Goujon. 
*255. Funeral Monument, by Germain Pilon, ordered 
( J 559) by Catherine de Medicis, which con- 
tained the heart of Henri II. in the church of 
the Celestines. It is supported by the Graces 
(supposed by the Celestines to be the Theo- 
logical Virtues) on a triangular pedestal by 
the Florentine Domenico del Barbiere. This 
would more appropriately find a place at S. 
Denis. 



90 PARIS 

250. The Four Cardinal Virtues, by Germain Pilon. 
Wooden figures which, till the Revolution, sup- 
ported the shrine of S. Genevieve in S. Etienne 
du Mont. 

Around the walls we may notice 

266. Statue from the tomb of the Constable Anne, Due de Mont- 

morency, by Barthtlemy Prieur. From S. Martin, Mont- 
morency. 

1 68. Statue of Charles de Magny, Capitaine de la Porte du Roi, 
Ponzio. 1556. 

258. Tomb of Valentine Balbiani, wife of Rene Birague, by Ger- 
main Pilon, From S. Catherine de la Coulture. 

229. The Deposition from the Cross, and the Four Evangelists, 
\yy Jean Goujon. From the rood-loft of S. Germain 1'Auxer- 
rois. 

256. Mater Dolorosa, terra-cotta by Germain Pilon. 

268. Parts of the monument of Anne de Montmorency, by Bar- 

thelemy Prieur. 
261. Chimney-piece from the Chateau de Villeroy by Germain 

Pilon, with Henri II. by Jean Gotijon. 
235. Parts of the tomb of the family of Cosse-Brissac by Etienne 

Le Hongre, XVII. c. From the Church of the Celestins. 
253. Henri III., by Germain Pilon. From the Chateau de Raincy. 
179. Medallion Portrait of the poet Philippe Desportes. From his 

tomb at Bonport in Normandy. 

257. Tomb of Rene Birague, Chancellor of France and Cardinal 

Bishop of Lodeve, an active agent in the massacre of 
S. Bartholomew, by Germain Pilon. 

267. Figures for the tomb of Christophe de Thou, by Barthelemy 

Prieur. 

253. Henri II., by G. Pilon. From Raincy. 
231-234. Allegorical figures of nymphs for the original Fontaine des 

Innocents, by Jean Goujon. 
The Infant Saviour, by Ligier Richier. 
270. The Judgment of Daniel upon Susanna a relief attributed 

\.ojean Richier. 

252. Charles IX., by G. Pilon. From Raincy. 
267. Tomb of Madeleine de Savoie, Duchesse de Montmorency, 

wife of the Constable Anne, by Berthtlemy Prie^lr. From 

S. Martin of Montmorency. 
246. Part of the Pulpit of the Grands Augustins, by Germain 

Pilon. 






SALLE DU MICHEL ANGE 91 

r. Salle de Michel- Ange 

In the centre is a fountain from the Chateau of Gaillon, of 
Italian work, the gift of the Republic of Venice to Car- 
dinal d'Amboise. 

High on right Wall. The Nymph of Fontainebleau, by Benven-uto 
Cellini, ordered by Francois L, and modelled by the artist 
from his French mistress Catherine. 1 Instead of using 
it at Fontainebleau, Henri II. gave it to Diane of Poitiers, 
who placed it in her chateau of Anet. It was brought to 
Paris at the Revolution. 
403. Bust of S. John Baptist, by Mino da Fiesole. 

Bronze Madonna from the Chateau of Fontainebleau, XV. c. 
396. Filippo Strozzi, by Benedetto da Majano, 1491. 

Hercules and the Hydra. A bronze group given by Louis 
XIV. to Richelieu, which in turn has ornamented Marly, 
Meudon, and S. Cloud. 

379 38- Two slaves, by Michelangelo, executed for the tomb of 
Julius II., but given by the sculptor to Roberto Strozzi, 
who gave them to Fran9ois I. The king gave them to 
the Connetable de Montmorency for the Chateau of 
Ecouen, whence they passed, after his death, into the 
hands of Richelieu, who took them to his chateau in 
Touraine. The Marechal de Richelieu brought them 
back to Paris in the middle of the XVIII. c., and they 
were seized for the State when about to be sold by his 
widow in 1795. They now stand on either side of a 
magnificent XV. c. doorway from the Palazzo Spanga 
at Cremona. 

On the right of the Salle Michel Ange is the entrance 
to the Petite Salle Italienne, containing some fragments of 
great beauty; and hence we may enter the Salle des Robbias. 
Returning to the Salle Jean Goujon, a door on the left 
is the entrance to the Salle Michel Colombe, where we 
may notice (by reference to their number, as their situation 
varies) 

126. Tomb of the historian Philippe de Commynes, Prince de 
Talmont, 1511, and his wife, Helene de Chambres, 
1531. From the chapel which they built in the Grands 
Augustins. 

1 See Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini. 



92 PA RIS 

127. Tomb of Jeanne de Penthievre, daughter of Philippe de 
Commynes, 1514. From the Grands Augustins. 

128-131. Four XVI. c. reliefs from the Chapelle des Commynes. 

141. The Burial of Christ. A XVI. c. relief from S. Eustache. 

144. The Virgin and Child. A statue from the Chateau d'Ecouen, 

XVI. c. 

*I48. Tomb of Louis le Poncher, Secretaire du Roi, 1491, and 
Minister of Finance to Fra^ois I. This, and the statue 
of his wife, Roberte (1520 and 1521), were probably exe- 
cuted soon after 1505, when Poncher founded the chapel 
in S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, whence they were brought. 

' Both are represented as lying in the calm sleep of death ; the 
treatment of the husband is grand and noble, the drapery splendidly 
arranged, and the heads exhibit much fine individual characterisation : 
the beautiful features of the lady especially wear the touching calmness 
of a glorified condition. These works are amongst the most exquisite 
productions of their glorious time.' Liibke. 

149. Tomb of Roberte Legendre, the wife of Louis Poncher, 1522. 

From S. Germain 1'Auxerrois ; very beautiful and simple. 

In the embrasure of the windows are bas-reliefs in bronze from 

the tomb of Marc-Antonio della Torre, physician of Padua, by Andrea 

Riccio. 

151. Mutilated sepulchral statue of Louis de Rouville, Grand 

Veneur de France, 1527. From the Abbey of Bon Port. 

152. Suzanne de Coe'sme, wife of Louis de Rouville. From 

Bon Port. 

*I53. The celebrated historic skeleton figure from the Cimetiere des 
Innocents, commonly called ' La Mort Saint- Innocent* 
of alabaster, attributed to Franois Gentil of Troyes. In 
the cemetery it stood under the fifth arcade of the 'charnier 
de Messieurs les Martins,' having been ordered by them. 
It was in a box, of which the churchwardens had the 
keys. On All Saints' Day, and till the middle of the 
day after, the effigy was shown to the people. With its 
right hand the skeleton holds the folds of a shroud ; its 
left points with a dart to a scroll, on which is engraved 

' II n'est vivant, tant soit plein d'art, 
Ni de force pour resistance, 
Que je ne frappe de mon dard, 
Pour bailler aux vers leur pitance.' 

In 1670 the canons of S. Germain removed the skeleton, 
that it might not be injured by new buildings in the Rue 



SALLE DU MOYEN AGE 93 

de la Ferronerie. On December 13, 1671, la figure de 
jaspe representant la mort, which had been given to the 
care of the churchwardens, was reclaimed, and a judgment 
of July 31, 1673, ordered its restitution to its old position. 
But in 1686 the skeleton seems to have been still in the 
care of a churchwarden named Noiret in the Rue des Fers, 
who tried to sell it, but was forced to restore it in 1688, 
when it was placed between the pillars in the Charnier 
de la Vierge in a closed box. Here it remained forty-eight 
years. But (October 29, 1736) the canons of S. Germain 
1'Auxerrois moved it, and placed it at the back of the 
cemetery tower. Upon this the Cure des S. Innocents 
and the churchwardens, forgetting that the canons were 
the owners of the charniers, climbed the tower and carried 
off the skeleton. A lawsuit ensued, and (July 10, 1737) 
a judgment was obtained forcing the restitution of the 
skeleton. On suppression of the church, cemetery, and 
charniers of the Innocents, in 1786, the skeleton was 
carried to S. Jacques la Boucherie, then to the museum of 
Alexandre Lenoir, whence it passed to the Louvre. 

1 60. Francois I., a bronze bust, XVI. c. From the collection of 
the Due de Cosse-Brissac. 

163. Francois, Comte de la Rochefoucauld, and his daughter-in-law, 
Anne de Polignac, XVI. c. From a tomb. 

173. Bust of Jean d'Alesso, 1572. From his tomb in the Church 

of the Bons-Hommes de Passy. 

174. Henri II. Masque moulded in terra-cotta from the corpse 

of the king. From S. Denis. 

175. Henri IV. Bronze bust, XV. c. 

200. Tomb of Albert de Savoie, Prince de Carpi, 1535, by Ponzio 

(Maitre Ponce). From the Church of S. Jacques de la 

Boucherie. 
224. La Renommee, a bronze statue by Pierre Biard. From the 

tomb of the Due d'Epernon at Cadillac in Guyenne. 
226. S. George, a relief of 1508, by Michel Colombe. 
274. Statue of Henri IV. by Germain Gissey, executed for the 

chateau of Chateau Thierry. 

La Petite Salle Moyen Age contains 

48. Childebert, King of France, a painted XIII. c. statue from 

the Abbey of S. Germain des Pres. 
61. The Kiss of Judas, a XIII. c. relief from the ancient jube 01 

Bourges Cathedral. 



94 PARIS 

75. Statue of the Virgin and Child, XIII. c. From the Abbey 
of Coulombs (Eure et Loire). 

104. Fragment of the tomb of Philippe d'Evreux, King of Navarre, 

1343. From the Church of the Jacobins. 

105. Jeanne de France, 1349, wife of Philippe d'Evreux. 

109. Renaud de Dormans, Canon of Paris, 1386. From the 

College de Beauvais. 
no. Jean de Dormans, Canon of Paris, 1380. From the College 

de Beauvais. 

Salle Andre Beauneveu 

103. Tombstone of Pierre de Fayet, Canon of Paris, 1302. From 

the choir of Notre Dame de Paris. 
1 08. Guillaume de Chanac, Bishop of Paris, 1348. From his 

tomb in the Abbey of S. Victor. 

118. Pierre d'Evreux-Navarre, Comte de Mortain, 1412. From his 

tomb in the Chartreuse de Paris. 

119. Catherine d'Alen9on, wife of Pierre d'Evreux-Navarre, 

1462. 

1 20. Philip de Morvillier, President of the Parliament of Paris, 

1438. From the Church of S. Martin des Champs. 

122. Charles VII. of France, 1461. Bust from the statue on his 

tomb at S. Denis. 

123, Marie d'Anjou, Queen of Charles VII., 1463. From 

S. Denis. 

*2i6. Tomb of Philippe Pot, Grand Seneschal of Burgundy. Exe- 
cuted 1477-1483. Surrounded by statues of 'pleureuses.' 
From the Abbey of Citeaux. 

224. Philippe VI., King of France, 1365. From the Church of 
the Jacobins. 

*275. Anne de Bourgogne, Duchess of Bedford, 1432. From her 
tomb in the Church of the Celestins. 

The Egyptian Museum of Sculpture is entered from the 
east side of the Court of the Louvre, by the door on the 
right as you face S. Germain 1'Auxerrois. The collection 
is magnificent. One cannot but recall here the words of 
Napoleon I. to his army before the Pyramids : ' Allez et 
pensez que, du haut de ces monuments, quarante siecles 
vous observent.' The museum forms a complete encyclo- 
paedia of the religion, arts, and customs of the Egyptians. 
In the Salle' Henri IV. the hieroglyphics on the granite 



IJ 

' 



MUSEE MODERN E FRANCAISE 95 

sphinx from Tanis record the name of King Meneptah, 
under whom the exodus of the Israelites took place, 
arid that of Sheshouk L, the Shishak who was the 
conqueror of Rehoboam. The Salle d'Apis is called 
after the bull in the centre, sacred to Ptah, the god of 
Memphis. 

Facing the entrance of the Egyptian collection is that 
of the Musee Assyrien. Most of the objects here come 
from the palace of King Sargon VIII. (B.C. 722-705) at 
Khorsabad, or from that of Sardanapalus V. (VII. c.) at 
Nineveh. Most magnificent are the four winged bulls, 
whose heads are supposed to be portraits of kings. 

From the north side of the court of the Louvre is the 
entrance of the Musee de Gravure ou de Chalcographie. An 
enormous plan of Paris, engraved 1739, is invaluable to 
topographers. A collection of portraits in pastel includes 
that of Mme. de Pompadour, by Latour. 

The Sculpture Moderne Fran$aise (open from n to 5) is 
reached on the north of the Pavilion Sully, on the west of 
he court of the Louvre. It is contained in the 



Salle de Puget 

795. Pierre Puget : Perseus and Andromeda. From the gardens 

of Versailles. 

794. Puget : Milon of Crotona. From Versailles. 
702-704. Simon Gnillain : Louis XIII., Anne of Austria, and Louis 

XIV., in bronze. From the monument erected on the 

Pont au Change in 1647. 
489. Barthe'lemy Prieur : Tomb of Marie de Barban9on-Cani, 

first wife of Jacques-Auguste de Thou, 1601. Kneeling 

statue from a tomb in S. Andre des Arts. 

487. Francois Atiguier: Tomb of Jacques-Auguste de Thou, 

President of Parliament, 1617. Kneeling statue from 
S. Andre des Arts. 

488. Gasparde de la Chastre, second wife of Jacques-Auguste 

de Thou. From S. Andre des Arts. 

754-757. Legros (Pierre), 1629-1714: Winter, Spring, Summer, and 
Autumn. From the gardens of S. Cloud. 



96 PARIS 

On the left we enter the 

Salle Coysevox 

In the centre are 

485. Francois Auguier : The Funeral Monument of the Dues 

de Longueville. From the Chapelle d'Orleans in the 
Celestins of Paris. 

699, 700. Gilles Guerin, 1606-1678 : Charles, Due de la Vieuville, 
1653, and Marie Rouhier de Beaumarchais, his Duchess. 
From the Church of the Minimes of the Place Royale. 
Round the room are 

486. Francois Auguier : Tomb of Jacques de Souvre de Courten- 

vaux, 1670. From the Church of S. Jean de Latran at Paris. 
558. Charles Antoine Coysevox : The Rhone. From the gardens 

of S. Cloud. 
701. Simon Guillain : Charlotte Catherine de la Tremouille, 

Princesse de Conde, 1629. Kneeling statue from the 

Convent of Ave Maria. 
555- Coysevox : Nymph with a Shell. From the gardens of 

Versailles. 
561. Coysevox : Marie Adelaide de Savoie, Duchesse de Bour- 

gogne. From the gardens of Petit Bourg, afterwards of 

the Grand Trianon. 
685. P. Franqtieville : Four statues of chained slaves, in bronze, 

which adorned the angles of the pedestal of the statue of 

Henri IV. on the Pont Neuf, destroyed during the Revolu- 
tion. 

557. Coysevox : Louis II. de Bourbon, ' Le Grand Conde.' 
556. Coysevox; Venus. From the gardens of Versailles. 
Marguerite de Luxembourg tomb. 
Catherine de Clermont tomb. 

Salle des Coustou 
In the centre 

182. N. S. Adam, 1705-1778: Prometheus. 

548. Nicolas Coiistou : Adonis resting from the Chase. From 

the gardens of Marly, then of the Tuileries. 
Round the room are 

772. A^lgust^n Pajou, 1730-1809: Queen Marie Leczinska as 

Charity. From the gardens of Trianon. 
550. N. Coustori : Louis XV. From the Grand Trianon. 
653-658. Desjardins (Martin van den Bogaert), 1640-1694 : Reliefs 
from the pedestal of the statue of Louis XIV., erected in 
1686 on the Place des Victoires. 



SALLE DB RUDE 97 

Salle de Howl on 
In the centre 

716. Houdon (Jean Antoine), 1741-1828 : Diana. 
829. Stoup (Jean Baptiste) : The Death of Abel. 

Round the room 

507. Bouchardon (Edme), 1698-1762 : Sleeping Faun after the 

Barberini antique. Formerly at the Chateau de Mousseaux, 

then in the gardens of the Luxembourg. 
774. Pajott : Bust of Mme. du Barry one of the best works of 

the master. 

Salle de Chaudet 
In the centre 

533. Ckatidet (Antoine Denis), 1763-1810 : The Shepherd Phorbas 

and Oedipus. 

524. Canova : Cupid and Psyche. From the gardens of Com- 
piegne. 

In the room 

665. Dumont (Jacques Edme) : Marie Franoise Bertault, the 
mother of the artist. 

Salle de Rude 
In the centre 

531. Carpeaux (Jean Baptiste), 1827-1875 : The Four Quarters 
of the World. Model for the fountain of the Observatoire 
788. Pradier (James), 1792-1852 : La Toilette d'Atalante. 

It was from the end of the palace facing S. Germain 
1'Auxerrois that the Empress Eugenie escaped, at 2.30 P.M., 
on September 4, 1870. 

'On arriva jusqu'a la colonnade de Louis XIV., en face de 1'eglise 
Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, et c'est la, devant la grille doree, que 
I'lmperatrice et Mme. Lebreton monterent dans un fiacre. M. de 
Metternich jeta au cocher ces simples mots : " Boulevard Hausmann." 

' Un gamin d'une quinzaine d'annees, en blouse et en casquette, 
qui passait a ce moment, s'ecria : 

' Tiens, elle est bien bonne, tout de meme .... C'est 
ITmperatrice ! 

' Son exclamation, heureusement pour les fugitives, fut couverte 
par le bruit du fiacre, qui s'etait deja mis en mouvement et roulait 
dans la direction de la rue de Rivoli.' Comte d Htrisson. 

VOL I. G 



98 PA RIS 

The Rue du Louvre occupies the site of several famous 
buildings, including the later Hotel de Conde or Hotel de 
Bourbon, destroyed 1758, where Louis de Bourbon, son 
of le Grand Conde. the eccentric savage, who played so 
conspicuous a part in the reign of Louis XIV., and who 
married one of his daughters by Mme. de Montespan, died 
suddenly in 1710, while his wife was giving a carnival ball. 
Here also stood the Maison du Doyen (de S. Germain), in 
which Gabrielle d'Estrees, the famous mistress of Henri IV., 
died suddenly on Easter Eve, 1599, after supping with 
Sebastian Zamet, a former lover. It was at this entrance 
of the Louvre that the unpopular minister Concini, beloved 
by Marie de Medicis, was murdered, April 27, 1617, with 
the connivance of her son, Louis XIII. Facing the east 
front of the palace, 'La Colonnade du Louvre,' is the 
parish church of the Louvre, S. Germain F Auxerrois, which 
was founded in 560, by S. Germain of Paris, in memory of 
his great namesake of Auxerre. As the royal church, it 
held the first rank in Paris after the cathedral. It was taken 
and turned into a fortress by the Normans in 886, and at 
that time it was called, from its form, S. Germain le Rond. 
Robert the Pious rebuilt the church, 997-103 1. 1 But the 
earliest parts of the present building are the tower against 
the south wall, the choir, and the principal entrance, of 
early XIII. c. ; the chapels of the nave are XV. c. ; the 
porch, built by Jean Gaussel (1435), the fagade, transepts 
and chapels of choir, are of XV. and XVI. c. 

' Le porche, du commencement du xv e siecle, est parfaitement 
conu. II s'ouvre sur la face par trois arcades principales qui com- 
prennent la largeur de la nef, et par deux arcades plus etroites et plus 
basses, au droit des collateraux ; une arcade semblable de chaque cote, 
en retour, donne des issues laterales. Les voutes, fermees sur les deux 
travees extremes plus basses, sont surmontees de deux chambres cou- 
vertes par deux combles aigus et eclairees par de petites fenetres percees 
dans les tympans rachetant la difference de hauteur entre les grands et 

1 As is described in his Life by the monk Helgaud. 



5. GERMAIN UAUXERROIS 99 

petits arcs. Une balustrade couronne cette construction couverte en 
terrasse, sous la rose, dans la partie centrale. 

' La sculpture et les details de ce porche, bien des fois retouches 
et depuis peu grattes a vif, manquent de caractere, sont mous et 
pauvres. Le porche n'est bon a etudier qu'au point de vue de 1'en- 
semble et de ses heureuses proportions. . . . On observera que les 
arcades d'extremites etant plus basses que celles centrales, les fideles 
reunis sous ce vestibule exterieur, profond d'ailleurs, sont parfaitement 
abrites du vent et de la pluie, bien que la circulation soit facile.' 
Viollet-le-D^^c^ vii. 304. 

The very curious statue of S. Mary of Egypt, and that of 
S. Francis of Assisi, are the only figures adorning the porch 
which are contemporary with it; the rest are modern, in 
imitation of the early idealistic style, the angel on the gable 
being by Marochetti. But the effect is picturesque, and the 
corridor with its frescoes by Mottez, and the groups, of 
beggars who are always to be found on its steps, has afforded 
subject for many a picture. The central portal is XIII. c. 
Of its six statues, that of S. Genevieve deserves notice, with 
a candle which a demon is trying to extinguish, whilst an 
angel holds a chandelier ready to give a fresh light if he 
succeeds. On the left of the porch is the Salle des Archives, 
an interesting room which preserves its old pavement, 
doors, and wooden ceiling. 

The church is cruciform, with double aisles, and an 
encircling wreath of chapels. Once the interior was full 
of interest, but this, for the most part, has been ' restored ' 
away. The gothic choir was modernised by the miserable 
architect Bacarit in 1715 ; the noble rood-loft, designed by 
Pierre Lescot, and sculptured by Jean Goujon, has been 
removed, and many of the ancient tombs and sculptures 
were destroyed in 1744. Still there is an aspect of anti- 
quity, colour, and shadow here which is wanting in most 
Parisian churches. The pulpit and stalls have survived the 
Revolution, and the state seat occupied by the royal family 
on great solemnities, executed in 1681, from designs of 
Lebrun, by Frangois Mercier. The choir grille, the work 



loo PARIS 

of the famous Pierre Dumiez, is one of the best pieces of 
metal work of the last century. The ancient bosses of the 
nave and chapels have escaped being restored away, as they 
could not be touched without weakening the fabric. 

' Elles portent les figures de S. Vincent et de S. Germain, qui se 
partageaient le patronage de Peglise ; de S. Jacques le Majeur, de S. 
Landry, de S. Christophe qui traverse un torrent avec le Christ enfant 
sur les epaules. La plus gracieuse de toutes est le S. Germain en 
habits episcopaux, peint et dore, qui se detache sur une rosace a jour, 
a la derniere travee de la chapelle de la Vierge. Quelques unes 
paraissent avoir etc armoriees. Les colonnes reunies en faisceaux n'ont 
pas de chapiteaux.' De Guilhermy. 

Making the round of the church we see 

r. The 2nd Chapel (of Notre Dame, XIV. c.), with a wooden 
screen, is a complete church, with stalls, organ, pulpit, &c. 
In the retable is framed a stone Tree of Jesse, XIV. c., from 
a church in Champagne. Three statuettes, discovered behind 
some panelling, are coeval with the chapel a Madonna and 
Child, with SS. Vincent and Germain. 

Right Transept. Guichard'. The Descent from the Cross. 
South Door, XV. c., with a Virgin of XIV. c. 

$th Chapel of Choir. Statues, by Laurent Magnier, of the two 
Etiennes d'Aligre, father and son (1635, 1677), Chancellors of 
France. 

The greater part of the stained glass is modern, but 
some glass of the XV. c. and XVI. c. remains in the tran- 
septs, especially in the rose windows. In the original 
church, in 656, was buried S. Landericus or Landry, ninth 
bishop of Paris, who founded the Hotel Dieu, and sold the 
furniture of his house to feed the poor in a famine. In 
the present church the jester of Charles V. (for whom the 
king made a splendid tomb) ; the poet Malherbe ; the philo- 
sopher Andre Dacier ; the painters Coypel, Houasse, Stella 
and Santerre ; the sculptors Sarazin, Desjardins and Coyse- 
vox; the architects Louis Levau and Frangois d'Orbay; 
the geographer Sanson, and the Comte de Caylus, were 



S. GERMAIN UAUXERROIS 101 

buried, but their tombs are destroyed. Here also was in- 
terred (1617) the ambitious Concini, Marechal d'Ancre, the 
influential favourite of Marie de Medicis (to whose foster- 
sister, Leonora Galigai, he was married), murdered by order 
of her son Louis XIII., with the enthusiastic approval of 
his subjects, before the eastern entrance of the Louvre ; but 
his rest here was brief. 

' Le lendemain matin, les laquais des grands seigneurs, entrainant 
apres eux la lie de la populace, se porterent a 1'eglise de S. Germain 
1'Auxerrois, ou 1'on avait inhume en cachette le marechal d'Ancre, 
deterrerent son cadavre, le tramerent par la ville avec des huees et des 
clameurs obscenes, dans lesquelles le nom de la reine-mere etait mele 
au nom de Concini ; ils finirent par le mettre en pieces et par bruler 
ses restes. Un forcene fit griller le cceur du marechal d'Ancre et le 
devora ! ' Henri Martin, ' Hist, de France? 

S. Germain, being the parish church of the Louvre, was 
attended by the sovereigns, when they were residing there, 
on all great religious festivals. Louis XVI. and his family, 
followed by the Assembly, walked in the procession of the 
Fete-Dieu to this church, as late as May 23, 1790. In the 
Revolution of July 1830, the church was transformed into 
an ambulance, and the dead were buried in a trench hastily 
dug opposite the entrance. It was here that the dog of one 
of the victims, 'le chien du Louvre,' as Casimir Delavigne 
calls him, lay for weeks, and died upon the grave of the 
master he had followed through the combat. On February 
14, 1831, when an anniversary service for the death of the 
Due de Berry was being celebrated, the people burst in 
and sacked the church; the stained-glass and stalls were 
broken, and the tombs mutilated. For six years after this 
the building was closed for worship, the sacristy and 
presbytery being used as a mairie. Then its demolition 
was decided on, to make way for a direct street from the 
Louvre to the Hotel de Ville. It was only saved as a con- 
cession to the entreaties of Chateaubriand that the autho- 
rities would spare 'un des plus anciens monuments de 



102 PARIS 

Paris, et d'une epoque dont il ne reste presque plus rien.' 
In 1837 its restoration was begun. 

It was the bell of S. Germain 1'Auxerrois which, at 
2 A.M. of August 24, 1572, gave the first signal for the 
Massacre of S. Bartholomew, at the order of the young 
king, Charles IX., goaded on by his mother, Catherine de 
Medicis. The bell was the sign agreed upon for the 
massacre to begin in the quarter of the Louvre; a little 
later the bell of the Tour de 1'Horloge, on the island, 
announced the massacre on the left bank of the Seine. 
The modern tower now marks the spot where an attempt 
had been made two days before to murder Admiral Coligny 
(the first victim of the massacre) as he was returning from 
an interview with the king to his residence in the Hotel de 
Ponthieu, in the Rue des Fosses S. Germain. 

* II marchait lentement, et lisait un memoire qu'on venait de lui 
presenter ; comme il etait dans la rue des Fosses S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, 
en face d'une maison habitee par un nomme Villemur, ancien pre- 
cepteur du due de Guise, un coup d'arquebuse, charge de deux balles 
de cuivre, partit de cette maison, et atteignit Coligny. Une balle lui 
coupa 1'index de la main droite, 1'autre lui fit une large blessure au 
bras gauche. Coligny, sans montrer autant d'emotion que ceux qui 
Paccompagnaient, indiqua la maison d'ou le coup etait parti, ordonna 
a un de ses gentilshommes d'aller dire au roi ce qui venait d'arriver, 
et, soutenu par ses domestiques, il se rendit a pied dans son logis. 

' On entra dans la maison d'oii on avait tire ; on y trouva 1'arque- 
buse ; mais 1'assassin Maurevert, aussit6t apres le coup, avait fui par 
une porte de derriere, et, sur un cheval qui lui etait prepare, avait gagne 
la porte S. Antoine, oil 1'attendait un autre cheval, sur lequel il s'eloigna 
de Paris.' Dulaure, ' Hist, de Paris.' 

On the north of the church, a tower by Ballu, and, 
beyond it, the Mairie of the Arrondissement du Louvre, 
were built under Napoleon III. in imitation of the style 
of S. Germain. At the same time the fagade of the old 
church was scraped to make it harmonise with the new 
Mairie ! 

A cloister formerly surrounded the church, which, in the 



S. GERMAIN L'AUXERROIS 103 

reign of Charlemagne, already enclosed a famous school 
which has left its name to the Place de PEcole. Here 
Etienne Marcel, Prevot de Paris, lived, and, as chief of the 
Jacquerie, roused the fury of the people in the XIV. c. ; 
and here Calvin lodged, at fourteen, with his uncle Richard, 
a locksmith, in a little room looking on the church, of which 
the chaunts awakened him in the morning to attend the 
College de la Marche. 



CHAPTER II. 
IN OLD PARIS. 

From the Rue S. Hoiiort! to the Quartier des Halles and 
Quartier du Temple. 

T^NGLISHMEN are often specially impressed with 
-*-- / Paris as a city of contrasts, because one side of the 
principal line of hotels frequented by our countrymen looks 
down upon the broad, luxurious Rue de Rivoli, all modern 
gaiety and radiance, whilst the other side of their courtyards 
opens upon the busy working Rue S. Honore named from 
a destroyed church lined by the tall, many-windowed 
houses which have witnessed so many Revolutions. They 
have all the picturesqueness of innumerable balconies, high 
slated roofs with dormer windows, window-boxes full of 
carnations and bright with crimson flowers through the 
summer, and they overlook an ever-changing crowd, in 
great part composed of men in blouses and women in 
white aprons and caps. Ever since the fourteenth century 
the Rue S. Honore has been one of the busiest streets in 
Paris. It was the gate leading into this street which was 
attacked by Jeanne Dare in 1429. It was the fact that the 
Cardinal de Bourbon and the Due de Guise had been seen 
walking together at the Porte S. Honore that was said to 
have turned half the moustache of Henri of Navarre sud- 
denly white, from a presentiment of the crime which has 
become known as the Massacre of S. Bartholomew. Here, 
in 1648, the barricade was raised which gave the signal 
for all the troubles of the Fronde. It was at No. 3 then 

called L'Auberge des Trois Pigeons that Ravaillac was 

104 



MARCHE S. HONORE 105 

lodging when he was waiting to murder Henri IV. ; here 
at No. 211, now the Hotel S. James ; was the old Hotel of 
the Noailles family, which suffered so terribly in the great 
Revolution. At No. 96 a plaque marks the house where 
Moliere was born. It was in this street that the first gun 
was fired in the Revolution of July 1830, which overturned 
Charles X. ; and here, in the Revolution of 1848, a bloody 
combat took place between the insurgents and the military. 
Throughout the street, as Marie Antoinette was first entering 
Paris, the poissardes brought her bouquets, singing 

' La rose est la reine des fleurs, 
Antoinette est la reine des coeurs ; ' 

and here, as she was being taken to the scaffold, they 
crowded round her execution-cart and shouted 

' Madame Veto avait promis 
De faire egorger tout Paris, 
Mais son coup a manque 
Grace a nos canonniers ; 
Dansons la carmagnole 
Au bruit du son 
Du canon ! ' 

Joining the Rue du Marche S. Honore, one of the 
openings on the north is the Marche S. Honore, occupying 
the site of the convent * Les Jacobins ' founded by Sebas- 
tien Michaelis in the reign of Louis XIII., with a gate- 
way opening on the Rue S. Honore. Here, in the Great 
Revolution, met the famous club, first called Le Club 
Breton, then La Societe des Amis de la Constitution, 
finally Les Jacobins, and which held its meetings from 
1791 to 1794 in the church of the convent, where the 
eloquence of Robespierre had its chief triumphs. After 
his fall the convent was totally destroyed, and its place 
occupied by a market, known at first as Marche du Neuf 
Thermidor. 

Turning east towards Old Paris, we pass, on the north 



ic6 PARIS 

of the Rue S. Honore, the Church of S. Roch> of which 
Louis XIV. laid the foundation-stone, March 28, 1653, 
replacing a chapel built on the site of the Hotel Gaillon. 
The church was only finished, from designs of Robert de 
Cotte, in 1740. The flight of steps which leads to the 
entrance has many associations. 

' Devant Saint-Roch la charrette de Marie Antoinette fait une 
station, au milieu des huees et des hurlements. Mille injures se 1 event 
des degres de 1'eglise comme une seule injure, saluant d'ordure cette 
reine qui va inourir. Elle pourtant, sereine et majestueuse, pardonnait 
aux injures en ne les entendant pas.' De Goncourt. 

It was from these steps, in front of which an open space 
then extended to 'the Tuileries gardens, that Bonaparte 
ordered the first cannon to be fired upon the royalists who 
rose against the National Convention, and thus prevented 
a counter-revolution. Traces of this cannonade of 1 3 Ven- 
demiaire are still to be seen at the angle of the church 
and the Rue Neuve S. Roch. The portal of S. Roch is 
doric below and corinthian above. The interior of the 
church, due to Antoine Le Mercier, consists of a wide 
central nave with side aisles bordered by eighteen chapels, 
a transept with chapels, and a choir with three chapels, one 
behind the other a plan confused, and contrary to all laws 
of architecture, but certainly rather picturesque. Theo- 
logical Virtues sustain the pulpit, where the veil of Error, 
represented by a ponderous sculptured curtain, is giving 
way before Catholic Truth. Against the pillar on the north 
of the organ is a medallion monument to Corneille, who 
died in the Rue d'Argenteuil, October i, 1684. Making 
the round of the church we may notice 

r. \st Chapel. Tomb of Maupertuis, Huez. Medallion of 
Marechal d'Asfeld, 1743; bust of Fra^ois, Due de Crequi ; 
medallion of Mme. Laleve de Juilly, Falconnet. 

2nd Chapel. Bust of Mignard by Desjardins, part of a monu- 
ment, formerly in the church of the Jacobins, to which the 
figure of his daughter, Mme. de Feuquieres, belonged, new 



S. ROCH 107 

taken hence, to represent a Magdalen at the foot of the Cal- 
vary. Tomb of the Comte d'Harcourt, by Renard, Fine bust 
of Lenotre, by Coysevox. Tomb, by Guillaume Cotistou, of the 
infamous Cardinal Dubois, minister under the Orleans Regency 
and during the early years of Louis XV. This monument was 
brought from the destroyed church of St. Honore. The face 
of the kneeling figure wears a most complacent expression. 

* II mourut maitre absolu de son maitre, et moins premier ministre 
qu'exer9ant toute la plenitude et toute 1'independance de toute la 
puissance et de toute 1'autorite royale ; surintendant des postes, 
cardinal, archeveque de Cambrai avec sept abbayes, dont it fut in- 
satiable. Les folies publiques du cardinal Dubois, depuis surtout que 
devenu le maitre il ne les contint plus, feraient un livre. C'en est assez 
pour montrer quel etait ce monstrueux personnage dont la mort soulagea 
grands et petits, et en verite, toute 1'Europe, enfin jusqu'a son frere 
meme qu'il traitait comme un negre.' S. Simon, ' Me" moires' 

' C'est bien le pretre le plus mechant et le plus interesse qu'il soit 
possible de voir, et Dieu le punira.' Correspondence de Madame 
(Duchesse <? Organs}. 

yd Chapel. Tomb of Charles, Due de Crequi, by Coysevox t 
brought from the church of the Jacobins, destroyed after the 
Great Revolution. 

Transept. 'La Guerison du Mai des Ardents,' a picture by 
Doyen, which, with the 'Predication de S. Denis,' by Vien t 
in the opposite transept, made a great sensation at the time 
they appeared. 

'C'etait deja une querelle anticipee entre les classiques et les 
romantiques. Les jeunes gens s'enthousiasmerent pour la composition 
theatrale et pleine de Doyen: les burgraves du temps s'ecrierent a 
la decadence de 1'art, et reserverent leur admiration exclusive pour la 
composition sage, calme et harmonieuse de Vien.' A. J. du Pays. 

qth Chapel. Of S. Clotilde, by Dcvtria. In the apse are 
several pictures by Vien. 

Behind the Chapel of the Virgin (on left) is the entrance of the 
Chapel of Calvary, rebuilt 1845. It contains: a group of the 
Entombment by De Seine; a Crucifixion by Duseigneur ; and a 
Christ on the Cross by Michel Atiguier, formerly on the high- 
altar of the Sorbonne. The statue of the Virgin is by Bogino. 
The statue of the Magdalen, by Le>/;oine, originally intended to 
represent the Comtesse de Feuquieres, daughter of Mignard, 
was brought from the Jacobins. A tablet commemorates the 



io8 PARIS 

lovely Marie-Anne de Bourbon, Princesse de Conti (daughter 

of Louis XIV. and Mme. de la Valliere), buried here in 1739. 
isl Chapel of Nave. Monument of the Abbe de 1'Epee, 1789, 

celebrated for his noble devotion to ameliorating the condition 

of the deaf-and-dumb, and founder of the institutions in their 

favour. 
yd Chapel. Monument erected, 1856, to Bossuet, who died, 

1704, in the Rue S. Anne, in this parish. 
$th Chapel, or Baptistery. Group of the Baptism of Christ, by 

Lemoine, formerly in S. Jean-en-Greve. 

From the time when she was Duchesse d'Orleans, Queen 
Marie Amelie invariably attended the services in this church, 
and the notes which she had taken of sermons there were a 
great consolation to her in exile. 

' Un lien plus paissant que 1'habitude etait venu 1'attacher a 1'eglise 
qu'elle frequentait depuis vingt ans ; 1'abbe Olivier avait ete nomme 
Cure de S. Roch. Chaque fois qu'elle le pouvait, la reine, en rentrant 
chez elle, redigeait 1'analyse de ses sermons, de ceux surtout qu'il 
prechait pendent les retraites et dans lequels son eloquence etait plus 
que jamais penetrante.' Trognon, ' Vie de Marie- Amelie? 

Running north-west from the Rue S. Honore, behind 
S. Roch, is the Rue d' Argenteuil, where No. 18 was in- 
habited by Corneille, who died here, October T, 1684. The 
street is crossed by the handsome Rue des Pyramides, at 
the end of which, facing the Louvre, is an equestrian statue 
of Jeanne Dare by Fremiet. 

It was at the corner of the next street, the Rue de 
rEchelle^ that the carriage, with M. de Fersen as coachman, 
waited, with its agonised freight, for Marie Antoinette, whilst 
she lost her way by leaving the Tuileries at the wrong exit 
and wandering into the Rue du Bac, on the night of the 
flight to Varennes. 

Crossing the Place du Palais Royale (to which we shall 
return later), we find on the left of Rue S. Honore, running 
north-east, the Rue de Jean-Jacques Rousseau (formerly Rue 
Platriere and Crenelle S. Honore), renamed from Rousseau, 
who lived there in 1776, at the beginning of his liaison with 



UORATOIRE 109 

Therese. The painter Jacques Rousseau was born in the 
second floor of No. 2, in 1630. In a neighbouring house, 
the poet Frangois Rayner was born, in 1622. In the 
garden of No. 12 are some remains of a tower belonging 
to the walls of Philippe Auguste. No. 20 was the hotel 
of the Marechal de Cleramhault, and has a fine XVIII. c. 
staircase. At No. 41 are some vestiges of the Hotel de 
Ferriere, which belonged to Jean de la Ferriere, Vidame de 
Chartres, where Jeanne d'Albret, mother of Henri IV., 
died, June 9, 1572. No. 58 was the Hotel des Fermes, 
where the fermiers-generaux had their orifices. It is of the 
XVI. c., and became, in 1612, the property of Chancellor 
Seguier, who rebuilt it and offered it as a site to the 
Acade'mie Frangaise. No. 51, the Hotel de Bullion, was 
formerly Hotel d'Herwert or Epergnon. Opposite the Rue 
Crenelle S. Honore is the Hotel de Languedoc. La Fontaine 
died in the street in 1695. At the end of the street, on 
the left, is the back of the new Post Office. The Rue de 
Sartine leads hence at once to the Halle de Ble (see after], 

On the right of the Rue S. Honore, at the entrance of 
the Rue de 1'Oratoire, is the Church of the Oratoire. It 
occupies the site of the Hotel de Montpensier, which 
belonged to Joyeuse, one of the mignons of Henri III., 
then of the Hotel du Bouchage, in which Gabrielle d'Estrees 
lived for a time, and where Henri IV. received (December 
27, 1594) from Jean Chatel that blow on the mouth with 
a knife, which caused the bold d'Aubigne to say to him : 
'Sire, God has struck you on the lips because you have 
hitherto only denied Him with your mouth ; beware, for if 
you deny Him with your heart, He will strike you in the 
heart.' M. de Berulle bought the hotel for the Peres de 
la Congregation de 1'Oratoire in 1616, and Le Mercier was 
employed by Louis XIII. in 1621 to erect a church for 
them, that they might not suffer by the destruction of the 
chapel of the Hotel du Bourbon, within the present courts 
of the Louvre, which he was about to pull down. Thence- 



no PARIS 

forth the edifice was called FOratoire royal. It was built 
at a peculiar angle that it might follow the direction of the 
palace, and this adds to the effect of its stately portico. 
Cardinal de Berulle died suddenly within its walls in 1690, 
whilst saying mass in a chapel. He was, in France, the 
founder of the Oratorians, ' un corps oil tout le monde obeit 
et oil personne ne commande. ' x Here the licentious 
Regent d'Orleans used to go into retreat, 'a faire ses 
paques.' The church was once famous for the preaching of 
Massillon and Mascaron. At the Revolution it was used 
as a hall for public meetings, and continued to be thus 
employed till 1832, when it was given to the Protestants, 
and has since been celebrated for the eloquence of Gretry, 
Coquerel, and Adolphe Monod. It was at the end of 
the street nearest the Rue S. Honore that Paul Stuard 
de Caussado, Comte de S. Megrim, lover of the Duchesse 
de Guise, was murdered as he came from the Louvre, 
July 21, 1578. At the back of the church, facing the Rue 
de Rivoli, a fine statue of Gaspard de Coligny has been 
erected. The texts on the base Ps. cxii. 6 ; Hab. xi. 27 
are wonderfully appropriate. The monument is by Scellier. 

On the left is the Rue d'Orleans. 'Voici la rue 
d'Orleans,' said Louis XVI. as he crossed it on his way to 
his trial. ' Dites la rue de 1'Egalite,' answered Chaumette, 
the procureur-syndic of the Commune, who accompanied 
him. 2 In this street stood the Hotel de Harlay, now 
destroyed. 

At the corner of the Rue de VArbre Sec is a singular 
house with a fountain beneath it, dating from 1529, but 
reconstructed 1775. It was formerly called Fontaine de la 
Croix du Trahoir, and marks one of the places of execution 
before the Revolution, where a gibbet was permanently 
maintained. A nymph between the windows on the first 
floor is by Simon Boizot, a pupil of Slodtz, 1776. The 
original name of the street Rue du Trahoir is said to 

1 General Talon. 2 Lamartine. 



RUE DE L'ARBRE SEC in 

have resulted from Brunehaut, daughter, wife, mother, and 
grandmother of kings, having been dragged through it, at 
eighty, at a horse's tail. This was one of the spots used 
for the burning of Protestants, and Nicholas Valeton was 
burnt here, under Francois I. 

' Henri III. passoit a la croix du Trahoir com me on pendoit un 
homme. Ce pauvre diable cria, Grdce, gr&ce^ sire ! Le roi ayant su 
du greffier que son crime etoit grand, dit en souriant : "Eh bien, qu'on 
ne le pende pas qu'il n'ait dit son in mantis" Le galant homme, 
quand on en vint la, jura qu'il s'en garderoit bien et ne le diroit de sa 
vie, puisque le roi avoit ordonne qu'on ne le pendit point auparavant. 
II s'y obstina si fort qu'il fallut aller au roi, qui, voyant que c'etoit un 
bon compagnon, lui donna sa grace.' Tallemant des Reanx. 

Near this, in the Rue des Poulies, the first restaurant 
was opened in 1785, Boulanger, the master, taking as his 
sign, ' Venite ad me omnes qui stomacho laboratis, et ego 
vos restaurabo* whence the name which has ever remained 
to his imitators. 1 

The Rue de 1'Arbre Sec led into the Rue des Fosses 
S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, which took again, in its later 
existence, a name it had borne in 886. Here, when the 
street was called Rue de la Charpenterie, Jacques de Bethizy, 
Advocate of the Parliament of Paris, built an hotel in 1416. 
The prolongation of the street was called Rue de Ponthieu, 
from the Hotel de Ponthieu, in which (and not, as some- 
times stated, in the destroyed Rue de Bethizy) Admiral 
Coligny was murdered. 

c Le due de Guise, suivi de satellites armes, se rendit a la hate au 
logis de 1'amiral Coligny. Ayant fait forcer la porte exterieure, les 
Suisses de la garde navarraise voulurent s'opposer a leur projet, mais 
leur capitaine et quelques hommes furent tues sur la place. Le due de 
Guise, qui avail attendu dans la cour Tissue de la premiere entreprise, 
ordonna a quelques-uns de ses soldats de monter a la chambre 'de 
Coligny, dont la porte etait confiee a un valet allemand. Ce dernier, 
s'etant oppose a ce qu'on entrat chez son maitre, re?ut un coup de 
feu a la tete. Bien qu'au premier bruit qui se manifesta a la porte 

1 Fournier, Paris dhnoli. 



ii2 PARIS 

exterieure, 1'amiral se fut mis a la fenetre pour s'assurer de la cause 
du tumulte, et qu'il lui eut etc facile de voir que c'etait a lui que 
Ton en voulait, il ne fit aucune tentative pour se sauver ; au contraire, 
il se recoucha en robe de chambre, et fit meme semblant de dormir, 
quand trois hommes armes entrerent dans son appartement. L'un de 
ces trois assassins, qui etait gentilhomme, le saisit par le bras en 
s'ecriant : "Monsieur Famiral, monsieur, vous dormez trop!" Coligny 
fit semblant de sortir du premier sommeil, et se tournant vers celui qui 
lui parlait, il en reut un coup d'epee dans le cote gauche et un coup 
de poignard dans le c6te droit. On ordonna ensuite aux Suisses de 
le jeter par la fenetre. Cependant Coligny n'avait pas encore rendu 
1'ame, et il fit une telle resistance quand on voulut s'emparer de lui, 
que quatre Suisses n'en purent venir a bout, malgre les coups de halle- 
barde qu'ils lui donnerent sur 1'os de la jambe. Us firent un second 
effort pour executer 1'ordre qu'ils avaient re9u, et le saisirent tous les 
quatre par le corps ; mais, voyant que les soldats franfais s'occupaient 
a piller sa cassette, ils laisserent tomber le corps de Coligny pour se 
livrer egalement au pillage. Tout a coup on entendit du fond de la 
cour une voix s'ecrier : " L'amiral est-il mort ? jetez-le par la fenetre ! " 
Un soldat fran9ais s'approchant alors de Coligny, qui, bien que renverse 
a terre, opposait encore une vigoureuse resistance, lui posa le canon 
de son arquebuse sur la bouche et le tua. Cependant il faisait encore 
quelques mouvements quand on le jeta par la fenetre. Apres cette 
execution, on massacra environ une quarantaine de personnes qui se 
trouvaient dans la maison, et qui, pour la plupart, etaient attachees au 
service de Coligny.' Letler of a German priest, written on the day 
after the massacre, to Lambert Gruter, Bishop of Neustadt. 

(The Hotel de Ponthieu, after belonging to the family 
of Rohan- Montbazon, became, as Hotel de Lisieux, a 
public-house, where the great comedienne, Sophie Arnauld, 
the daughter of the publican, was born, in the very room in 
which the admiral was murdered. The same room was 
also used for a studio for a time by Carle Vanloo. All is 
destroyed now.) 

Left of Rue S. Honore, the Rue Sauval leads to the 
circular Halle au file, recently transformed by Blondel into 
a Bourse. 

1 Le dome de la Halle-au-Ble est une casquette de jockey anglais 
sur une grande echelle.' Victor Hugo. 



HALLE AU BLE 113 

On this historic site once stood the Hotel de Nesle, 
built in the XIII. c. by Queen Blanche of Castille, who 
received there the homage of Thibault, the poet-king of 
Navarre, when he sang 

' Amours me fait comencier 
Une chanson nouvele ; 
Et me vuet enseignier 
A amer la plus belle 
Qui soit el mont vivant.' 

Hence also, when wearied of the importunity of his love, 
Queen Blanche sent Thibault to fight in the Holy Land, 
where he hoped to conquer the affections of the queen by 
his deeds of valour. Here the beautiful queen died (1253) 
on a bed of straw, from necessity's sake, and the hotel, after 
passing through a number of royal hands, was given by 
Charles VI. to his brother, the Duke of Orleans ' afin de 
le loger commodement pres du Louvre, et dans un lieu qui 
repondit a sa qualite.' Hence, as the guilty paramour of 
his sister-in-law, Isabeau de Baviere, the Duke went to his 
murder in the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois. 

It was Catherine de Medicis who pulled down the Hotel 
de Nesle, and who, weary of the Tuileries as soon as she 
had completed its central fagade, employed Bullant to build 
a more splendid palace on this site, called, from its later 
proprietors, Hotel de Soissons. The cruel queen had her 
observatory here, and when a light was seen passing there 
at night, the passers-by used to say, * The queen-mother is 
consulting the stars ; it is an evil omen ! ' After the death 
of Catherine de Medicis, the hotel belonged to Catherine of 
Navarre, sister of Henri IV., then to Olympia Mancini, 
Comtesse de Soissons (mother of Prince Eugene, born here 
Oct. 1 8, 1660), who fled from France to escape being tried 
for poisoning her husband, after the exposure of Mme. de 
Brinvilliers and the institution of the court of inquiry called 
'la Chambre des Poisons.' Even of the second palace 
nothing remains to this day except a fluted column, resting 
VOL. i. H 



ii4 PARIS 

on a fountain, adorned with the arms of Paris, and attached 
to the exterior of the Halle. This column, erected by 
Bullant in 1572, is said to have been used for the observa- 
tions of Catherine's astrologer ; it now bears a sundial, the 
work of Pingre, canon of S. Genevieve. The Revolution 
has destroyed the monograms, crescents, fleurs-de-lis, &c., 
which once adorned it. Such was the fame of the Hotel de 
Soissons, that Piganiol de la Force declares that, except the 
Louvre, no dwelling-house was more noble and illustrious, 
while to give its history, or rather that of the Hotels de 
Nesle, de Bahaigue, d'Orleans, de la Reine-Mere, and des 
Princes, as it was successively called, it would be necessary 
to touch on the great events of every reign during its long 
existence. 

Houses now cover the gardens of the Hotel de Soissons, 
which, under the Regency, were covered by the wooden 
booths used in the stock-jobbing of Law and his Mississippi 
scheme. 

On the left of the Rue S. Honore is the little Rue des 
Prouvaires (Prouaires, Pretres), where Alphonso of Por- 
tugal was lodged in the time of Louis XL, and for his 
amusement taken to hear a theological discussion at the 
University which lasted five hours ! ' Voila un monarque 
honorablement logi et bien amuse,' says S. Foix. 

If we continue the Rue de Rivoli, the Rue des Bour- 
donnais (named from Adam and Guillaume Bourdon) 
opens on the left : now of no interest, but once of great 
importance as containing the glorious Hotel de la Tre- 
mouille, built 1490, rivalling the noblest buildings of the 
age in France, but wantonly destroyed in 1840. The hotel 
long belonged to the family of Bellievre, to which Mme. de 
Sevigne was related. ' Us n'ont pas voulu la vendre,' she 
wrote, 'parce que c'est la maison paternelle, et que les 
souliers du vieux chancelier en ont touche' le pave.' 

' L'architecture de cet hotel etait une des plus gracieuses crea- 
tions de la fin du xv e siecle. La tourelle de gauche, le grand 



CI METIERS 5. JEAN 115 

escalier, les portiques avec leur premier etage, n'avaient subi que de 
legeres mutilations. Quant a la fa9ade du logis sur la cour, elle avail 
ete fort gatee, mais tous les elements de sa decoration subsistaient par 
parties sous les platrages modernes. Du cote du jardin, la fa9ade etait 
tres-simple. Ce qu'on ne pouvait trop admirer dans cette charmante 
architecture, c'etait le gout delicat qu'y avait deploye 1'architecte. 
L'assemblage des parties lisses et des parties decorees etait des plus 
heureux.' Viollet-le-Duc, vi. 284. 

We are close to the Halles Centrales (which may be 
reached directly from the Halle au Ble), occupying the 
district formerly called Champeaux, which, from time im- 
memorial, was at once a centre for provisions and a place of 
sepulture. The great roads leading to Roman towns were 
always bordered by tombs, and the highways leading to the 
Roman Lutece, on the island in the Seine, were no excep- 
tion to the rule. Especially popular as a place of sepulture 
was the road across the marshes, afterwards known as ' grant 
chaussee Monsieur Saint Denys.' A chapel dedicated here 
to S. Michael at a very early date was the precursor of a 
church dedicated to the Holy Innocents, built under Louis 
le Gros, whose favourite oath was 'par les saints de Beth- 
le'em.' The whole surrounding district had by this time 
become a cemetery, and the ancient oratory was exclusively 
used for prayers for the dead. Philip Augustus surrounded 
the cemetery with walls, and it became, as the Cimetiere 
S. Jean or Cimetiere Vert, the favourite burial-place of the 
middle classes. 1 Mme. de Mailly, the first of the four 
sisters De Nesle who were, in turn, mistresses of Louis XV. 
(dying after many years of repentance, 1751), was buried 
here, where Mme. de Pompadour was also buried later. 

' On enterra la pecheresse, selon ses volontes, dans le cimetiere 
des Innocents, parmi les pauvres, sous Pegout du cimetiere, et une 
croix de bois fut toute la tombe de celle, qui derangeant quelques 



1 Corrozet preserves this epitaph: 'Cy-gist Jollande Bailli, qui trepassa 1'an 
1518, le 88 e an de son age, le 42 e de son veuvage, laquelle a vu, devant son trpas, 
deux-cents quatre-vingt-quinze enfans issus d'elle.' 



u6 PARIS 

personnes a Saint Roch et souffletee de cet mot, "Voila bien du 
train pour une . . . I " avait repondu; " Puisque vous la connaissez, 
priez Dieu pour elle ! " ' De Goncourt. 

Soulavie says that in 1785, when the cemetery was sup- 
pressed, her coffin was found, and her family moved it into 
a new extra-mural cemetery (the catacombs), "ou elle fut 
confondue avec tous les morts." 

Of great extent, the cemetery was surrounded by 
cloisters, decorated with frescoes of the Dance of Death 
La Danse Maccabre of great local celebrity, and it con- 
tained a very fine old lanterne des morts and several her- 
mitages, some of which were inhabited from motives of 
devotion, but one at least as an enforced penance, by 
Renee de Vendome 'la recluse de S. Innocent' shut 
up here for life as a punishment for adultery. Louis XI. 
erected a monument in the church, with a statue, to 
another hermit of the cemetery, the nun Alix la Bour- 
gotte. The church, and the cemetery with its cloisters 
which presented an unrivalled combination of gothic 
arcades, chantry - chapels, crosses, tombs, monumental 
tablets, and frescoes were closed in 1786. Their site is 
now covered by the vast buildings of the modern Halles, 
replacing the famous Marche aux Innocents, which had its 
origin in booths erected in the time of Philippe le Hardi, 
when the cloisters of the cemetery were a fashionable walk. 
The huge existing market, consisting of six pavilions sepa- 
rated by three streets, only dates from 1858. The best 
time for visiting it and seeing the crowds which frequent it 
is between 6 and 8 A.M. 

' Une lueur claire annonait le jour. La grande voix des Halles 
grondait plus haut ; par instants, des voices de cloche, dans un pavilion 
eloigne, coupaient cette clameur roulant et montant. Us entrerent sous 
une de ces rues couvertes, entre le pavilion de la maree et le pavilion 
de la volaille. Florent levait les yeux, regardait la haute voute, dont 
les boiseries interieures luisaient, entre les dentelles noires des char- 
pentes de fonte. Quand il deboucha dans la grande rue du milieu, il 
songea a quelque ville etrange, avec ses quar tiers distincts, ses fau- 



LES HALLES CENTRALES 117 

bourgs, ses villages, ses promenades et ses routes, ses places et ses 
carrefours, mise tout entiere sous un hangar, un jour de pluie, par 
quelque caprice gigantesque. L'ombre, sommeillant dans les creux 
des toitures, multipliait la foret des piliers, elargissait a 1'infini les 
nervures dedicates, les galeries decoupees, les persiennes transparentes ; 
et c'etait, au-dessus de la ville, jusqu'au fond des tenebres, toute une 
vegetation, toute une floraison, monstrueux epanouissement de metal, 
dont les tiges qui montaient en fusee, les branches qui se tordaient et 
se nouaient, couvraient un monde avec les legeretes de feuillage d'une 
futaie seculaire. Des quartiers dormaient encore, clos de leurs grilles. 
Les pavilions du beurre et de la volaille alignaient leurs petites bouti- 
ques treillagees, allongeaient leurs ruelles desertes sous les files des bees 
de gaz. Le pavilion de la maree venait d'etre ouvert ; des femmes 
traversaient les rangees de pierres blanches, tachees de 1'ombre des 
paniers et des linges oublies. Aux gros legumes, aux fleurs et aux 
fruits, le vacarme allait grandissant. De proche en proche, le reveil 
gagnait la ville, du quartier populeux ou les choux s'entassent des 
quatre heures du matin, au quartier paresseux et riche qui n'accroche 
des poulardes et des faisans a ses maisons que vers les huit heures. 

' Mais, dans les grandes rues ouvertes, la vie affluait. Le long des 
trottoirs, aux deux bords, des maraichers etaient encore la, de petits 
cultivateurs, venus des environs de Paris, etaient sur des paniers leur 
recolte de la veille au soir, bottes de legumes, poignees de fruits. Au 
milieu du va-et-vient incessant de la foule, des voitures entraient sous 
les voutes, en ralentissant le trot sonnant de leurs chevaux. Deux de 
ces voitures, laissees en travers, barraient la rue. Florent, pour passer, 
dut s'appuyer centre un des sacs grisatres, pareils a des sacs de 
charbon, et dont 1'enorme charge faisait plier les essieux ; les sacs, 
mouilles, avaient une odeur fraiche d'algues marines ; un d'eux, creve 
par un bout, laissait couler un tas noir de grosses moules. A tous les 
pas, maintenant, ils devaient s'arreter. La maree arrivait, les camions 
se succedaient, charriant les hautes cages de bois pleines de bourriches, 
que les chemins de fer apportent toutes chargees de 1'Ocean. Et, pour 
se garer des camions de la maree de plus en plus presses et inquietants, 
ils se j etaient sous les roues des camions de beurre, des oeufs et des 
fromages, de grands chariots jaunes, a quatre chevaux, a lanternes 
de couleur ; des forts enlevaient les caisses d'ceufs, les paniers de 
fromage et de beurre, qu'ils portaient dans le pavilion de la criee, ou 
les employes en casquette ecrivaient sur les calepins, a la lueur du gaz. 
Claude etait ravi de ce tumulte ; il s'oubliait a un effet de lumiere, a 
un groupe de blouses, au dechargement d'une voiture. Enfin, ils se 
degagerent. Comme ils longeaient toujours la grande rue, ils march- 
erent dans une odeur exquise qui tramait autour d'eux et semblait les 
suivre. Ils etaient au milieu du marche des fleurs coupees. Sur le 



ii8 PARIS 

carreau, a droite et a gauche, des femmes assises avaient devant elles 
des corbeilles carrees, pleines de bottes de roses, de violettes, de 
dahlias, de marguerites. Les bottes s'assombrissaient, pareilles a des 
taches de sang, palissaient doucement avec des gris argentes d'une 
grande delicatesse. Pres d'une corbeille, une bougie allumee mettait 
la, sur tout le noir d'alentour, une chanson aigue de couleur, les 
panachures vives des marguerites, le rouge saignant des dahlias, le 
bleuissement des violettes, les chairs vivantes des roses. Et rien n'etait 
plus doux ni plus printanier que les tendresses de ce parfum rencontrees 
sur un trottoir, au sortir des souffles apres de la maree et de la senteur 
pestilentielle des beurres et des fromages.' Zola, ' Le Ventre de Paris? 

' Les Fillers des Halles ' were formerly very picturesque, 
but nothing now remains of the past, except the Fontaine 
des Innocents, which now stands in a shady square at the 
south-east corner of the Halles. Originally dating from 
the XIII. c., it was reconstructed in 1550 after a plan 
of Pierre Lescot, and decorated with sculpture by Jean 
Goujon. But it was then attached to the church wall, 
which gave it quite a different appearance. John Evelyn 
says, 'Joyning to this church is a com'on fountaine, with 
good relievos on it.' Since its removal to its present site, 
its aspect has been further altered by the addition of a 
cupola and disproportionate base : at the same time new 
nymphs by Pajou were added to those of Jean Goujon. 
Stripped of its original interest, the fountain is still a chef- 
d'ceuvre of the French renaissance of the XVI. c., and its 
earlier and still existing decorations, by Jean Goujon, are 
of the greatest beauty. 

It was to the Halles that Jacques d'Armagnac, Due de 
Nemours, after having been confined in an iron cage, 
was brought from the Bastille to be beheaded, August 4, 
1477, by order of Louis XL, and there that his children, 
dressed in white, were forced to stand beneath the scaffold, 
that their robes might be saturated with their father's 
blood. 

Behind the Halles, which are ever filled with a roar of 
voices like a storm at sea, rises the huge mass of the great 



5. BUST A CHE 



119 



church of S. Eustache, the most complete specimen of 
renaissance architecture in Paris a gothic five-sided church 
in essentials, but classical in all its details, and possessing 
a certain quaint, surprising, and imposing grandeur of its 
own, though brimming with faults from an architectural 
point of view. Henri Martin, who calls it 'the poetical 




THE FONTAINE DBS INNOCENTS. 



church of S. Eustache,' considers it the last breath of the 
religious architecture of the Middle Ages. Begun in 1532 
by Dominique de Cortone 'le Boccador' the famous 
architect of the Hotel de Ville, it was completed as we now 
see it (except the principal portal altered since, and still 
incomplete), by the architect David, in 1642. 



120 PARIS 

1 La renaissance avait effacee les dernieres traces du vieil art 
national. . . . On voulait appliquer les formes de 1'architecture 
romaine antique, que Ton connaissait mal, au systeme de construction 
des eglises ogivales, que Ton meprisait sans les comprendre. C'est sous 
cette inspiration indecise que fut commencee et achevee la grande 
eglise de Saint-Eustache, monument mal con9u, mal construit, amas 
confus de debris empruntes de tous cotes, sans liaison et sans harmonic ; 
sorte de squelette gothique revetu de haillons remains cousus ensemble 
comme les pieces d'un habit d'arlequin.' Viollet-le-Duc, i. 240. 

The richly-decorated renaissance portals are surmounted 
by gothic rose-windows, divided by balustrades, and, at the 
summit of the south gable, a stag's head with a crucifix 
between its horns, in memory of the miraculous animal 
by which the saint was converted when hunting. Classical 
pilasters divide the windows, and decorate the flying but- 
tresses, and a very graceful classical campanile of the 
XVII. c. surmounts the Lady Chapel. 

With all its faults, the vast and lofty interior will probably 
strike the ordinary visitor with admiration for its stately 
magnificence. 1 He may notice : 

^th Chapel. Courtier : Marriage of the Virgin a relief. 
$th Chapel. Magimel: Ecce Homo a relief. 
Transepts. Statues by Debay ; frescoes by Signal. 

The windows of the choir and apse are of 1631, and bear, constantly 
repeated, the name of their artist, Soulignac, unknown elsewhere. 

The pavement of the choir was given by the Cure Simon. When 
arrested under the Commune, he had the 3000 francs which were to 
pay for it in his pocket. He was released on the petition of his ' cheres 
paroissiennes, les Dames de la Halle,' and the money was afterwards 
returned. 

4/ Chapel of Choir. Restored frescoes of XVII. c. 

St/i (Terminal] Chapel. The statue of the Virgin, by Pigalle, 
sculptured for the dome of the Invalides. 



1 It is the largest church in Paris except Notre Dame, being 318 feet long, and 
132 feet wide at the transept. 



S. BUST A CHE 



121 



qth Chapel. The tomb of Jean Baptist Colbert, 1683, the famous 
minister. He is represented kneeling on a sarcophagus, at the 
base of which are figures of Religion, by Tuby, and Abund- 
ance, by Coysevox. The monument was saved in 1792 by 
Lenoir, who took it to the Musee at the Petits Augustins, 
where it remained till 1801. 

' On voit dans la paroisse de S. Eustache la statue naturelle de M. 
Colbert, grand-tresorier de 1'ordre du Saint-Esprit, avec le manteau et 
collier des chevaliers ; il n'est personne qui puisse ne le pas prendre 
pour un chevalier.' S. Simon, 




S. EUSTACHE. 



* Mazarin faisait au roi un legs precieux : " Sire," lui avait-il dit en 
lui presentant un simple commis des finances, " je vous dois tout ; mais 
je crois m'acquitter envers Votre Majeste en lui donnant Colbert "'- 
Totichard-Lafosse, ' Hist, de Paris. ' 

' Le peuple fut ingrat comme 1'avait ete le roi. II fallait faire con- 
duire de nuit le corps de Colbert de son hotel de la Rue Neuve des 
Petits-Champs a 1'eglise Saint- Eustache, de peur que le convoi ne fut 
insulte par les gens des halles. Le peuple de Paris ne voyait guere 
dans Colbert que 1'auteur des taxes onereuses et vexatoires etablies 



122 PARIS 

depuis la guerre de Hollande, et le peuple de France, en general, 
habitue par Colbert lui-meme a reporter au roi tout ce que le ministre 
avait suggere de bon et de grand, imputa au roi la gloire, au controleur- 
general des finances les miseres que coutait cette gloire. Le peuple ne 
pouvait soupgonner les luttes interieures du conseil, et la partie eclairee 
de la bourgeoisie qui approchait Colbert etait seule a portee de 1'ap- 
pre'cier. II faut bien le reconnaitre, il n'y a que deux juges equitables 
pour les grands hommes : Dieu et la posterite. 

' Avec Colbert finit la race des grands ministres.' Martin^ ' Hist, de 
France. ' 

N. Transept. On the benitier, Pope Telesiphorus (139, who in- 
stituted Holy Water) blessing the water. 

Left of the Organ. Medallion monument of General Frangois de 
Chevert, 1760, with an epitaph by Diderot, telling how 'sans 
ayeux, sans fortune, et sans appui, il s'eleva malgre 1'envie, 
a la force de merite.' 

The magnificent sculptures which Jacques Sarrazin executed for the 
high-altar and apse, all perished in the Revolution. The S. Louis, 
Virgin, and infant Saviour were portraits of Louis XIII., Anne of 
Austria, and Louis XIV. ! The ' bane d'ceuvre ' was executed by 
Lepautre from designs of Cartaud for the Regent Due d'Orleans, at a 
cost of 20.000 livres. All memorials are destroyed of Admiral de 
Tourville ; the Due de la Feuillade ; d'Armenonville, keeper of the 
seals ; Marin de la Chambre, physician of Louis XIV. ; Voiture, 
Vaugelas, Furetiere, Benserade, La Mothe le Vayer, and the painter 
Charles de la Fosse, buried in this church. Besides the tomb of 
Colbert, only the monument of Chevert (which was taken to the Musee 
des Monuments Frangais) has been preserved. 

' It is impossible to point to a single detail which is not elegant, 
or to anything offensively inappropriate. Yet the eye is everywhere 
offended by the attenuation of classical details, and the stilting that 
becomes necessary from the employment of the flatter circular arch in- 
stead of the taller pointed one. The hollow lines of the corinthian 
capitals are also very ill-adapted to receive the impost of an arch ; and 
when the shaft is placed on a base taller than itself, and drawn out, as 
is too often the case here, the eye is everywhere shocked, the great 
difference being, that the gothic shaft was in almost all instances 
employed only to indicate and suggest the construction, and might 
therefore be 100 diameters in height without appearing weak or inap. 
propriate.' Fergusson. 



S. BUST A CHE 123 

It was in this church that 720 wreaths of roses were 
distributed to mark the Burgundians during the terrible 
massacre of the followers of Armagnac in 1418. Here in 
the beginning of the XVI. c., whilst the rivalry between 
Church and theatre was at its height 

' Le cure de Saint-Eustache etait en chaire et faisait de son mieux 
pour edifier ses auditeurs, lorsque Jean du Pontalais vint par hasard a 
passer devant son eglise. Le bruit du tambourin avec lequel du Pont- 
alais appelait le peuple, forait le predicateur a hausser la voix et brou- 
illait le fil de ses idees. Plus le tambourin retentissait, plus le cure 
luttait de poumons. Et cette lutte commensait a egayer 1'auditoire. 
Enfin, harasse, le predicateur ordonne qu'on aille imposer silence a ce 
baladin. Quelques fideles defilent . . . et ne reviennent point ! Us 
sont alles grossir 1'auditoire du tapageur, au lieu de faire cesser le 
tapage. Le bruit du tambour redouble. Enfin le cure, perdant patience, 
descend de la chaire, sort de 1'eglise, et va droit a du Pontalais. 
" Eh I " s'ecrie du Pontalais, " qui vous a fait si hardi de precher pen- 
dant que je joue du tambourin?" Alors le precheur, plus fache que 
devant, prit le couteau de son Famulus (bedeau) qui etait aupres de 
lui et fit une grande balafre a ce tambourin avec le couteau. Puis il 
s'en retournait a 1'eglise pour achever son sermon. Pontalais prend 
son tambour, et court apres le precheur, et s'en va le coiffer comme 
d'un chapeau d'Albanais, le lui affublant du cote qu'il etait rompu. 
Et alors le precheur tout en 1'etat qu'il etait voulait remonter en chaire 
pour remontrer 1'injure qui lui avait ete faite, et comme la parole de 
Dieu etait vilipendee. Mais le monde riait si fort en lui voyant ce 
tambourin sur la tete, qu'il ne put ce jour-la avoir audience et fut con- 
traint de se retirer et de s'en taire, car il lui fut remontre que ce n'etait 
pas le fait d'un sage homme de se prendre a un fol.' Deschanel^ 'La 
vie des come'diens? 

Here the bourgeois have always aped the fashions of 
the upper classes. 

' II ne faut qu'un dimanche entrer a Saint-Eustache, 
Vous verrez les bourgeois, voire les artisans, 
Tant ils sont bien vetus paraitres courtisans.' 

Jacques de Lorenz, ' Satires,' 1583-1658. 

S. Eustache has always been the special church of the 
Halles, and it was here, in 1701, that the Dames de la 
Halle, with whom he was very popular, caused a special 



124 PARIS 

Te Deum to be sung for the recovery from dangerous illness 
of Monseigneur, son of Louis XIV. 

' La Societe Revolutionnaire siegait a Saint-Eustache. Elle etait 
composee de femmes perdues, aventurieres de leur sexe, iccrutees 
dans le vice, ou dans les reduits de la misere, ou dans les cabanons 
de la demence. Le scandale de leurs seances, le tumulte de leurs 
motions, la bizarrerie de leur eloquence, 1'audace de leurs petitions 
imporiunaient le comite de salut public. Ces femmes venaient dieter 
les lois sous pretexte de donner des conseils a la Convention.' Lamar- 
tine, ' Hist, des Girondins? 

This church also was especially connected with the 
Fetes de la Raison. 

( S. Eustache offrit le spectacle d'un grand cabaret. L'interieur du 
choeur representoit un pay sage decore de chaumieres et de bouquets 
d'arbres. On distinguoit dans le lointain des bosquets mysterieux ; 
il y avoit efiectivement de petits senders pratiques dans les escarpemens 
figures de grandes masses de rochers. Les precipices de sapin n'etoient 
point inaccessibles ; des troupeaux de filles qui suivoient effrontement 
a la file, couroient apres les hommes, et Ton entendoit le continuel 
craquement des planches sous leurs pas precipites. 

'Autour du chreur, Ton avoit dresse des tables surchargees de 
bouteilles, de saucissons, d'andouilles, de pates et d'autres viandes. 
Sur les autels des chapelles laterales, on sacrifioit tout a la fois a la 
luxure, a la gourniandise ; et Ton vit sur les pierres consacrees, les 
traces hideuses de 1'intemperance. 

' Les convives affluoient par toutes les portes ; quiconque se presen- 
toit prenoit part au festin : les enfants de sept a huit ans, tant filles 
que gardens, mettoient la main au plat en signe de liberte, ils bu- 
voient a meme les bouteilles ; et leur prompte ivresse excitoit le rire 
des etres vils qui la partageoient.' Mercier, ' Le notiveati Paris.' 

The Rue dujour, just behind the west end of S. Eustache, 
was formerly Rue du Se'jour, from a residence of Charles V. 
The Hotel du Royaumont (No. 4) was built here in 1613, 
by the Abbe du Royaumont, and afterwards became the 
property of the Comte de Montmorency-Boutteville, the 
famous duellist. Its old portal remains. In the Jtue 
Pirouette (No. 5) is an interesting house with pillars. 



RUE DE LA JUSSIENNE 125 

(The Rue du Jour falls into the Rue Montmartre, which 
contained the Chapelle S. Joseph, built by the Chancellor 
Seguier, and in which Moliere and La Fontaine were buried ; 
it was destroyed in the Revolution. An inscription on No. 
30 marks the site of the ancient Porte Montmartre. No. 121 
has an iron sign * a la Grace de Dieu ' dating from the 
first year of the Regency. 

Opening from the Rue Montmartre, on the left, is 
(much curtailed by modern improvements) the Rue de la 
Jussienne^ a name commemorating the popular pronuncia- 
tion of the church of S. Marie 1'Egyptienne, which dated 
from the XIV. c., and stood at the angle of the Rue 
Montmartre. 

' Des vitraux du temps de Franois I. representaient la vie de la 
sainte patronne, et des inscriptions d'une naivete singuliere en expli- 
quaient les circonstances, meme celles que la sainte crut devoir expier 
par un longue penitence.' De Guilhermy. 

It was in going to his devotions at this church that 
Henri III. drew from under the little dogs, which he carried 
slung in a basket round his neck, and gave to Chancellor 
Chiverny the edict which took away from the bourgeois of 
Paris the rights of nobility granted them by Charles V. 

No. 2, Rue de la Jussienne, belonged to the Hotel of 
Mme. du Barry, and the financier Peruchet had his bureau 
there in the time of Louis XV. It has the handsome 
decorations of heads and garlands of the time of Louis XV. 
The next street on the left of the Rue Montmartre was 
the Rue des Vieux Augustins, where at No. 19 was the 
Hotel de la Providence destroyed 1893 where Charlotte 
Corday stayed from July n till the evening of July 13, 
1793, when she murdered Marat.) 

(The modern Rue de Turbigo runs north-east from 
S. Eustache to the Place de la Re'publique on the Boule- 
vards, crossing the site of the fine hotel of the Marquis de 
PHopital. In the great modern cross street, called Rue 



I 2 6 PARIS 

Etienne Marcel, a grand and picturesque old tower is to 
be seen in a court on the right side, sadly hemmed in by 
modern houses. This is all that remains of the Hotel de 
Bourgogne^ sometimes called Hotel d'Artois, having been 
built in the 'quartier Mauconseil' by the Comte d'Artois 
in the XIII. c. Under Charles VI. the hotel was often the 
residence of Jean sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy. It was 
bought in 1548 by the Confrerie de la Passion, that they 
might represent their mysteries there. After a few years 
they let it to * les Enfants Sans Souci,' a society of amateur 
actors of good family ; from them it passed to more regular 
actors, known as ' Comediens de 1' Hotel de Bourgogne.' 

* Melite,' the first play of Corneille, was represented at 
the Hotel de Bourgogne in 1625 ; his other plays were 
acted there as they appeared, and it was here that Christina 
of Sweden shocked Anne of Austria by sitting at the per- 
formance ' dans une position si indecente, qu'elle avait les 
pieds plus hauts que la tete.' There was a perpetual rivalry 
between this theatre and that of Petit-Bourbon, where the 
plays acted were those of Moliere, who ridiculed the actors 
of the Hotel de Bourgogne in his ' Precieuses ridicules.' 
But the 'Alexandre' of Racine drew back the wavering 
admirers of the older theatre. After its appearance at the 
Hotel de Bourgogne, S. Evremond wrote, ' que la vieillesse 
de Corneille ne 1'alarmait plus, et qu'il n'apprehendait 
plus tant de voir finir la tragedie apres lui,' though when 

* Andromache ' and ' Bajazet ' had been represented here 
Mme. de Sevigne wrote, ' Racine fait des comedies pour 
la Champmesle x ; ce n'est pas pour les siecles a venir. Vive 
done notre vieil ami Corneille ! ' In 1680 the ' Comediens 
italiens ' took the theatre of the Hotel de Bourgogne, where 
they obtained a great success for seventeen years, but were 
suppressed in May 1697, for having produced a piece called 

* La fausse Prude,' in which Mme. de Maintenon fancied 
herself represented, and thus drew upon herself a qualifica- 

1 ' La plus miraculeusement bonne comedienne.' 



HOTEL DB BOURGOGNE 



127 



tion not originally intended for her. The Come'diens italiens 
were restored by the Regent d'Orleans, and obtained a great 
celebrity through the performance of Riccoboni and Benozzi, 
and the plays of Marivaux and Delisle. In 1723 the actors 




TOWER OF THE HOTEL UE BOURGOGNE. 



of the Hotel de Bourgogne were called 'Comediens ordi- 
naires du Roi,' and their title was inscribed over the gate 
of the hotel. The theatre was closed and pulled down in 
1783, but it may be regarded as having been the cradle of 
the Comedie FranQaise. 



128 PARIS 

Nothing now remains of the ancient buildings of the 
hotel, except the great square tower, built by Jean sans 
Peur, and containing a winding staircase and vaulted gothic 
hall. This was probably the chamber which the Duke 
(who by no means deserved his surname) built after the 
murder of the Duke of Orleans, ' toute de pierre de taille, 
pour sa surete, la plus forte qu'il put, et termine'e de machi- 
coulis, ou toutes les nuits il couchoit.' 

'Les degres de 1'escalier tournent autour d'une colonne, qui se 
termine par un chapiteau tres-simple ; mais ce chapiteau sert de support 
a une caisse ronde en pierre, cerclee de trois anneaux doubles, d'ou 
s'elancent les tiges vigoureuses d'un chene, dont les branches decrivent 
quatre travees d'ogives, et dont le feuillage abondant tapisse la voute 
tout entiere. Nous ne connaissons rien de semblable dans les monu- 
ments du moyen age a Paris ; c'est un systeme d'ornementation non 
moins remarquable par sa rarete que par son elegance. Dans le 
tympan ogival d'une des baies exterieures, deux rabots et un fil a plomb 
sont sculptes au milieu de fleurons gothiques. On sail que le due Jean 
sans Peur prit les rabots pour emblemes, par opposition aux batons 
noueux qu'avait choisis le due d'Orleans.' De Guilhermy. ) 

Should we return to the Rue S. Honore we should now 
reach the spot where Henri IV. was assassinated (beyond 
the entrance of the Rue de la Tonnellerie), May 14, 1610, 
on his way to see Sully at the Arsenal. The Rue S. Honore 
at that time ceased here and became exceedingly narrow, 
under the name of Rue de la Ferronnerie. The house in 
front of which the murder took place (No. 6) was marked 
by a Maltese cross painted red, and was called Maison de 
la Croix rouge. It was a false tradition which represented 
the event as having occurred opposite a house (now de- 
stroyed No. 3 Rue S. Honore) upon which a notary 
named Portrain, to honour the king's memory, placed his 
bust with an inscription, now in the Carnavalet Museum. 

' Fra^ois Ravaillac etait une espece de visionnaire d'une humeur 
sombre et bizarre, d'une physionomie sinistre ; il avait ete praticien, 
novice dans le couvent des feuillants a Paris, puis maitre d'ecole a 
Angouleme, sa ville natale. II avait toujours recherche la societe 



MURDER OF HENRI IV. 129 

des moines et des pretres les plus bigots et les plus violents. . . . 
II flotta longtemps avant de se fixer dans 1'horrible pensee qui 
1'obsedait. II etait venu d'Angouleme a Paris au mois du Janvier 
dernier, afin de parler au roi. II avait eu, disait-il, des revelations du 
ciel touchant les interets de la religion ; il voulait persuader au roi de 
revoquer 1'edit de Nantes : sa mauvaise mine le fit partout repousser, 
et il repartit sans avoir pu aborder le roi. II revint a Paris a la fin 
d'avril. II se tenait, depuis le matin, pres de la porte du Louvre, 
quand il vit sortir le carrosse du roi. II le suivit. En entrant de la 
rue Saint-Honore dans la rue de la Ferronnerie, qui etait alors tres- 
etroite, le earrosse rencontra deux charrettes qui 1'obligerent a raser les 
boutiques adossees au mur du cimetiere des Innocents. La petite suite 
du roi fut separee de lui par cet incident. Pendant qu'on faisait reculer 
les charrettes, Fran9ois Ravaillac se glissa entre les boutiques et le 
carrosse, qui etait tout ouvert, et, voyant le roi a la portiere, tout pres 
de lui, il mit un pied sur une borne, 1'autre sur une des roues, et lanca 
un coup de couteau a Henri entre les cotes. Le roi leva le bras en 
s'ecriant : "Je suis blesse!" Au meme instant un second coup lui 
per9a le coeur. Henri ne profera plus une parole et ne donna plus 
signe de vie. 

' Ravaillac etait reste immobile, sans chercher a s'enfuir, sans Jeter 
son couteau. Les seigneurs qui accompagnaient le roi empecherent 
qu'on ne massacrat 1'assassin sur la place, le firent arreter et mettre en 
lieu de surete ; puis, fermant les portieres du carrosse, ils crierent au 
peuple que le roi n'etait que blesse, et reprirent le chemin du Louvre. 

' Ils n'y ramenaient qu'un cadavre ! ' Henri Martin, ' Hist, de 
France ,' x. 568. 

Ancient streets in this district which have vanished of 
late years under modern improvements, are the Rue de la 
Tixeranderie, the Rue des Mauvais Gargons, and the Rue 
S. Faron (where the abbots of S. Faron had their hotel), 
with the Place Baudoyer, a name which recalled the re- 
volt of the Bagaudes against the Roman dominion, and 
which was corrupted from that of the neighbouring Porta 
Bagaudarum to Place Baudeer, Baudier, Bauder, Baudois, 
Baudoyer. At No. 27, Rue de la Tixeranderie, Scarron, 
first husband of Mme. de Maintenon, died in October 
1660. No. 21, the Hotel des Coquilles, was the residence 
of President Jacques Louvet. 

The next opening, left of the Rue S. Honore, forming 

VOL. I. I 



1 30 PARIS 

one side of the little square which contains the Fontaine des 
Innocents, is the Rue S. Dem's, originally important both 
as leading to the tomb of S. Denis and as having the privi- 
lege of the royal entries into the capital after the coronations 
at Rheims. 

' The Rue S. Denis is one of the oldest streets in Paris, and is said 
to have been first marked out by the track of the saint's footsteps, 
when, after his martyrdom, he walked along it, with his head under 
his arm, in quest of a burial-place. This legend may account for any 
crookedness of the street, for it could not reasonably be asked of a 
headless man that he should walk straight.' Hawthorne, ( Note-Books? 

Two low slated spires mark the picturesque little gothic 
church of SS. Leu et Gilles T of which the houses only allow 
the west front and the apse to be seen a dependency of 
the Abbey of S. Magloire. The church dates from 1320, 
but, with the exception of the central portal, the fagade is 
of 1727, when the spire now on the south tower was trans- 
ported thither from a tower falling into ruins on the north 
side, which was rebuilt. The side aisles are of the XVI. c.; 
but the choir and apse were rebuilt in 1780. Beneath 
these is a crypt the Chapel of Calvary containing beneath 
the altar a fine dead Christ of the XV. c or XVI. c. from 
the old church of S. Sepulchre. The pictures are not 
worth much notice, except, from the subject, a portrait of 
S. FranQois de Sales (left of altar), executed after his death 
by Philippe de Champaigne. 

'Dans la premiere chapelle, au sud, un tableau date de 1772, 
represente le crime, la condemnation et le supplice d'un soldat qui fut 
brule en 1415, pour avoir frappe de son couteau une image de la 
Vierge, placee au coin de la rue aux Ours, pres 1'eglise S. Leu. 
L'image aurait, suivant la tradition, verse de sang en abondance. Pour 
conserver la memoire de ce fait extraordinaire, on celebrait encore une 
fete annuelle dans les derniers temps qui ont precede la revolution. 
Uu mannequin representant le soldat sacrilege etait promene dans la 
ville pendant trois jours, et enfin livre aux flammes dans la rue aux 

1 S. Loup, the famous, Bishop of Sens, and S. Gilles, the hermit of Provence. 



RUE S. DENIS 131 

Ours, au milieu d'une illumination et d'un feu d'artifice.' De 
Guilhermy, 

' On vit pendant tout le xviii 6 siecle, un curieux ex-voto a 
1'eglise Saint Leu ; representant Louis XV. age de six ans, avec derriere 
lui sa gouvernante Madame de Ventadour, agenouille devant S. Leu et 
lui demandant d'etre gueri de la peur, de cette peur qui plus tard se 
changea en cette extreme timidite qui inspirait au Roi a la vue de tout 
visage nouveau, une sensation inquietante.' De Goncourt, quoting 
Mercier's Tableau de Paris. 

To the right of the choir are three curious XV. c 
marble reliefs. A XVII. c. S. Genevieve once stood 
near the shrine of the saint. The church formerly con- 
tained the tomb of Marie Delandes, wife of the President 
Chretien de Lamoignon, with a relief representing her 
being secretly buried here by the poor she had succoured 
and who would not allow her to be taken from their parish 
church to that of the Recollets. 

Very near this stood at an early period the Oratoire 
de S. Georges, which became the church of S. Magloire 
when the body of that Breton saint was sent hither to pre 
serve it from the Normans. To this church a Benedictine 
abbey was attached, afterwards given to Les Filles Peni- 
tentes. The very large church dated from the XII. c. 

At No. 32 Rue S. Denis Eugene Scribe was born. 
No 33 has an XVIII. c. sign, f Au Mortier d' Argent. 
No. 83 is a curious XV. c. house, which retains its corner 
post sculptured with a Tree of Jesse. On No. 89 is a 
XVII. c. relief of the Annunciation. 

On the other side of the Rue S. Denis, at the junction 
of the Rue Grande et Petite Truanderie and Mondetour, 
was the Putts d' Amour ^ where a girl named Agnes Hellebie 
drowned herself because of her lover's treachery, in the 
time of Philippe Auguste. Three hundred years after, a 
man threw himself into the well on account of the cruelty 
of his love, who repented and drew him up by a cord, after 
which he restored the well, which was inscribed ' L'amour 
m'a refait en 1525, tout-a-fait.' 



i 3 2 PARIS 

This is one of the poorest parts of Paris, and the Rue 
Maubue'e, one of the cross streets in descending the Rue S. 
Denis, is pointed out as the Seven Dials of Paris. It is a 
curious and picturesque old winding street. Its name, 
Maubuee 'mauvaise fumee' comes from its being the 
place where Jews used to be roasted with green faggots, to 
punish, said the counsellor De 1'Ancre, ' leur anthropomace, 
les admirables cruautes dont ils ont toujours use envers les 
Chretiens, leur forme de vie, leur synagogue deplaisante a 
Dieu, leur immondicite et puanteur.' 

In the Rue de Tracy, which diverges north near the top 
of the Rue S. Denis, a Greek building is the chapel of the 
community of S. Chaumont. The historian Michelet was 
born at No. 14. Behind (east of) the lower part of the 
Rue S. Denis runs the Rue Quincampoix, which has many 
interesting houses of XVII. c. and XVIII. c. (Nos. 10, 12, 14, 
15, 28). No. 34, which has an admirable XVII. c. portal, 
is the old Hotel de la Keynie. No. 60 has a noble XVI II. c. 
fagade. This district was the scene of the speculations 
of Law under the Regency. In 1710 (November 2) we 
find the Duchesse d'Orleans writing : 

' La Rue Quincampoix fait qu'on ne joue plus a Paris. C'est une 
vraie rage : j'en suis excedee : on n'entend parler que de cela, et il ne 
se passe pas de jour que je ne re9oive trois ou quatre lettres de per- 
sonnes qui me demandt-nt des actions ; c'est bien ennuyeux.' Corre- 
spondance de Madame. 

Crossing the ugly Boulevard de Sebastopol, in forming 
which the chapels at the back of the church of SS. Leu et 
Gilles were curtailed, we find ourselves in the Rue de Ram- 
buteau, and the next cross street is the Rue S. Martin. 
Descending towards Rue S. Honore (at No. 80) we may 
observe a relief of the Annunciation. At the corner of the 
Rue de la Verrerie is the church of S. Mem] or Mederic, 
originally built in the IX. c. on the site of a chapel of S. 
Pierre, where S. Merri, who had been prior of the monas- 
tery of S. Martin at Autun, was buried. But the present 



S. MERRI 133 

church, begun under Frangois I., was only finished in 1612. 
The great gothic portal, with two smaller portals at the 
sides, is very rich in effect ; but its statues are only modern 
copies from those at the south transept of Notre Dame : 
the woodwork is of the time of the construction. The 
adjoining tower is gothic below, renaissance above, with 
pilasters of the XVII. c. This is the tower which has 
given the war-note of many revolutions, and whence 
the ' tocsin de S. Merri,' sounding day and night, has sent 
a thrill through thousands. In the Revolution of June 5 
and 6, 1832, the church was long and obstinately defended 
by the insurgents against the royal troops. 

The interior of S. Merri has two side aisles on the right, 
and only one on the left, the second being here replaced 
by a passage through the chapels. The choir has a single 
aisle surrounded by thirteen chapels. In spite of classical 
innovations under Louis XIV., by which the gothic archi- 
tecture has been mutilated, the vaulting, the rose-windows 
at the sides, and fragments of XVI. c. glass remain to be 
admired. The sculpture of the high-altar is by Dubois, 
that of the pulpit by Michel Ange Slodtz. Admirable 
paintings by Theodore Chasseriau illustrate the life of S. 
Marie 1'Egyptienne. Under the fifth bay of the left aisle 
a staircase leads to a crypt, reconstructed in the XVI. c., 
when the church was built, on the site of that which con- 
tained the tomb of S. Merri. In this, which was his 
parish church, Charles V. constructed a richly-carved 
wooden oratory for a certain Guillemette, esteemed a saint, 
who never left that place, and might be seen there in 
ecstasy. All the Court had great faith in her holiness, 
and recommended themselves to her prayers. 1 Nothing 
remains of the tomb of Jean Chapelain, author of ' La 
Pucelle,' or of that of Arnaud de Pomponne, ambassador 
and minister of state under Louis XIV. A very curious 
holy-water basin dates from the time of Louis XII. 

1 Viollet-le-Duc, viii. 5. 



134 PARIS 

Reascending the Rue S. Martin, at No. 108 is the 
Maison des Goths, with a bas-relief on the second floor 
representing three scenes in their history. At No. 122 
is the Fontaine Maubuee, dating from the XIV. c., but 
reconstructed in 1733. An inscription on No." 135 marks 
the site of the ancient Porte S. Denis, called Porte aux 
Peintres. Nos. 160 and 194 have good XVIII. c. fagades. 
We may see, on the right, the openings of the Rue 
Maubuee and Rue de Venise, formerly the bankers' quarter, 
but which now, with their side alleys, may be looked 
upon as perhaps the most miserable part of Old Paris. 
On the right is the opening of the Rue de Montmorency^ 
which contains, marked by an inscription, the house of 
the philanthropist, Nicolas Flamel, partly destroyed in 
1852. 

' Le grand pignon a qui elle devait son nom aux derniers siecles 
n'existe plus, mais on y peut lire encore, en caracteres gothiques, au- 
dessus du rez-de-chaussee, 1'inscription qui est la plus touchante partie 
de son histoire. De pauvres "homines etfemmes Idboureurs demourans 
au pore he de cette maison" y parlent de la " Patenostre et de FAve 
Maria " qu'ils devaient dire chaque jour pour les trepasses, et rappellent 
ainsi 1'hospitalite que leur donnait Flamel, en n'exigeant d'eux que 
cette priere pour loyer. II entendait la propriete comme on ne la 
comprend plus guere : avec ce que lui rapportait la partie la plus 
avantageuse de chacune de ses maisons, nombreuses dans ce quartier, 
il logeait aux autres etages et nourrissait des pauvres: "et," dit 
Guillebert de Metz, "fist plusieurs maisons, ou gens de mestier 
demouraient en bas, et du loyer qu'ils payoient estoient soutenus 
povres laboureurs en hault."' Edouard Fonrnier. 

' Nicolas Flamel fonda et dota quatorze hopitaux. En temps de 
peste, il rachetait des maisons delaissees, pourvu qu'elles lui parussent 
assez vastes, et les transformait en hospices. La peste passait ; 
1'hospice demeurait. II rebatit trois chapelles. II renta sept eglises, 
entre autres S. Genevieve-des-Ardens. II repara trois cimetieres, 
notamment celui des Innocents.' Edouard Phuvier, ' Paris Guide? 

The house in the Rue de Montmorency, opposite the 
entrance to the little Passage de 1'Ancre, was that of 
Desmarest, Minister of Finance. 



S. NICOLAS DBS CHAMPS 135 

Far up the Rue S. Martin, on the right, is the church 
of S. Nicolas des Champs^ founded in the open country 
'porro ante Parisiacae urbis portam ' and dedicated 
in 1067, though chiefly dating, as it is now, in its west 
part from 1420, in its east from 1576, the change from 
gothic to renaissance having a striking effect in the interior. 
There is a beautiful west porch of the earlier date. The 
church is a parallelogram, with two ranges of aisles, 
bordered by a succession of chapels. The high-altar was 
designed by Mansart. The S. Vincent de Paul of Bonnat 
and the S. Bruno of J. P. Laurens are fine works. The 
tombs included those of Pierre de Morvillier, Chancellor of 
France, and his parents, Philippe de Morvillier and Jeanne 
de Drac, who founded (1426) a chapel here to S. Nicholas, 
on quaint conditions attached to one of its pillars, long 
carefully observed. 

' Chacun an, la veille de S. Martin d'hiver, les dits religieux, par 
leur maire et un religieux, doivent donner, au premier president du 
parlement, deux bonnets aux oreilles, 1'un double, 1'autre sengle, en 
disant certaines paroles; et, au premier huissier du parlement, un 
gand et une escriptoire, en disant certaines paroles.' 

Other persons buried here were the learned Guillaume 
Bude, 1540 ; the philosopher Pierre Gassendi; the brothers 
Henri and Adrien de Valois, known by their historic 
works ; and the celebrated Mile, de Scudery. In one of 
the chapels is an altar-piece representing S. Martin curing 
a leper by embracing him, and an inscription tells that 
the spot where this miracle was performed was close to 
S. Nicolas des Champs. 

Close by (at No. 292) a handsome gateway forms the 
entrance to the courtyard of the Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers (open daily from 10 to 4), which has a fine stair- 
case by Antoine, 1786, and two floors of galleries filled 

1 One of three churches in Paris dedicated to this most popular saint, the others 
being S. Nicolas du Louvre and S. Nicolas du Chardonnet. 



136 PARIS 

with models of machinery, freely open to the public, and 
very interesting to scientific students. 

The Conservatoire occupies the buildings which belonged 
to the priory of S. Martin des Champs^ founded by Henri I. 
in 1060. This was only enclosed within the limits of the 
town on the construction of its fourth ramparts in the be- 
ginning of the XIV. c. Hence its strong walls and towers, 
of which a specimen is to be seen in this street near the 
Fontaine du Vert Bois. The priory of S. Martin was given 
to Cluny by Philippe I. in 1067, and bore the title of 
second daughter of that famous abbey. At the Revolution, 
the monastery was at first converted into a manufactory of 
arms, but was appropriated to its present use in 1798. Of 
all the ancient religious establishments of Paris this is the 
one which has most preserved the characteristics of a 
monastery, retaining portions of its outer walls, its church, 
a cloister, the refectory, and the buildings which were 
inhabited by the monks. The monks themselves unfor- 
tunately destroyed the old chapter house, the tower of the 
archives, and chapel of the Virgin, as well as the old 
cloister, which contained statues of Henri I., Philippe I., 
and Louis VL, and which Piganiol de la Force describes 
as unequalled in Paris for its size and the number of its 
columns. 

The Refectory, now used as a library, is wrongly attri- 
buted to Pierre de Montereau, who was a child when it was 
completed. Nevertheless it is a masterpiece of XIII. c. 
architecture. Its two ranges of vaults are divided by 
slender stone pillars, and lighted at the ends by beautiful 
rose-windows. The rich gothic portal on the south led to 
the first cloister, facing the lavabo. 

' Le conducteur de 1'oeuvre, ayant habilement rejete sur les murs 
et sur les piles externes 1'effort principal de ses voutes, s'est trouve 
maitre de reduire a sa volonte le volume de ses colonnes medianes, sur 
lesquelles la charge n'agit plus que dans le sens vertical. Nos lecteurs 
iront admirer sur place le noble caractere de cette architecture, 1'exe- 



S. MARTIN DBS CHAMPS 137 

cution merveilleuse des chapiteaux, des consoles, et des clefs de voutes, 
les redents feuillages des roses qui sont percees au-dessus des fenetres.' 
De Guilhermy. 

At the side of the hall the reader's graceful pulpit 
remains, and is one of the oldest and best refectory pulpits 
in existence. 

'On remarquera la disposition ingenieuse de 1'escalier montant a 
cette chaire, pratique dans 1'epaisseur du mur ; il n'est clos du cote de 
1'interieur que par une claire-voie ; mais pour eviter que la charge du 
mur au-dessus n'ecrasat cette claire-voie, le constructeur a pose un arc 
de decharge qui vient la soulager, et afin que cet arc ne poussat pas, 
les premiers pieds-droits de la claire-voie ont ete inclines de fa9on a 
opposer une butee a cette poussee. Aujourd : hui on demanderait d'user 
d'artifices pour obtenir ce resultat de butee sans le rendre apparent ; 
au commencement du xiii e siecle, on n'y mettait pas autrement de 
finesses. ' Viollet-le-Duc. 

Of the old priory Church, the single nave, with a wooden 
roof, was rebuilt in the XIII. c.; but its choir and radiating 
chapels are of the XL c., and the earliest examples of gothic 
architecture in Paris, though their vaultings were renewed 
in the XII. c. 

' Le plan presente une particularite c'est une travee plus large 
percee dans 1'axe du chceur, et une grande chapelle centrale. Ici 
on remarque une disposition de chapelles qui semble appartenir aux 
eglises abbatiales. Ces chapelles sont largement ouvertes sur les bas 
cotes, pen profondes, et sont en communication entre elles par une 
sorte de double bas c6te etroit, qui produii en execution un grand effet. 
. . . Dans les chapiteaux jumeles du tour de choeur, dont la sculpture 
atteinl a la hauteur d'un art complet, on retrouve les elements byzan- 
tins. Cette sculpture rappellerait celle des diptyques et des plaques 
d'ivoire, 1'orfevrerie byzantine. Le sentiment de la composition est 
grand, clair, contenu.' Viollet-le-Duc. 

In recent restorations a tourelle has been constructed 
on the right of the entrance, to match an original tourelle 
on the left : these turrets are hexagonal, with gothic orna- 
ments, and pointed roofs. The church is now occupied by 
a Museum of Hydraulic Machinery. 



138 



PARIS 



In the square facing the Conservatoire is a column with 
a statue of Victory, by Crank, commemorating the Italian 
campaign of 1859. 

Crossing into the Rue du Temple and turning south, on 
the left is the Rue S. Avoye, which commemorates S. Hed- 
wige, daughter of Berthold, Duke of Carinthia. In this 
dirty street lived and worked the famous portrait-painter 




HOTEL S. AIGNAN. 



Largilliere * le peintre des eclatants velours.' An inscrip- 
tion on No. 1 7 marks the site of a hotel of the Constable 
du Guesclin. At No. 20 is one of the oldest signs in Paris 
'a 1'Orme Saint Gervais.' No. 24 has a square tower of 
1 6 10. A gable on No. 61 is a remnant of the convent of 
the Filles de S. Avoye. At No. 71 Rue du Temple, near 
the angle of the Rue de Rambuteau, is the Hotel de S. 
Aignan, built by Pierre Lemuet for M. de Mesmes, Comte 



HdTEL DE S. AIGNAN 



139 



d'Avaux, a celebrated diplomatist of the XVII. c. It after- 
wards belonged to the Due de S. Aignan, ' chef du conseil 
royal des finances' under Louis XIV. The stately entrance, 
which retains its magnificently carved doors, leads to a 
court surrounded by arcades, and the same engaged corin- 
thian pilasters, reaching the whole height of the building, 




DOOR-PANEL, HOTEL S. AIGNAN. 



which we shall see again at the Hotel de Lamoignon. The 
Hotel de S. Aignan is now used for warehouses. 

No. 79 Rue du Temple is the Hotel de Caumartin, 
with a noble portal and good front towards the court. 
No. 100-103 is tne Hotel de Montmorency. No. 115 was* 
the hotel inhabited by Jean Bart. 

Almost opposite the Hotel de S. Aignan the Rue Ram- 
buteau has cut through the Hotel de Mesmes, where the 



1 40 PARIS 

famous Constable, Anne de Montmorency, died of the 
wounds he had received at the battle of S. Denis, Novem- 
ber 12, 1567. He was so ignorant that he could not read ; 
but he had served five kings, had fought in eight great 
battles, and had been employed in ten treaties of peace. 
At the age of seventy-four he had given so violent a blow 
to Robert Stuart, who called upon him to surrender, that 
he had hurled him from his horse and broken two of his 
teeth. 1 

On the east side of the Rue du Temple, the Rue de 
Braque 2 leads to an ancient and picturesque gateway, one 
of the rare relics remaining in Paris from the XIV. c., 
and the only remaining remnant of the Hotel de Clisson, 
built by the famous Constable, friend and companion in 
arms of Duguesclin, in 1371. It was called at first Hotel 
de la Misericorde, because of the pardon Clisson obtained 
from Charles V. for the Parisians, when they came crying 
' Misericorde ! ' here under his windows. Here the Earl of 
Derby, afterwards Henry IV., gave his farewell supper to 
the French nobles before setting out to dispute the crown 
of England. 3 In the XVI. c. this hotel occupied, with 
the Hotels Roche-Guyon and Laval, a vast quadrangular 
space, bounded by the Hotel de Rohan, the Rue de 
Quatre, Rue Chaume, and Rue de Paradis. The Dues 
de Guise became the proprietors of these hotels in 1550, 
and Francois de Lorraine, the Due de Guise murdered 
by a Protestant fanatic near Orleans, pulled them down 
and built a vast Hotel de Guise on their site. This 
famous mansion became the cradle of the Ligue, and 
from hence the order was issued for the Massacre of 

1 Mhnoircs de Castelnau. 

2 Nos. 4 and 6 Rue de Braque have fine portals and balconies ; the former has a 
stately staircase, the latter a ceiling by Lebrun. No. 8 has fine oak portals. The 
next side-street to the N., Rue des Haudriettes, has a pretty XVI 1 1. c. fountain, 
with a naiad by Mignot. No. 4 has a fine courtyard. This street leads into the 
Rue des Quatre Fils Aymon, where the portals of Nos. 16 and 20 deserve notice. 
No. 22 was the hotel of Madame de Deffaud, where she held her famous salon. 

3 Froissart. 



HdTEL DE CLISSON 



141 



S. Bartholomew. It was also from one of the windows 
of this palace that Henri de Guise' le Balafre 'hurled 
the handsome Comte de S. Megrim, whom he discovered 
in the chamber of his wife, Catherine de Cleves, and 




GATE OF THE HOTEL DE CLISSON. 






whom he caused to be assassinated, a few days after, in 
the Rue S. Honore, as he was leaving the Louvre. Hither 
Henri III. sent to implore the Due de Guise to still a 
revolution, and hence he issued an order which was 
productive of instant calm, after which the people cried 



142 PARIS 

so constantly ' Vive Guise ! vive Guise ! ' that at length 
their idol thought it needful to say, 'C'est assez, 
messieurs ; c'est trop ; criez un peu " Vive le roi ! " 
This triumph was too great for a subject. In the words 
of Voltaire 

' Guise en ces grands desseins des ce jour affermi, 
Vit qu'il n'etait plus temps d'offenser a demi, 
Et qu'eleve si haut, mais sur un precipice, 
S'il ne montait au trone, il montait au supplice,' 

and he had reached the verge of a rebellion against his 
sovereign, which would probably have been successful, 
when he was assassinated by the king's order at Blois. 

In 1700 the hotel once more changed its name, being 
bought by Mme. de Soubise, ' que le roi aida fort a payer,' 
says S. Simon ; for at that time she was the favourite of the 
moment with Louis XIV. The king made her husband, 
Francois de Rohan, a prince, a favour which he appreciated 
at its proper value when he answered congratulations with 
' Helas ! cela me vient par ma femme ; je n'en dois pas 
recevoir de compliment.' M. de Soubise, however, devoted 
himself to the embellishment of his hotel ; he pulled down 
the Hotel de Laval and built a grand court of honour, sur- 
rounded by arcades in the form of a horseshoe. This court 
still exists, with an entrance of which the tympanum is 
adorned by an allegorical figure of History, from a design 
of Eugene Delacroix. The next Prince de Soubise rendered 
the hotel famous by the magnificence of his fetes; his 
social qualities made him exceptionally popular, and his 
misfortunes as a general failed to alienate the goodwill 
of Louis XV., a leniency which he repaid by being the 
one faithful friend who accompanied the king's corpse to 
S. Denis. 

The Hotel de Soubise is now occupied by the Archives 
Nationales. The principal fagade was reconstructed by 
Lemaire in 1706. The hotel has been so much added 



LES ARCHIVES NATION ALES 143 

to and altered internally that it possesses little of its 
ancient decorations except the woodwork of the oval 
saloon, and the paintings in that room and over the 
doors of several other apartments, by Boucher, Carl 
Vanloo, &c. It retains, however, its beautiful chapel 
(seldom shown), painted by Niccolo del Abbate, and the 
gallery in which the Due de Guise was walking and 
meditating upon the possible death of Henri III., when 
he said, looking at the frescoes on the walls, 'Je regarde 
toujours avec plaisir Duguesclin ; il eut la gloire de 
detroner un tyran.' ' Oui, certes,' the gentleman to whom 
he spoke 1 had the courage to answer, ' mais ce tyran 
n'etait pas son roi ; c'etait 1'ennemi de son pays.' 

The Museum of the Archives (open to the public on 
Sundays only, from 12 to 3) is exceedingly interesting. A 
vast number of curious documents are displayed and well 
seen in glass cases, beginning with the diplomas of the 
Merovingian, Carlovingian, and Capetian kings, and con- 
tinuing through the reigns of the Valois and Bourbon 
sovereigns to the Republic, Consulate, and Empire. Of 
special interest are the papers relating to the trial of Jeanne 
Dare. A very curious picture Typus religionis shows 
all the faithful of different centuries in an ark, attacked by 
devils, and boats manned by apostates, evil-thinkers, &c. 
The Musee Sigillographique displays a collection of seals 
from the time of Childeric I. (457) 

Ascending the noble staircase, which has a painted 
ceiling by Jobbe-Duval, we find several rooms devoted to 
the later Archives of French History. In the beautifully 
decorated Salle des Bourbons, formerly the bedroom of 
the Princesse de Soubise, with dessus-de-porte by Boucher] 
are letters of d'Aguesseau, d'Antin, Dubois, the Due de 
Maine, Due de Richelieu, Marshal Saxe, Maupeou, Vol- 
taire, Crebillon, Due de Choiseul, Cardinal de Bernis, 

1 He was the son of Jean le Seneschal, who threw himself in the way to save 
the life of Frangois I. in the battle of Pa via, and was killed in his place. 



144 PARIS 

Buffon, Turgot, Mesdames Louise, Sophie, and Victoire, 
Princesse de Lamballe (with beautiful handwriting), de 
Montmorin, Bailly, de Lamoignon, Due d'Orleans, Mont- 
golfier, Florian, &c. Here also are the Proces of Damiens, 
the Letters of S. Simon about the prerogatives of dukes, 
the will of Marie Leczinska, &c. Inside the railing of the 
ruelle which contained the bed are the greatest treasures. 
The volumes of the Journal of Louis XVI. his autograph 
will executed in the Temple; the prods-verbal for his 
burial ; and the last touching letter of Marie Antoinette 
to Madame Elisabeth (written in the Conciergerie, October 

i, I793)- 

In the next room (the winter salon of the Princesse 
de Soubise, with decorations by Boffrand, and paintings by 
C. Natoire), are letters of Barnave, Mirabeau, Necker, &c. ; 
the Declaration concerning the Etats Nationaux, June 
23, 1789; the Oath of Louis XVI. accepting the Con- 
stitution, September 14, 1791; and some playing cards 
inscribed at the back by Louis XVI. with the names of 
all the persons to be admitted to his intimate circle. 

The third room, which has a beautiful dessus-de-porte 
by Boucher of Mercury educating Cupid, and a Venus 
at the Bath by the same artist, contains the table from the 
cabinet of Louis XVI., which was taken to the Comite de 
Salut public at the Tuileries, and on which the wounded 
Robespierre was laid with his broken jaw through the 
night of 9 to 10 Thermidor. 

In the Salle du Consulat (with paintings by Restout, 
Boucher, and Vanloo) are many letters in the admirable 
hand of Napoleon I., also autograph letters of Charlotte 
Corday, Merlin de Thionville, Carnot, Barras, Danton, 
Cathelineau, Herault de Sechelles, Fouquier-Tinville, Ro- 
bespierre, Madame Roland, the Girondins, &c. 

The Rue des Archives was formerly divided between the 
Rue du Grand Chantier and Rue des Enfants Rouges. 

(Behind the Musee, at the entrance of the Rue Chariot. 



SS. JEAN ET FRANCOIS 145 

is the Church of S. Jean and S. Francois, founded 1623, to 
serve a Capuchin convent. It contains two beautiful 
statues S. Denis, by Jacques Sarrazin, and S. Frangois 
d'Assise, by Germain Pilon, ordered by Anne of Austria for 
the abbey of Montmartre.) Amongst the pictures are 
(behind the high altar) the Baptism of Christ, by Paulin 
Guerin, and (left of nave) S. Louis visiting those stricken 
with the plague, by Ary Scheffer. 

(The Rue Chariot contains a number of noticeable 
houses. At No. 5 the various aspects of the Ruelle 
Sourdis will draw attention. No. 38 has a fine court. 
Nos. 58-60 formed the Hotel Bayard, the residence of 
the ' chevalier sans peur et sans reproche,' and retain fine 
old panelling. No. 82 is a good XVIII. c. hotel.) 

(A little south of the Musee des Archives, by the Rue 
de I'Homme Arme, is the Rue des Billettes. To expiate 
the crime of the Jew Jonathas, who was burnt alive in 
1290, for piercing the Host with a penknife, a chapel was 
built here, to which Philippe le Bel annexed a monastery 
of the Hospitallers of la Charite de Notre Dame. These 
were suppressed and their convent ceded to the Carmelites, 
in 1631. Sold in 1793, the convent of Les Carmes 
Billettes was repurchased in 1808, and its church given 
to Lutheran worship. It will be found on the left of 
the Rue des Billettes in descending to the Rue S. Antoine. 
The door to the left of the church portal is the entrance 
to a beautiful little Cloister of the end of the XV. c., unique 
in Paris, and little known there.) 

Farther up the Rue du Temple, the Rue de Gravilliers 
(on left) has a house (No. 69) of the time of Henri III., 
perhaps built by a relation of Gabrielle d'Estrees, to whom 
it is attributed. During the Revolution this street was 
considered to be a patriot-centre; at No. 38, the accom- 
plices of Georges Cadoudal were arrested. 

In the Rue du Temple, we now come (right) to a 
garden-square with fountains. This is all that remains 
VOL. i. K 



146 PARIS 

to mark the site of the Temple, with which the saddest 
associations of Paris are connected, and which gave its 
name to the street called Rue de la Milice du Temple in 
1235, and Rue de la Chevalerie du Temple in 1252. 

The Temple was a moated citadel, surrounded by 
battlemented walls, with round towers at intervals. Thus 
it continued for 500 years. It was only finally destroyed 
in 1820. The Rues du Temple, de Vendome, de Chariot, 
and de la Corderie, now cover the greater part of its en- 
closure ; the Marche du Temple and the adjoining square 
only represent the space around the central donjon. 

The Maison du Temple is mentioned in a charter of 
Bishop Eudes, of 1205; the Commanderie du Temple in 
a charter of 1211. The already fortified Temple was not 
enclosed in the walls of Philippe Auguste (1185). Henry 
III. of England made it his residence for eight days in 
1254, when he came to Paris to visit S. Louis and adore 
his collection of relics. Under Philippe le Hardi, the Grand 
Priors of the Templars began to have disputes with the 
kings of France ; and under Philippe le Bel their cupidity 
and their vast wealth became fatal to them. The king 
beheld the great riches of Jacques de Molay whilst he was 
receiving his protecting hospitality during an insurrection 
in Paris. Soon afterwards (October 13, 1307), the Grand 
Master was arrested in the Temple, with 140 knights who 
had come thither to attend a chapter of the Order. Torture 
wrung from some of the number a confession, true or false, 
of the many accusations brought against them, but they all 
died protesting their innocence, the Grand Prior and the 
Commanders of Aquitaine and Normandy being the last 
to suffer (March 12, 1311). The Order was abolished by 
Clement V. in 1313, and its riches bestowed upon that of 
S. John of Jerusalem, but Philippe had already seized upon 
all the riches of the Templars in Paris. 

The Knights of S. John had become Knights of Rhodes, 
when their Grand Master Foulque de Villant conquered 



THE TEMPLE 147 

the infidels in Rhodes in 1307, but henceforth, in Paris, 
they always bore the name of Chevaliers du Temple. 
Under their rule, the Temple remained for 200 years much 
as the Templars had left it crowned with towers, defended 
by a moat, and for some time looking down upon vast 
open lands marais, cultures^ and courtilles, though a great 
part of these were built over when a new circuit of walls 
was begun under Jean in 1356, and finished under Charles 
V. in 1380. A vast open space within the walls of the 
fortress remained unenclosed till Henri IV. planned the 
Place de France, and when his death cut short his design, 
new streets were erected, bearing names of provinces and 
chief towns of France. Within the walls (which continued 
to be entered by a single gate, between two great towers 
opposite the Rue des Fontaines 1 ), many of the old buildings 
were pulled down by the Hospitallers. Thus, in the XVII. 
c., there only remained the square Tour de Cesar, destroyed 
in 1816; the old Chapel of the first Templars, destroyed 
1650; the hospital, the cloister, the great church with its 
tombs of Grand Masters 2 and handsome campanile ; and, 
above all, the Tour du Temple, a massive square building, 
with a dry moat, and round tourelles at each angle. 

The accommodation in the tower consisted of four stories, 
of a single room, in which a central pillar supported the 
arched vaulting of the roof. One of the tourelles was a 
staircase, the others contained little chambers communi- 
cating with the central one. 

' La Tour du Temple datait de la fin du xiii e siecle et avait etc 
achevee en 1306, peu avant la dissolution de 1'ordre. Cette tour etait 
sur plan car re, avec tourelles aux quatre angles, montant de fond. Elle 
servait de tresor, de depot de titres et de prison, comme la plupart 
de ces donjons appartenant aux etablissements des chevaliers du 
Temple. Get edifice fut detruit en iZQ^Viollct-le-Diic, ix. 169. 



1 Which contained the Convent of S. Elizabeth, and that of La Madeleine, 
known, during the Revolution, as the Prison of Les Madelonnettes. 

2 It contained many relics, supposed to include the head of S. John the Baptist, 
also claimed by the Cathedral of Amiens. 



148 PARIS 

Up to the end of the XVII. c., the Temple continued 
to be almost in the country. Mme. de Coulanges, living 
within its precincts, writes to Mme. de Sevigne of the 
uninterrupted view of the country prolonging her garden 
as far as the eye could reach. 

From the time of the Templars the Tour du Temple 
had been occasionally used as a state prison. The Grand 
Priors had long ceased to live in it, and in the XVII. c. 
they built a hotel for themselves, with a handsome en- 
trance upon the Rue du Temple. Part of this hotel still 
existed in 1789. It had been enlarged by the Chevalier 
d'Orleans, and adorned with paintings by Nattier and 
Raoux. Its little garden, exactly marked out by the pre- 
sent square, contained one of the finest and oldest chestnut 
trees in France. A number of smaller hotels collected 
round that of the Grand Prieur, where many aristocratic 
families settled. The Hotel de Boisboudrand was inhabited 
by the Abbe de Chaulieu, called by Voltaire ' 1'Anacreon 
du Temple'; Rousseau lived in 1770 at the Hotel de 
Guise, where Mile, de Guise was born, and whither she 
returned, soon after her marriage with the Marechal Due de 
Richelieu, to live and die in her birthplace ; in the Hotel 
de Boufflers lived the charming Marquise de Boufflers, to 
be near her friend the Grand Prior, Louis FranQois de 
Bourbon-Conti. The freedom from taxes which was en- 
joyed there made a great number of artisans settle within 
the Temple walls, whilst the right of sanctuary brought 
thither a number of debtors, who supported themselves by 
trades which were prohibited in Paris itself, especially the 
manufacture of false jewellery ' bijoux du Temple.' 

From the XVI. c., the office of Grand Prior and the 
Commanderie of the Temple was the richest appanage of 
the bastards of the royal family. Henri d'Angouleme, son 
of Henri II. by a Scotch lady, held it from 1507 to 1586; 
Charles de Valois, Due d'Angouleme, son of Charles IX. 
and the Dame de Belleville, succeeded; Alexandre de 



THE TEMPLE 149 

Vendome, son of Henri IV. and the Duchess of Beaufort, 
was instituted in 1604, at six years old, in the church 01 
the Temple 'lieu propre et de tout temps affecte' aux 
batards.' 1 In 1678 the office was obtained by the brilliant 
Philippe de Vendome (great-grandson of Henri IV. and 
Gabrielle d'Estrees), who, under the Regency, instituted 
the 'Soupers du Temple,' famous for their wit. In 1719 
he resigned the office of Grand Prieur (continuing to be 
Prieur de Vendome) to Jean Philippe d'Orleans, son of 
the Regent, by Mile, de Sery, Comtesse d'Argenton. The 
last two Grand Priors were not bastards, but Princes of 
the Blood Louis Frangois de Bourbon, Prince de Conti 
(ob. 1776) and Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Due d'Angou- 
leme, son of the Comte d'Artois. The latter was in his 
cradle when he succeeded, and did not keep the office till 
his majority, as the Order of Malta was suppressed, with 
all the religious Orders, June 10, 1790. 

In August 1793, in answer to the demand of the Com- 
mune to the Assembly, Louis XVI. and his family were 
brought as prisoners to the Temple. 

' L'ame navree de douleur, la famille royale arriva au Temple. 
Santerre fut la premiere personne qui se presenta dans la cour ou Ton 
descendit. II fit aux officiers municipaux un signe que, dans le mo- 
ment, je ne pus interpreter. Depuis que j'ai connu les localites du 
Temple, j'ai juge que Pobjet de ce signe etait de conduire, des 1'instant 
de son arrivee, le roi dans la tour. Un mouvement de tete de la part 
des officiers municipaux annona qu'il n'etait pas encore temps. 

' La famille royale fut introduite dans la partie des batiments dite 
le palais, demeure ordinaire de Monseigneur, comte d'Artois, quand 
il venait a Paris. Les municipaux se tenaient aupres du roi, le chapeau 
sur la tete, et ne lui donnaient d'autre titre que celui de Monsieur 
Un homme a longue barbe, que j'avais pris d'abord pour un juif, 
affectait de repeter a tout propos cette qualification. 

' Dans la persuasion ou etait le roi que desormais le palais du 
Temple allait etre sa demeure, il voulait en visiter les appartements. 
Tandis que les municipaux se faisaient un plaisir cruel de 1'erreur du 

1 Pierre de 1'Estoile. 



150 PARIS 

roi pour mieux jouir ensuite de sa surprise, Sa Majeste se plaisait a 
faire d'avance la distribution des divers logements. 

' Aussitot 1'interieur du Temple fut garni de nombreux factionnaires. 
La consigne etait si severe, qu'on ne pouvait faire nn pas sans etre 
arrete. Au milieu de cette foule de satellites, le roi montrait un calme 
qui peignait le repos de sa conscience. 

'A dix heures, on servit le souper. Pendant le repas, qui fut court, 
Manuel se tint debout a cote du roi. Le souper fini, la famille royale 
rentra dans le salon. Des cet instant, Louis XVI. fut abandonne a 
cette commune factieuse, qui 1'investit de gardiens, ou plut6t de ge61iers, 
a qui elle donna le titre de commissaires. En entrant au Temple, les 
municipaux avaient prevenu les personnes du service que la famille 
royale ne coucherait pas dans le palais, qu'elle 1'habiterait je jour 
seulement : ainsi nous ne fumes pas surpris d'entendre, vers onze heures 
du soir, 1'un des commissaires nous donner 1'ordre de prendre le pen 
d'effets en linge et vetements qu'il avait etc possible de se procurer, et 
de le suivre. 

' Un municipal, portant une lanterne, me precedait. A la faible lueur 
qu'elle repandait, je cherchais a decouvrir le lieu qui etait destine a 
la famille royale. On s'arreta au pied d'un corps de batiment que les 
ombres de la nuit me firent croire considerable. Sans pouvoir rien 
distinguer, je remarquai neanmoins une difference entre la forme de cet 
edifice et celle du palais que nous quittions. La partie anterieure du toit, 
qui me parut surmontee de fleches que je pris pour des clochers, etait 
couronnee de creneaux, sur lesquels, de distance en distance, brulaient 
des lampions. Malgre la clarte qu'ils jetaient par intervalles, je ne 
compris pas quel pouvait etre cet edifice, bati sur un plan extraor- 
dinaire, ou du moins tout a fait nouveau pour moi. 

' En ce moment, un des municipaux, rompant le morne silence 
qu'il avait observe pendant toute la marche : "Ton maitre," me dit-il, 
"etait accoutume aux lambris dores. Eh bien ! il verra comme on 
loge les assassins du peuple : suis-moi." Je montai plusieurs marches : 
une porte etroite et basse me conduisit a un escalier construit en 
coquille de colima9on. Lorsque je passai de cet escalier principal 
a un plus petit qui menait au second etage, je m'apercus que j'etais 
dans une tour. J'entrai dans une chambre eclairee du jour par une 
seule fenetre, depourvue en partie des meubles les plus necessaires, et 
n'ayant qu'un mauvais lit et-trois ou quatre sieges. "C'est la que ton 
maitre couchera," me dit le municipal. Chamilly m'avait rejoint : nous 
nous regardames sans dire mot : on nous jeta, comme par grace, une 
paire de draps. Enfin on nous laissa seuls quelques moments. 

' Une alcove, sans tenture ni rideaux, renfermait une couchette, 
qu'une vieille claie d'osier annon9ait etre remplie d'insectes. Nous 
travaillames a rendre le plus propres possible et la chambre et le lit. 



THE TEMPLE 151 

Le roi entra ; il ne temoigna ni surprise ni humeur. Des gravures, la 
plupart peu decentes, tapissaient les murs de la chambre : il les 6ta 
lui-meme. "Je ne veux pas," dit-il, "laisser de pareils objets sous les 
yeux de ma fille." Sa Majeste se coucha, et dormit paisiblement. 
Chamilly et moi restames toute la nuit assis aupres de son lit. Nous 
contemplions avec respect ce calme de 1'homme irreprochable luttant 
contre 1'infortune, et la domptant par son courage. Les factionnaires 
poses a la porte de la chambre etaient releves d'heure en heure ; et 
chaque jour les municipaux de garde etaient changes. . . . 

' Ce n'etait qu'au moment ou je levais et couchais le roi, qu'il hasar- 
dait de me dire quelques mots. Assis et couvert par ses rideaux, ce 
qu'il me disait n'etait point entendu par le commissaire. Un jour 
que Sa Majeste avait eu les oreilles frappees des injures dont le muni- 
cipal de garde m'avait accable : " Vous avez eu beaucoup a souffrir 
aujourd'hui," me dit le roi. " Eh bien ! pour 1'amour de moi, con- 
tinuez a supporter tout : ne repliquez rien." J'executai facilement cet 
ordre. Plus le poids du malheur s'appesantissait sur mon maitre, plus 
sa personne me devenait sacree. 

' Une autre fois, comme j'attachais au chevet de son lit une epingle 
noire, dont j 'avals fait une espece de porte-montre, le roi me glissa 
dans la main un papier roule. "Voila de mes cheveux," me dit-il, 
"c'est le seul present que je puisse vous faire dans ce moment."' 
Hue, ' Memoir es? 

The faithful valet of Louis XVI. has given us details 
of the life of the royal prisoners in the Temple. 

' Le roi se levait ordinairement a six heures du matin ; il se rasait 
lui-meme; je le coiffais et 1'habillais. II passait aussitot dans son 
cabinet de lecture. Cette piece etant tres-petite, le municipal restait 
dans la chambre a coucher, la porte entr'ouverte, afin d'avoir toujours 
les yeux sur le roi. Sa Majeste priait a genoux pendant cinq a six 
minutes, et lisait ensuite jusqu'a neuf heures. Dans cet intervalle, 
apres avoir fait sa chambre et prepare la table pour le dejeuner, 
je descendais chez la reine : elle n'ouvrait sa porte qu'a mon arrivee, 
afin d'empecher que le municipal n'entrat chez elle. Je faisais les 
cheveux du jeune prince, j'arrangeais la toilette de la reine, et j'allais, 
pour le meme service, dans la chambre de madame Royale et de 
madame Elisabeth. Ce moment de la toilette etait un de ceux ou je 
pouvais instruire la reine et les princesses de ce que j'avais appris. Un 
signe indiquait que j'avais quelque chose a leur dire, et Tune d'elles, 
causant avec I'ofncier municipal, detournait son attention. 

* A neuf heures, la reine, ses enfants et madame Elisabeth montaient 



152 PARIS 

dans la chambre du roi pour le dejeuner : apres les avoir servis, je 
faisais les chambres de la reine et des princesses. ... A dix heures, 
le roi descendait avec sa famille dans la chambre de la reine et y passait 
la journee. II s'occupait de 1'education de son fils, lui faisant reciter 
quelques passages de Corneille et de Racine ; lui donnait des Ie9ons 
de geographic, et I'exe^ait a laver des cartes. L'intelligence pre- 
maturee du jeune prince repondait parfaitement aux tendres soins du 
roi. Sa memoire etait si heureuse que sur une carte couverte d'une 
feuille de papier, il indiquait les departements, les districts, les villes 
et le cours des rivieres : c'etait la nouvelle geographic de la France 
que le roi lui montrait. La reine, de son c6te, s'occupait de 1'education 
de sa fille ; et ces differentes Ie9ons duraient jusqu'a onze heures. Le 
reste de la matinee se passait a coudre, a tricoter, ou travailler a de la 
tapisserie. A midi les trois princesses se rendaient dans la chambre 
de madame Elisabeth pour quitter leur robe du matin ; aucun muni- 
cipal n'entrait avec elles. 

* A une heure, lorsque le temps etait beau, on faisait descendre la 
famille royale dans le jardin, quatre officiers municipaux et un chef de 
legion de la garde nationale 1'accompagnaient. Comme il y avait 
quantite d'ouvriers dans le Temple, employes aux demolitions des 
maisons et aux constructions des nouveaux murs, on ne donnait pour 
promenade qu'une partie de 1'allee des marronniers ; il m'etait aussi 
permis de participer a ces promenades, pendant lesquelles je faisais 
jouer le jeune prince, soit au ballon, au palet, a la course, soit a 
d'autres jeux d'exercice. 

' A deux heures, on remontait dans la tour, ou je servais le diner ; 
et tous les jours a la meme heure, Santerre, brasseur de biere, com- 
mandant general de la garde nationale de Paris, venait au Temple, 
accompagne de deux aides-de-camp. II visitait exactement les dif- 
ferentes pieces. Quelquefois le roi lui adressait la parole, la reine 
jamais. Apres le repas, la famille royale se rendait dans la chambre 
de la reine. Leurs Majestes faisaient assez ordinairement une partie 
de piquet ou de trictrac. C'etait pendant ce temps que je dinais. 

'A quatre heures, le roi prenait quelques instants de repos, les 
princesses autour de lui chacune un livre a la main ; le plus grand 
silence regnait pendant ce sommeil. 

' Au reveil du roi, on reprenait la conversation ; ce prince me faisait 
asseoir aupres de lui. Je donnais sous ses yeux des Ie9ons d'ecriture 
a son fils ; et, d'apres ses indications, je copiais des exemples dans 
les CEuvres de Montesquieu et d'autres auteurs celebres. Apres cette 
Ie9on, je conduisais le jeune prince dans la chambre de madame 
Elisabeth, ou je le faisais jouer a la balle et au volant. 

' A la fin du jour, la famille royale se pla9ait autour d'une table ; 
la reine faisait a haute voix une lecture de livres d'histoire ou de 



THE TEMPLE 153 

quelques ouvrages bien choisis, propres a instruire et a amuser ses 
enfants, mais dans lesquels des rapprochements imprevus avec sa 
situation se presentaient souvent et donnaient lieu a des idees bien 
douloureuses. Madame Elisabeth lisait a son tour, et cette lecture 
durait jusqu'a huit heures. Je servais ensuite le souper du jeune prince 
dans la chambre de madame Elisabeth. La famille royale y assistait ; 
le roi se plaisait a y donner quelque distraction a ses enfants, en leur 
faisant deviner des enigmes tirees d'une collection de Mercures de 
France qu'il avait trouvee dans la bibliotheque. 

' Apres le souper de monsieur le Dauphin, je le deshabillais : c'etait 
la reine qui lui faisait reciter ses prieres : il en faisait une particuliere 
pour madame la princesse de Lamballe, et par une autre il demandait 
a Dieu de proteger les jours de madame la marquise de Tourzel, sa 
gouvernante. Lorsque les municipaux etaient trop pres, ce jeune 
prince avait de lui-meme la precaution de dire ces deux dernieres 
prieres a voix basse. Je le faisais passer ensuite dans le cabinet ; et si 
j'avais quelque chose a apprendre a la reine, je saisissais cet instant. 
Je 1'instruisais du contenu des journaux : on n'en laissait arriver aucun 
dans la tour ; mais un crieur envoye expres venait tous les soirs a sept 
heures, s'approchait pres du mur du cote de la rotonde dans 1'enclos du 
Temple, et criait, a plusieurs reprises, le precis de tout ce qui s'etait 
passe a 1'assemblee nationale, a la commune et aux armees. C'etait 
dans le cabinet du roi que je me placais pour 1'ecouter, et la, dans le 
silence, il m'etait facile de retenir tout ce que j'entendais. 

'A neuf heures, le roi soupait. La reine et madame Elisabeth 
restaient alternativement aupres de monsieur le Dauphin pendant ce 
repas : je leur portais ce qu'elles desiraient du souper ; c'etait encore 
un des instants ou je pouvais leur parler sans temoins. 

' Apres le souper, le roi remontait un instant dans la chambre de la 
reine, lui donnait la main en signe d'adieu, ainsi qu'a sa sceur, et 
recevait les embrassements de ses enfans ; il allait dans sa chambre, se 
retirait dans soil cabinet, et y lisait jusqu'a minuit. La reine et les 
princesses se renfermaient chez elles. Un des municipaux restait dans 
la petite piece qui separait leurs chambres, et y passait la nuit : 1'autre 
suivait Sa Majeste.' -Journal de Cttry. 

Here, on January 20, 1793, the day before his execution, 
Louis XVI. took leave of his family. 

' A huit heures et demie, la porte s'ouvrit : la reine parut la premiere 
tenant son fils par la main, ensuite madame Royale et madame Elisa- 
beth ; tous se precipiterent dans les bras du roi. Un morne silence' 
regna pendant quelques minutes, et ne fut interrompu que par des 



154 PARIS 

sanglots. La reine fit un mouvement pour entrainer le roi vers sa 
chambre. "Non," dit le roi, "passons dans cette salle ; je ne puis 
vous voir que la." Us y entrerent et j'en fermai la porte qui etait en 
vitrage. Le roi s'assit, la reine a sa gauche, madame Elisabeth a sa 
droite, madame Royale presqu'en face, et le jeune prince resta debout 
entre les jambes du roi ; tous etaient penches vers lui, et le tenaient 
souvent embrasse. Cette scene de douleur dura sept quarts-d'heure, 
pendant lequel il fut impossible de rien entendre ; on voyait seulement 
qu'apres chaque phrase du roi, les sanglots des princesses redoublaient, 
duraient quelques minutes, et qu'ensuite le roi recomme^ait a parler. 
II fut aise de juger a leurs mouvements que lui-meme leur avait appris 
sa condamnation. 

' A dix heures un quart, le roi se leva le premier, et tous le suivirent, 
j'ouvris la porte; la reine tenait le roi par le bras droit. Leurs 
Majestes donnaient chacune une main a monsieur le Dauphin ; madame 
Royale a la gauche tenait le roi embrasse par le milieu du corps ; 
madame Elisabeth du meme c6te, mais un peu plus en arriere, avait 
saisi le bras gauche d son auguste frere ; ils firent quelques pas vers 
la po.rte d'entree, en poussant les gemissements les plus douloureux. 
"Je vous assure," leur dit le roi, "que je vous verrai demain matin, a 
huit heures." "Vous nous le promettez," repeterent-ils tous ensemble. 
"Oui, je vous le promets." " Pourquoi pas a sept heures?" dit la 
reine. " Eh bien ! oui, a sept heures," repondit le roi ; "adieu." . . . 
II prononca cet adieu d'une maniere si expressive que les sanglots 
redoublerent. Madame Royale tomba evanouie aux pieds du roi, 
qu'elle tenait embrasse ; je la relevai et j'aidai madame Elisabeth a la 
soutenir ; le roi, voulant mettre fin a cette scene dechirante, leur donna 
les plus tendres embrassements, et cut la force de s'arracher de leurs 
bras. "Adieu, . . Adieu, . ." dit-il, et il rentra dans sa chambre.' 
-Journal de Cttry. 

On July 3, the Queen was deprived of her son. 

'Louis XVII., arrache des bras de la reine, avait ete sequeslre 
dans la partie de la tour que le roi avait occupee. La, ce jeune prince, 
que quelques-uns des regicides appelaient le louveteau du Temple, 
etait abandonne aux brutalites d'un monstre nomme Simon, autrefois 
cordonnier, ivrogne, joueur, debauche. L'age, 1'innocence, 1'infortune, 
la figure celeste, la langueur et les larmes de 1'enfant royal, rien ne 
pouvait attendrir ce gardien feroce. Un jour, etant ivre, peu s'en 
fallut qu'il n'arrachat d'un coup de serviette 1'ceil de ce jeune prince 
que, par raffinement d'outrage, il avait contraint de le servir a table. 
II le battait sans pitie. 






THE TEMPLE 



155 



c Un jour, dans un acces de rage, il prit un chenet, et, 1'ayant leve 
sur lui, il le menaa de 1'assommer. L'heritier de tant de rois n'enten- 
dait a chaque instant que des mots grossiers et des chansons obscenes. 
"Capet," lui dit un jour Simon, "si ces Vendeens te delivraient, que 
ferais-tu?" "Je vous pardonnerais," lui repondit le jeune roi.' Htte, 
' Dernier es anntes de Louis XV IS 

The Dauphin died in his prison, of the ill-treatment he 
had received, on June 9, 1795. 

On August 2, 1793, the Queen was separated from her 
daughter and Madame Elisabeth, and removed to the 
Conciergerie. Madame Royale relates 

' Le 2 aout, a deux heures du matin, on vint nous eveiller pour lire 
a ma mere le decret de la Convention qui ordonnait que, sur la requisi- 
tion du procureur de la Commune, elle serait conduite a la conciergerie 
pour qu'on lui fit son proces. Elle entendit la lecture de ce decret 
sans s'emouvoir et sans leur dire une seule parole ; ma tante et moi nous 
demandames de suite a suivre ma mere, mais on ne nous accorda pas 
cette grace. Pendant qu'elle fit le paquet de ses vetements, les munici- 
paux ne la quitterent point ; elle fut meme obligee de s'habiller devant 
eux. Us lui demanderent ses poches, qu'elle donna ; ils les fouillerent 
et prirent tout ce qu'il y avait dedans. . . Ma mere, apres m'avoir 
tendrement embrassee, et recommande de prendre courage, d'avoir 
bien soin de ma tante, et de lui obeir comme a une seconde mere, me 
renouvela les memes instructions que mon pere ; puis, se jetant dans 
les bras de ma tante, elle lui recommanda ses enfants. Je ne lui 
repondis rien, tant j'etais effrayee de 1'idee de la voir pour la derniere 
fois ; ma tante lui dit quelques mots bien bas. Alors ma mere partit 
sans jeter les yeux sur nous, de peur sans doute que sa fermete ne 
1'abandonnat. En sortant, elle se frappa la tete au guichet, ne pensant 
pas a se baisser ; on lui demanda si elle s'etait fait du mal. "Oh! 
non," dit-elle, " rien a present ne peut me faire du mal." ' Rtcit des 
tvenements arrives au Temple, 

On May 9, 1794, Madame Elisabeth was carried off to 
execution, and her niece was left alone in her prison. 

' Le 9 mai, au moment ou nous allions nous mettre au lit, on ouvrit 
les verrous et on vint frapper a no(*fe porte. Ma tante dit qu'elle 
passait sa robe ; on lui repondit que cela ne pouvait pas etre si long, et 
on frappa si fort, qu'on pensa enfoncer la porte. Elle ouvrit quand 



156 PARIS 

elle fut habillee. On lui dit : "Citoyenne, veux-tu bien descendre?" 
Et ma niece : " On s'en occupera apres." Ma tante m'embrassa et me 
dit de me calmer, qu'elle allait remonter. "Non, citoyenne, tu ne 
remonteras pas," lui dit-on ; " prends ton bonnet et descends." On 
1'accabla alors d'injures et de grossieretes ; elle les soufirit avec 
patience, prit son bonnet, m'embrassa encore, et me dit d'avoir du 
courage et de la fermete, d'esperer toujours en Dieu, de me servir des 
bons principes de religion que mes parents m'avaient donnes, et de ne 
point manquer aux dernieres recommandations de mon pere et de ma 
mere. Elle sortit ; arrivee en bas, on lui demanda ses poches, oil il n'y 
avait rien. Enfin, apres mille injures, elle partit avec 1'huissier du 
tribunal.' Rtcit des tvencments arrives an Temple. 

Madame Royale was released from the Temple, 
December 19, 1795, after a captivity of three years, four 
months, and five days. 

' Elle ne laissa d'autre trace de sa captivite et de ses larmes dans 
sa prison que ces deux lignes gravees par elle sur la pierre de sa fenetre 
pendant les longues oisivetes de la reclusion : " O mon pere, veille sur 
moi du haut du ciel ! O mon Dieu, pardonnez a ceux qui ont fait 
mourir mon pere.' Lamartine , ' Hist, de la Restauration? 

At the Restoration the Temple was bestowed upon 
Marie Adelaide de Bourbon, Mile, de Conde, the friend 
of Mme. Elisabeth, who, being then Abbess of Remiremont, 
had emigrated with her family in 1786. She passed her 
exile first as a nun (Soeur Marie Joseph) at Valsainte, near 
Martigny, in the Valais, then at Warsaw. Afterwards she 
established a convent of the Perpetual Adoration, close 
to the prison of Louis XVI., and died and was buried 
there. 

Nothing is now left of the Temple, but (near a rock on 
the south side of the square) the weeping-willow which 
Madame Royale, then Duchesse d'Angouleme, planted in 
1814, on the site of the prison of her sorrows. The Square 
du Temple also contains a statue of Beranger by Doublemard, 
the * Retiarius ' of Noel, the * Age sans Pitie ' of Sc/ioenewerk, 
and the ' Harponneur ' of 'frelix Richard. 

Higher up the Rue du Temple (left) is the Church of 



HdTEL DE TALLARD 



157 



6*. Elisabeth, founded by Marie de Medicis in 1628, for a 
convent of Franciscan nuns. It contains a singular font 
of 1654, and 100 little XVI. c. sculptures in wood, of Bible 
History, said to come from a church at Arras. The picture 
of the Apotheosis of S. Elisabeth is by Alaux. 

In the Rue de Bretagne, running along the lower side 
of the Jardin du Temple, No. i is the ancient Hotel de 




OVER DOORWAY, RUE V1EILLE DU TEMPLE. 



Tallard, built for the celebrated Marechal de France who 
was vanquished at Blenheim by Marlborough : the staircase 
is a masterwork of Bullet. The Rue de Bretagne will take 
us into the Rue Vieille du Temple, one of the busiest streets 
of the quarter. 

On the east, the Rue des Coutures S. Gervais contains 
(No. i) the entrance to the Ecole Centrale des Arts et 



158 PARIS 

Manufactures. The hotel was built, in 1656, for the 
financier Aubert de Fontenay. His monogram remains 
on the balustrade of the splendid staircase. His having 
become enriched by the salt-tax at one time gave his 
house the name of Hotel Sale. Long the Venetian em- 
bassy, it became the property of the Marechal de Villeroy, 
then of M. de Juigne, Archbishop of Paris. The archi- 
episcopal kitchens are now laboratories. A great hall is 
called the Salle de Jupiter. 

The Rue Vieille du Temple is full of fine old houses. 
No. 100, with a fine portal, was the Hotel d'Epernon. 
No. 1 08 has a handsome courtyard in brick and stone. 
At No. 54 is the Tourelle of the Hotel Barbette, which 
we shall return to in the next chapter. On the site of 
No. 86 was the Theatre du Marais, where the Cid was 
first acted. The gateway at No. 87 leads into the court- 
yard of the stately Palais Cardinal, begun, in 1712, upon 
part of the site previously occupied by the Hotel de 
Soubise. The court of this palace and its surroundings 
are magnificent of their kind, and were famous as the 
residence of the handsome and dissolute Cardinal de 
Rohan, who, utterly duped by the intrigues of a woman 
calling herself Comtesse Lamotte Valois, was arrested for 
the ' affaire du collier,' and imprisoned in the Bastille. It 
was his trial (followed by an acquittal) which rendered 
Marie Antoinette unpopular with the clergy and a great 
part of the aristocracy, besides causing an exposure of 
court scandals and extravagance fatally injurious to her 
with the people. This was the Cardinal Grand Almoner 
of France, who, when his brother the Grand Chamberlain 
failed for thirty-three millions, announced proudly ' II 
n'y a qu'un roi ou un Rohan qui puisse faire une pareille 
banqueroute ; c'etait une banqueroute de souverain.' 

The Palais Cardinal is now used for the Imprimerie 
Nationale (open to visitors provided with an order from 
the Directors, at 2 P.M. exactly, on Thursdays only). The 



HdTEL DE HOLLANDS 



'59 



institution has its origin in the Imprimerie Royale estab- 
lished by Francois I. in the Louvre. It was partly trans- 
ferred to the Elyse'e Bourbon in 1792, and was established 
in the Hotel de Toulouse in 1798. In 1809 it was brought 
to its present site. The most interesting typographical 
curiosity here is the set of matrices of the Grec du Roi 
Greek characters engraved for Francois I. 

No. 64 was the Hotel de Pommereu. No. 71 was the 
house of Jehan le Blanc, silversmith of Isabeau de Baviere. 




IN THE COURT OF THE PALAIS CARDINAL. 



At No. 47, opposite the Marche des B lanes- Manteaux, is 
the Hotel de Hollande, which was the residence of the 
ambassador of Holland under Louis XIV. It was built 
in the XVII. c. by Pierre Cottard for Amelot de Bisseul, 
and was, at one time, the residence of Beaumarchais. The 
splendid entrance recalls that of the Ecole de Dessin ; its 
gates are decorated with Medusa heads, angels supporting 
shields, &c. The court is very rich in sculptured Carya- 
tides. At the back of the entrance portal is a great relief 



160 PARIS 

by Regnaudin of Romulus and Remus suckled by the 
wolf and found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rooms 
were adorned with bas-reliefs and paintings by Sarazin, 
Poerson, Vouet, Dortgny, and Corneille. No. 43 is Hotel 
de Bragelonne. No. 44 has a good portal; No. 36 a 
remarkable portal and court. No. 15 was the Hotel de 
Vibray. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE MARAIS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE 
HdTEL DE VILLE. 

HP HERE are, as a whole, more historic relics remaining 
in the Marais than in any other part of Paris. In 
the XVIII. c. the Marais was regarded rather as a province 
than as a quarter of Paris : thus we read in the song of 
Colle and Sedaine : 

* On n'est plus de Paris quand on est du Marais, 
Vive, vive le quartier du Marais.' J 

' Ici, vous retrouvez du moins le siecle de Louis XIII., tant pour 
les moeurs que pour les opinions surannees. Le Marais est au quartier 
brillant du Palais- Royal ce que Vienne est a Londres. La, regne, 
non la misere, mais 1'amas complet de tous les vieux prejuges ; les 
demi-fortunes s'y refugient. La, se voyent les vieillards grondeurs, 
sombres, ennemis de toutes les idees nouvelles ; et les conseilleres 
bien imperieuses y frondent, sans savoir lire, les auteurs dont les noms 
parviennent jusqu'a elles. On y appelle les philosophes, des gens a 
brtiler. Si on a le malheur d'y souper, on n'y rencontre que des sots ; 
et 1'on cherche en vain ces hommes aimables. qui ornent leurs idees du 
brillant de 1'esprit et des charmes du sentiment.' Tableau de Paris, 
1782. 

Turning east from the Rue Vieille du Temple, by the 
Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, we find at the angle a picturesque 
and beautiful old house, with an overhanging tourelle, orna- 
mented by niches and pinnacles. It takes its name of 
Hotel Barbette from Etienne Barbette^ Master of the Mint, 

i ' Mauvaise plaisanterie sur le qiiartiei 1 du Marais.' 
VOL. I. 161 L 



1 62 PARIS 

and confidential friend of Philippe le Bel, ' directeur de la 
monnoie et de la voierie de Paris,' who built a house here 
in 1298. At that time the house stood in large gardens 
which occupied the whole space between the Coultures 
S. Catherine, du Temple, and S. Gervais, and which had 
belonged to the canons of S. Opportune. Three more of 
these vast garden spaces, then called courtilles, existed in 
this neighbourhood, those of the Temple, S. Martin, and S. 
Boucelais. It is recorded that when the king offended the 
people in 1306, by altering the value of the coinage, they 
avenged themselves by tearing up the trees in the Courtille 
Barbette, as well as by sacking the hotel of the minister, for 
which twenty-eight men were hanged at the principal gates 
of Paris. Afterwards the Hotel Barbette became the pro- 
perty of Jean de Montagu, then sovereign-master of France 
and vidame de Laonois; and, in 1403, it was bought by 
the wicked Queen Isabeau de Baviere, wife of Charles VI., 
and became her favourite residence, known as 'le petit 
sejour de la reine.' 

At the Hotel Barbette, Queen Isabeau was not only 
freed from the presence of her insane husband, who re- 
mained at the Hotel S. Paul under the care of a mistress, 
but could give herself up without restraint to her guilty 
passion for her brother-in-law, Louis, Due d'Orleans, who, 
in the words of S. Foix, 'tachoit de desennuyer cette 
princesse a Fhotel Barbette.' Here, also, were decided all 
those affairs of state with which the queen and her lover 
played, as the poor king, at the Hotel S. Paul, with his 
cards, though, whatever his faults, the Due d'Orleans was at 
this time the only rampart of fallen monarchy, and the 
only protector of the future king against the rapacity of the 
Duke of Burgundy. 

It was on Wednesday, November 23, 1407, that the 
queen had attired herself for the evening in her trailing 
robes and head-dress 'en cornes merveilleuseSj hautes et 
longues enchassees de pierrerieSj' to receive the Due 



HOTEL BARBETTE 



163 



d'Orleans, whom Brantome describes as l ce grand des- 
baucheur des dames de la cour et des plus grandes.' Whilst 
they were supping magnificently, one of the royal valets, 
named Schas de Courte Heuse, entered, and announced 
that the king desired the Duke of Orleans to come to him 




H&TEL BARBETTE. 



immediately, as he wanted to speak to him on matters of 
the utmost importance. A presentiment of evil possessed 
the queen ; but the duke, ' sans chaperon, apres avoir mis 
sa houppelande de damas noir fourree,' went out at once, 
playing with his glove as he went, and mounted his mule, 
accompanied only by two squires riding on the same horse, 



1 64 PARIS 

by a page called Jacob de Merre, and three running foot- 
men with torches. But Raoul d'Octouville, formerly head 
of the finances, who had been dismissed from his post by 
the duke, was waiting in the shade, accompanied by seven- 
teen armed men, and instantly rushed upon him, with cries 
of ' A mort ! a mort ! ' By the first blow of his axe Raoul 
cut off the hand with which the duke guided his mule, and 
by another blow cleft open his head. In vain the duke 
cried out, ' Je suis le due d'Orleans ; ' no one attempted to 
help him, and he soon tottered and fell. One of his ser- 
vants flung himself upon his prostrate body to defend it, 
and was killed upon the spot. Then, as Raoul held over 
his victim a torch which he had snatched from one of the 
footmen, and exclaimed, ' II est bien mort ! ' it is affirmed 
that a hooded figure emerged from the neighbouring Hotel 
Notre-Dame, and cried, ' Extinguish the lights, then, and 
escape.' On the following day the same figure was recog- 
nised at the funeral of the Duke of Orleans in his own 
chapel at the Ce'lestins ; it was his first cousin, the Due de 
Bourgogne. Only two years later Jean de Montagu, Prime 
Minister and Superintendent of Finances, the former owner 
of the Hotel Barbette, was beheaded at the Halles, and 
afterwards hanged, on an accusation of peculation, but in 
truth for no other reason than because he was the enemy of 
the Due de Bourgogne. Queen Isabeau left the Hotel 
Barbette after the murder of her lover, and shut herself up 
in Vincennes. 

In 1521 the Hotel Barbette was inhabited by the old 
Comte de Breze, described by Victor Huge 



' Affreux, mal bad, mal tourne, 
Marque d'une verrue au beau milieu du ne, 
Borgne, disent les uns, velu, chetif et bleme ; ' 

and it is said that his beautiful wife, Diane de S. Vallier, 
was leaning against one of the windows of the hotel, when 
she attracted the attention of Francois I., riding through the 



HdTEL D'ESTREES 



165 



street beneath, and first received from that king a passing 
adoration which laid the foundation of her fortunes, as 
queen of beauty, under his successor, Henri II. After the 
death of Diane in 1566, her daughters, the Duchesses 
Aumale and Bouillon, sold the Hotel Barbette, which was 




HOTEL IN THE RUE DES FRANCS-BOURGEOIS. 



pulled down, except the fragment which we still see, and 
which was restored in 1886. 

In the Rue Barbette, the Hotel d'Estrees or Corberon 
has a noble room, with richly decorated friezes relieved by 
piers with children at play. 

The Rue des Francs- Bourgeois, formerly called Rue des 



1 66 



PARIS 



Vieilles Poulies, takes its name from the charity of Jean and 
Alix Roussel in 1350, who built twenty-four chambers here 
for the poor, and bequeathed them to the Grand Prior of 
France, on condition that two poor persons were to be 
lodged in each, at a very small rent, but free from all taxes. 
The street is full of fine old houses, with stately renaissance 
doorways, of which we give a specimen taken from No. 30. 
On the left, at No. 38, an old inscription over a gateway 




WINDOW SUPPORT, RUE DES FRANCS-BOURGEOIS. 



draws attention to the (picturesque) alley where the Duke 
of Orleans was murdered. 

No. 14 is of the end of the XVI. c. Its brick faade is 
framed in stone, with round niches. Its garden and lead 
fountain existed till lately. It was inhabited at one time 
by Barras. No. 26 has a remarkable portal. 

The stately house, No. 31, known as the Hotel de Jeanne 
cFAlbret) is of the time of Louis XV. No. 35 was the hotel 
of the President Devin de Fontenay. No. 47 has richly 
sculptured dormers. Nos. 54 and 56 are handsome old 



HdTEL DE LAMOIGNON 



[67 



hotels. (The Rue Elzevir leads north to the Rue de 
Thorigny\ where No. 5 was the Hotel de Juigne, built by 
Aubert de Fontenai in 1636.) 

At the angle of the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois and the 




HOTEL DE LAMOIGNON. 



Rue Pavee, on the right, is the Hotel de Lamotgnon, a 
magnificent historic mansion, begun by Diane de France, 
legitimatised daughter of Henry II. and Philippa Due, a 
beautiful Piedmontese. 1 She herself watched the build- 

1 She has often been inaccurately represented as a daughter of Diane de Poitiers, 
who had no children by the king (see Garnier's Tableaux Genealogiques, I' Art de 
Verifier les Dates, 



1 68 PARIS 

ing, and is commemorated in the D's and stags' heads 
amongst the ornaments. She was twice married, first to 
Orazio Farnese, Due de Castro, and afterwards to Fran- 
gois, Due de Montmorency, but she had no children, 
and her life here was like an- expiatory offering for that of 
her mother. ' L'hostel de la Duchesse,' said Mathieu de 
Morgues, in her funeral oration, in 1612, 'estoit un gynecee 
de pudeur.' She bequeathed her hotel to the Due d'An- 
gouleme, son of Charles IX. and Marie Touchet, half 
prince and half bandit. 

' Quand ses gens lui demandoient leurs gages, il leur disoit : " C'est 
a vous a vous pourvoir ; quatre rues aboutissent a 1'hostel d'Angou- 
lesme ; vous etes en beau lieu, profitez-en si vous voulez." ' Tallemant 
des Rdaux. 

The two wings of the house are of the time of the 
Duke. His arms, which surmounted them, have dis- 
appeared from the cornices and pilasters. The wings 
were constructed to accord with the rest of the building : 
in the north wing is a beautiful balcony. The great en- 
gaged pilasters, with corinthian capitals, rising to the whole 
height of the building, often copied since, here find their 
prototype. The initials remaining over the entrance are 
those of M. de Lamoignon, though he did not come to 
the hotel till long after the date inscribed on the shield : 
the widow of the Due d'Angouleme lived there long after 
his death. The square tourelle at the angle overlooks the 
crossways where the Due bade his servants to provide for 
their own subsistence. 

The hotel was bought in 1684 by the President 
Chretien-Francois de Lamoignon, who gave it his name. 
The first library of the town of Paris was installed here in 
1763, and added to the fame of the hotel till the Revolu- 
tion, when it was sold. 

The Rue Pavee once contained the Hotels de la Houze, 
de Gaudier, de Chatillon, d'Herbouville (No. 13), and de 



PRISON OF LA FORCE 169 

Savoisi (No. 7). Here also, in the centre of an old aristo- 
cratic quarter, stood the hotel of the Due de la Force, 1 
which afterwards became the terrible prison of La Force. 
It was intended for those in a state of suspicion, and 
contained five courts, capable of holding twelve hundred 
captives. During the Great Revolution, these included 
numbers of the inmates of the neighbouring hotels. One 
hundred and sixty-four innocent victims were massacred 
here alone. The prison was only destroyed in 1851. Of 
all the tragedies connected with it, that which made most 
impression was the death of the Princesse de Lamballe, the 
most faithful of the friends of Marie Antoinette, who, having 
made good her escape at the time of the flight of the 
royal family to Varennes, insisted upon returning to share 
the misfortunes of her royal mistress. The prisoners 
in La Force, who included Mme. de Tourzel and Mme. 
de S. Brice, also members of the household of Marie 
Antoinette, were tried by a self-instituted tribunal, com- 
posed from the dregs of Paris. When Mme. de Lamballe 
was dragged before them, surrounded by men whose faces, 
hands, clothes, and weapons were covered with blood, 
and heard the cries of the unfortunates who were being 
murdered in the street, she fainted away. After she was 
restored by the care of her lady-in-waiting, who had followed 
her, the so-called judges demanded if she was cognisant of 
the plots of the tenth of August. ' I do not even know if 
there were any plots,' she replied. ' Swear liberty, equality, 
hatred of the king, the queen, and royalty.' ' I can easily 
swear the two first,' she answered ; ' I cannot swear the 
last ; it is not in my heart.' ' Swear, or you are lost ! ' 
whispered one of the assistants. The Princess did not 
answer, lifted her hands, covered her face, and made a 

1 The original hotel, called dit Rol de Siciie, was built by Charles d'Anjou, 
brother of S. Louis. It was often rebuilt, and, in 1621, was called Hotel de Roque- 
laure after its sale to Antoine de Roquelaure in the XVI. c., and Hotel de S. Paul 
after its sale to the Comte de S. Paul in the XVII. c. 



i;o PARIS 

step towards the entrance. The formula, ' Madame is at 
liberty,' which meant certain death, was pronounced; two 
men seized her by the arms and dragged her forward 
She had scarcely passed the threshold before she received 
a blow from a sabre at the back of her head. The 
monsters who held her then tried to force her to walk 
in the blood and over the corpses of others, to the spot 
marked out for her own fate, but, happily, her bodily 
powers again failed, and she sank unconscious. She was 
immediately despatched by blows from pikes, her clothes 
were torn off, and her body was exposed for more than 
two hours to the horrible insults of the people. Then 
her heart was torn out, and her head cut off, an unhappy 
hairdresser was compelled to curl and powder its long 
hair, and finally head and heart, preceded by fifes and 
drums, were carried at the end of pikes, first to the 
Abbaye, to be exhibited to the intimate friend of the 
princess, Mme. de Beauveau, then to the Temple, to be 
shown to the Queen ! l 

( Les assassins venus pour 1'egorger firent d'inutiles efforts pour lui 
faire repeter les outrages dont ils couvrirent le nom sacre de la reine 
"Non, non," repondit-elle, "jamais ! jamais ! plutot mourir ! " En- 
trainee par ses bourreaux aupres de cet amas de cadavres on la fo^a 
de s'agenouiller, et apres 1'avoir frappee de plusieurs coups de sabre, 
on lui dechira le sein, on lui arracha le coeur, on lui coupa la tete, on 
lui rougit les joues avec du sang ; on forca un malheureux coiffeur a 
friser et poudrer ses longs cheveux blonds qu'elle avait eus les plus 
beaux du monde ; et puis ces cannibales se formerent en affreux cor- 
tege, precede par des fifres et des tambours ; ils portaient la tete sur 
une pique et furent la faire voir au Due d'Orleans qui se montra sur 
un balcon de son Palais-Royal a cote de Mme. Agnes de Buffon. . . .' 
Souvenirs de /# Marquise de Crcqui. 

At the corner of the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois and the 
Rue de Sevigne, formerly Rue Culture S. Catherine, stands 
the famous Hotel Carnavalet, built 1544, for the President 

1 Benrand de Moleville, Mctnoires. 



HdTEL CARNAVALET 171 

de Ligneris, from designs of Pierre Lescot and De Bullant, 
and sold in 1578 to Frangoise de la Baume, dame de 
Kernevenoy, a Breton name which has remained attached 
to the hotel in its softened form of Carnavalet. Under her 
son, Du Cerceau built the left wing of the court, and figures 
of the Four Elements, in the style of Jean Goujon, were 
added from his designs. In 1664, M. de Carnavalet, 




HOTEL CARNAVALET. 



lieutenant of the guard, sold the hotel to M. d'Agaurri, a 
magistrate of Dauphine, for whom Van Obstal added the 
reliefs of the outer walls, and the figures of Force and Vigi- 
lance on the fagade. Mansart was employed to restore the 
whole building, but the great master wisely forbore much 
to alter what he considered an architectural masterpiece. 
He added a row of his mansardes towards the garden, 



172 PARIS 

and some Ionic pilasters to the inner fagade of the court, 
but refused to touch the outer front. Being kept away 
from Paris by his duties in Dauphine, M. d'Agaurri let the 
hotel he had restored at so much expense first, in 1677, 
to Mme. de Lillebonne, who ceded it in a few months to 
Mme. de Sevigne, who found * La Carnavalette ' exactly to 
her fancy. 

In the centre of the modern screen which, in 1888, 
took the place of a high wall towards the Rue des Francs- 
Bourgeois, is the celebrated (XVI. c.) Arc de Nazareth, a 
chef-d'oeuvre of Jean Goujon, transported hither, stone by 
stone, from the Palais de Justice. 

It is to having been the residence of the famous 
Marquise de Sevigne from 1677 to 1698, that the Hotel 
Carnavalet owes its celebrity. On October 7, 1677, she 
was able to write, ' Dieu merci, nous avons 1'hotel Carna- 
valet. C'est une affaire admirable, nous y tiendrons tous, 
et nous aurons le bel air.' She was delighted with the 
neighbourhood of the Annonciades, whom she called 'les 
bonnes petites filles bleues,' in whose chapel she could 
hear mass. But she was long in installing herself, all her 
friends had their mats, their si, their car, and her daughter's 
discontented temperament always found something to find 
fault with in the fire-place of the time of Henri II., old- 
fashioned by a century, the antiquated distribution of the 
rooms, the insufficient parquet, &c. Thus it took two 
years before Mme. de Sevign was settled in the hotel. 
' Nous voila done arretes a 1'hotel Carnavalet, nous ne 
pouvions mieux faire,' she wrote on October 18, 1679, and 
henceforward the society of the Hotel Carnavalet, which 
may be said to have brought about the renaissance of the 
French language, became typical of all that was most 
refined and intellectual in France, uniting many of those 
familiar to us from the portraits of Lebrun and Hyacinthe 
Rigaud. It was hence, too, that many of the famous letters 
were written by the adoring mother to the absent daughter, 



HdTEL CARNAVALET 173 

after her marriage with the Marquis de Grignan, mingled 
with complaints that she could not let her daughter's un- 
occupied room 'ce logis qui m'a fait tant songer a vous; 
ce logis que tout le monde vient voir, que tout le monde 
admire ; et que personne ne veut louer.' 

' Mme. de Sevigne ne le quitta plus : elle en fut Tame, et elle en 
reste la gloire. Sur tout ce qui vint ensuite, son nom plane avec un 
eclat qui ne permet plus de rien regarder : " Le malheur de ne la plus 
avoir m'est toujours nouveau," ecrivait Madame de Coulanges un an 
apres sa mort ; " il manque trop de choses a Ph6tel Carnavalet." 
Depuis, tout y a manque de meme, quels que fussent les personnes ou 
les personnages qu'on y ait vus passer. Brunet de Rancy n'y apporta, 
deux ans apres elle, que son importance de fermier-general, avec son 
or retentissant, qui sonnait moins haut que 1'esprit disparu. Plus tard 
vinrent les charlatans de la transfusion du sang, puis le hasard voulut 
qu'on mit le depot de la librairie ou la marquise avait fait le plus char- 
mant des livres, en ne croyant ecrire que des lettres. L'ecole des 
Fonts et Chaussees s'y etablit ensuite, comme pour y niveler tout 
ce qu'il pouvait rester d'esprit. Par bonheur, un savant spirituel, 
M. de Prony, la diiigeait, et le salon de Mme. de Sevigne put croire que 
la geometric n'etait pas dans la maison. Les derniers notes furent un 
maitre de pension et ses eleves.' Edouard Fournier, 'Paris Gtude? 

The main building of the hotel is flanked by two 
pavilions. The lions which adorn its faade are from the 
hand of Jean Goujon, as well as the tympanums .and the 
winged figure on the keystone of the gateway. In the 
court, the building facing the entrance is adorned with 
statues of the Four Seasons from the school of Jean 
Goujon ; the central group, of Fame and her messengers, 
is by the great artist himself. 

' La porte est largement cintree et surmontee d'une femme legere, 
a la robe flottante et diaphane comme les naiades de Jean Goujon, 
elegante, riante et svelte comme toutes ses figures, debout sur un seul 
pied, et ce pied appuye sur un joli masque. Au-dessous du masque, 
qui faisait partie, je le suppose, des armes parlantes des Carnavalet, est 
un ecusson mutile par le marteau, ou se trouvaient sans doute les 
armoiries noires et blanches de Sevigne, et les quatre croix des Rabutin 
dont le comte de Bussy etait si fier. Des lions, des victoires, des 
boucliers remains et des renommees s'etendent en longs bas-reliefs de 



174 PARIS 

chaque c6te de la porte, qu'un artiste de mauvais gout, du temps de 
Louis XIV., a travaillee en rocailles, en bossages vermicides, ainsi que 
disent les architectes en termes non moins barbares que la chose.' 
A. Loeve- Veimars. 

Mme. de Sevigne and her daughter, when at Paris, 
inhabited the first floor of the main building, reached by 
the stone staircase which still exists, and her chamber is 
still pointed out. M. de Grignan, on his brief visits to 
Paris, occupied the ground-floor rooms below. The young 
Marquis de Sevigne had the apartment towards the street ; 
and the Abbe' de Coulanges, uncle of the Marquise, the 
right wing towards the court. The left wing contained the 
principal reception-rooms. 

The hotel is now occupied as the Musee Municipal, 
like the Guildhall Museum in London, but chiefly devoted 
to memorials of the great Revolution (open from 1 1 to 4 on 
l^hnrsdays and Sundays), and a Library of Books on the 
History of Paris (open from i o to 4 daily). In the court- 
yard is a statue of Louis XIV. by Coysevox. 

On the ground floor are remains of Roman tombs found at Paris, 
and fragments of the early basilica which preceded Notre Dame. At 
the top of the stairs we should notice remains of the prison doors of 
the Conciergerie from the cells of Mme. Roland and Robespierre, and 
also the door of a cell in the Hotel des Haricots (the prison of the 
National Guard), decorated by the prisoners. 

The Galeries des Tableaux contain a number of interesting views 
of Old Paris, and portraits of those connected with the Revolution 
Marat, Bailly, Danton, Barrere, S. Just, &c. That of Robespierre 
represents him at twenty-four a family portrait, painted at Arras by 
Boilly in 1783. A picture of Marat lying dead is by Louts David. 

The Chambre a Coucher de F Hdtel Dangeau is a richly-decorated 
room of the time of Louis XIV. its fittings brought from the H. de 
Dangeau in the Place Royale. 

U Ancienne Salle a Manger de I' Hotel Dangeau has a ceiling by 
Lebrun. It contains a collection of faiences of the time of the Revolu- 
tion, amongst them the 'Assiette de la Carmagnole ' with ' Madame Veto 
avait promis a faire egorger tout Paris,' also the ' Tasse de la Federa- 
tion/ A cup in the counter-revolution china manufactured at Berlin 
tepresents the executions of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. 



RUB DE SEVIGNE 175 

In the Salon Central, the carved panelling comes from the Hotel 
des Stuarts, in the Rue S. Hyacinthe. Here is the armchair in which 
Voltaire died, with two movable reading-desks, from his chamber in 
the Hotel de Villette, Rue de Beaune. A mask of Voltaire, taken after 
death, with hair added, is terribly realistic. 

In La Grande Salle de la Revolution is a model of the Bastille, and 
revolutionary furniture, banners, and pictures. A touching portrait of 
' La Veuve Capet ' was taken in the Conciergerie by Prieur. A locket 
with hair of Robespierre came from his sister Charlotte. Other relics 
include the original of the message despatched by Louis XVI. from the 
National Assembly on the loth of August, in which he ordered the 
Swiss Guard to cease their fire upon the insurgents from the Tuileries. 
It is accompanied by a letter of congratulation, addressed, long after- 
wards, to ' Le Capitaine Dueler,' who commanded the Swiss on that 
occasion, by Louis XVIII. and the Due de Berry. 

La Petite Salle has relics of the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848. 
Here is the 'Necessaire de Campagne' of Napoleon I., bequeathed to 
the town of Paris by General Bertrand. 

The garden contains a number of historic relics statues from 
Anet ; a statue of Abundance from the Marche S. Germain ; a relief 
by Auguier from the Porte S. Antoine ; the old Fontaine S. Michel ; 
a retable from a chapel at S. Mery, 1542, by Pierre Berton de S. 
Quentin, and many inscribed stones from the Cordeliers and other 
destroyed churches. 

The name of Rue Culture or Couture S. Catherine, now 
changed to Rue de Sevigne, was all that remained of the 
convent and church of S. Catherine du Val des Ecoliers, 
which was a thanksgiving for the victory of Bovines, 1 the 
street having been built on cultivated land belonging to the 
convent. In this street, at the coiner near the Hotel Car- 
navalet, lived the beautiful Jewess of whom the Due 
d'Orleans was enamoured, and at whose door the Con- 
ne'table Olivier de Clisson was attacked by assassins, hired 
by the Baron de Craon, and left for dead, though he 
eventually recovered. 

c Evenement fanieux, si curieusement conte par nos historiens, qu'il 
semble qu'on y assiste. On le voit passer, par une nuit sombre, ce 

1 The fine tomb of Mme. de Birague, now in the Louvre, came from this church, 
destroyed at the Revolution. 



1 76 PARIS 

grand connetable, arme seulement d'un petit coutelas, et longeant au 
trot de son bon cheval cette etroite rue deserte. On est cache avec les 
assassins sous 1'auvent du boulanger, oil ils 1'attendirent ; on entend 
le bruit de la lourde chute du cheval perce de trois grands coups 
d'estrama9on, le bruit de la chute du connetable, dont la tete va frapper 
contre une porte qu'elle fait ouvrir ; ses plaintes, ses gemissements, les 
pas des assassins qui s'enfuient, puis le silence. Puis les cris des 
bourgeois accourant avec des flambeaux, pieds nus, sans chaperon, et 
le roi qu'on a reveille comme il allait se mettre en sa couche, a qui on 
a annonce la mort de son bon connetable, et qui se couvre d'une 
houppelande, se fait bottler ses souliers es pieds, et accourt a 1'endroit 
ou on disait que son bon connetable venait d'etre occis.' A. Loeve- 
Veimars. 



No. 7-9 Rue de Sevigne, once the Hotel de Quincy^ has a 
good inner fagade. In No. 1 1 the Petit HotelLamoignon 
the Theatre du Marais was established in 1790 under the 
direction of Beaumarchais. No. 29, now attached to the 
Hotel Carnavalet, as the Bibliotheque et Travaux Historiques 
de la Ville de Paris, was the old Hotel Lepeletier de S, Fargeau, 
built by P. Bullet. No. 52, built in the XVIII. c. by De 
Lisle, has a richly ornamented court. 

(The Rue du Roi de Sidle, which turns to the right from 
the Rue de Sevigne close to the Rue de Rivoli, com- 
memorates Charles d'Anjou, brother of S. Louis.) 

The next turn from the Rue des Francs-Bourgeois on 
the left is the Rue de Turenne, formerly S. Louis aux Marais, 
which takes its present name from the hotel of the famous 
marshal, turned into a monastery in 1684, and destroyed 
during the Revolution. The hotel occupied the site of the 
Church of S. Denis du Sacrement. The poet Crebillon lived 
next door. The chancellor Boucherat resided, at the end of 
the XVII. c., at No. 40, afterwards the Hotel d'Ecquevilly. 
No. 23 was a wing of the hotel of Jeanne d'Albret, and 
there she gave birth to a daughter, Feb. 7, 1558, in a still 
existing room. Nos. 32-34 were the Hotel de Tresmes, built 
c. 1650. No. 36 was the Hotel de Vitry. Nos. 42 and 44 
are good XVII c. houses with fine balustraded staircases, 



LES MINIMES 177 

No. 50 has a good portal. No. 54 was the Hdtel de 
Turenne. Nos. 60, 76, 78, and 80 were also ancient hotels. 

It was in the Rue S. Louis that Mme. de Maintenon 
lived with her first husband, the poet Scarron, and made 
his little dinners so entertaining that their simple servant 
would whisper in her ear, ' Madame, encore une histoire, 
nous n'avons pas le rotl.' Such was her poverty before her 
marriage that she was obliged to borrow the dress she was 
married in from her friend Mile, de Pons, who afterwards, 
as Mme. d'Heudicourt, had an apartment at Versailles. 

From the Rue Turenne opens on the right the Rue des 
Minimes, which formerly contained the splendid Hotel de 
Vitry, and which took its name from the Minimi of the 
Capuchin Convent. Its church, celebrated for the sermons 
of Bourdaloue, contained magnificent tombs of the families 
of Colbert, Villarcerf, Vieville, Perigny, Le Jay, and Castille. 
In one chapel were those of two royal bastards Diane, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, daughter of Henri II., and Charles, 
Due d'Angouleme, famous for his conspiracies against 
Henri IV. All these tombs were destroyed or dispersed at 
the Revolution. 

'A deux portes de la, une maison de courtisane s'ouvrit au petit 
jour, et un homme en sortit le manteau sur le nez, et tirant le long des 
murailles. La maison etait bien connue ; c'etait celle de la belle 
Romaine, la fille de joie la plus renommee du temps de Henri II. : 
1'homme, bien connu aussi ; il se nommait Charles de Lorraine, due 
de Guise, cardinal, archeveque, 1'homme le plus hardi, le plus eloquent 
et le plus vicieux de son temps. Sa compagnie des gardes, qui ne le 
quittait jamais, meme a 1'autel, ou elle melait 1'odeur de la poudre a 
canon et de la meche au parfum de 1'encens, etait dispensee de le 
suivre en semblables lieux. II s'en trouva mal, car il cut toutes les 
peines du monde a echapper aux rufiens qui 1'attendaient, et a gagner son 
bel hotel de Cluny garde par trois cent halebardes.' A. Loeve- Veimars. 

Higher up into the Rue de Turenne, on the left is the 
Rue de Normandie. It is more lively since Balzac wrote : 

' La rue de Normandie est une de ces rues au milieu desquelles 
on peut se croire en province : 1'herbe y fleurit, un passant y fait 
VOL. I. M 



i;8 PARIS 

evenement ; et tout le monde s'y connait. Les maisons datent de 
1'epoque ou, sous Henri IV., on entreprit un quartier dont chaque rue 
portat le nom d'une province, et au centre duquel devait se trouver une 
belle place dediee a la France. L'idee du quartier de 1'Europe fut la 
repetition de ce plan. Le monde se repete en toute chose partout, 
meme en speculation.' ' Les parents paiivre s. ' 

On the right the Rue S, Claude connects the Rue de 
Turenne with the Boulevard. Here Cagliostro lived, in the 
house of the Marquis d'Orville. 

The Rue des Francs-Bourgeois now leads into the ^ Place 
des Vosges, which may be regarded as the heart of the 
Marais. Imagined by Sully, carried out by Henri IV., in 
its early existence as the Place Royale, this was one of the 
most celebrated squares in Europe. 

' Grands edifices en briques et en pierres, decores de panneaux, de 
bossages et de fenfires a frontons. C'est bien la le style de 1'ancienne 
architecture fra^aise, qui suivit la renaissance et preceda 1'ere moderne ; 
nous la voyons avec son appareil bicolore, ses pilastres, ses refends, 
ses grands combles d'ardoises que surmontent des epis de plomb 
fa9onnes en ornements divers. On a vante avec raison la disposition 
judicieuse de la place Royale ; au pourtour, de vastes galeries reservees 
aux gens de pied ; puis, quatre larges chaussees pour les cavaliers et 
les voitures ; au centre, un jardin protege par une grille de fer.' 
Guilhermy, ' Itintraire archtologique? 

The site had been previously occupied by the palace 
called Hotel des Tournelles, a name derived from the end- 
less turrets with which its architect had loaded it, either for 
ornament or defence. Pierre d'Orgemont, chancellor of 
France, built the first stately house here in 1380, and be- 
queathed it to his son, who was Bishop of Paris. The 
bishop sold it, in 1402, to Jean, Due de Berry, one of the 
uncles of Charles VI., from whom it passed to his nephew, 
the Due d'Orleans, and from him to the king. In its 
original state, the hotel stood like a country house in 
a wood called the Pare des Tournelles, which has left 
a name to the Rue du Parc-Royal. 1 ' En cet hostel,' says 

1 Here Nos. 4 and 8 are fine hotels of the time of Louis XIII. 



PLACE DBS VOSGES 179 

Dubreul in his Theatre des Antiquitez de Paris, ' s'allaient 
recreer souventefois nos Roys, pour la beaute et commodite 
dudit lieu.' Leon de Lusignan, King of Armenia, died here 
in 1393. The Duke of Bedford, regent of France after the 
death of Henry V., lived in the Hotel des Tournelles, and 
kept flocks of peacocks and multitudes of rarer birds in its 
gardens. There also he established the royal library of the 
Louvre (of which he had become the possessor, and which 
he afterwards carried to England), and there he lost his 
beautiful wife, Anne de Bourgogne, buried close by, in 
the Celestins, under an exquisite monument. 1 Whenever 
Louis XL visited Paris, the hotel was his residence, and it 
was there that, in 1467, he received his queen, Margaret of 
Scotland. In his later life, however, Louis XL only cared 
to live in Touraine, where he died at Plessis les Tours, and 
his son, Charles VIII. , made his home exclusively at Blois, 
of which he had watched the building. But Louis XII. 
always liked the Hotel des Tournelles, where he spent his 
happiest days with his beloved Anne of Brittany. Thither 
he returned after his third marriage with Mary of England, 
the young wife who so entirely upset all his old-fashioned 
ways forcing him to dine at 12, instead of 8 o'clock A.M., 
and to go to bed at midnight, instead of at 6 P.M. that she 
caused his death in a few months. He expired on January 
2, 1515, at the Hotel des Tournelles, where the crieurs du 
corps rang their bells round the building in which the dead 
king lay, and cried lamentably, ' Le bon roi Louis, pere du 
peuple, est mort ! ' The two successors of Louis, Francois I. 
and Henri II., were so occupied with the building of 
their country chateaux at Fontainebleau, Compiegne, Ram- 
bouillet, S. Germain, Chambord, &c., that they only came 
to the Hotel des Tournelles for the tournaments, which in 
earlier days had taken place in the grounds of the Hotel 
de S. Paul, but were now transferred to the Rue S. Antoine. 
It was in a tournament of this kind, held in honour of the 

l Now in the Louvre, 



i8o PARIS 

marriage of Elizabeth of France with Philippe II. of Spain, 
that Henri (June 28, 1559), bearing the colours of Diane 
des Poitiers, in tilting with the Comte de Montgomery, 
captain of the body-guard, received a wound in the eye, of 
which, ten days after, he died in great agony, in the old 
palace, through which the people of Paris poured for many 
days, to visit his body, lying in a chapelle ardente. 

After this catastrophe the kings of France abandoned 
what they considered the ill-omened Hotel des Tournelles. 
The insistence of Catherine de Medicis, widow of Henry II., 
even procured an order for the destruction of the hotel, but 
it was only carried out as regarded that part of the building 
where the king had died, and a fragment of the palace was 
still existing in 1656, when it was sold to the Filles de 
Sainte-Croix. In 1578 a horse-market occupied part of the 
grounds of the hotel, and it was there that the famous 
Combat des Mignons took place, and was fatal to several of 
the unpopular favourites of Henry III. 

Henri IV. had used the last existing remains of the 
palace to hold two hundred Italian workmen, whom he had 
brought from their own country in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century that they might establish the manu- 
facture of stuffs woven with gold and silver tissue in France. 
At that time Henri had already formed the idea of making 
the Marais the handsomest quarter of Paris. The plans 
adopted for the Place Royale were those furnished by the 
austere Huguenot, Jacques - Androuet du. Cerceau. The 
king built the side towards the Hotel de Sully (in the Rue 
S. Antoine) entirely at his own expense, and then conceded 
plots of land on the other sides to his courtiers, on con- 
dition of their erecting houses at once, according to the 
designs they received, each landowner being only required 
to pay an annual tax of a golden crown, so that only thirty- 
six gold crowns were received for the thirty-six pavilions 
surrounding the square. 

At the same time the king opened the four streets 



PLACE DBS VOSGES 181 

leading to the square : the Rue du Parc-Royal, the Petite 
Rue Royale, afterwards called the Pas-de-la-Mule, and the 
Rue de la Coulture S. Catherine, and he erected the two 
central pavilions on the south and north, which were called 
respectively Pavilion du Roi and Pavilion de la Reine. 
Every day, whilst he was at Paris, Henri IV. came himself 
to visit and stimulate the workmen, and when he was at 
Fontainebleau he wrote constantly to Sully to beg him to 
urge them on. ' Je vous recommande la Place Royale,' he 
would add to his letters on other subjects. Coming one 
day to look at the work, he was mortified to find that one of 
the private individuals to whom he had allotted a site was 
vaulting in stone the portico under his house, which the king 
in his own building had only ceiled with wood. Mortified 
to be outdone by a subject, he consulted his mason, who 
cleverly propitiated the royal pride by promising to imitate 
the superior work in plaster so well that no one would find 
out the difference. Henri declared that as soon as it was 
ready for him he should come and inhabit the Pavilion du 
Roi ; but the square was unfinished at the time of his death 
in 1610, and it was only opened with great magnificence five 
years later, on the occasion of the marriage of Elizabeth, 
sister of Louis XI II., with the Infant of Spain. It was the 
splendid court fete then given which made the new square 
become at once the fashion, and the Place Royale remained 
the centre of all that was most aristocratic till the financial 
world invaded it at the end of the seventeenth century. In 
the proudest time of the square, however, the celebrated 
Marion de Lorme inhabited the pavilion which had been 
purchased by the Due de la Meilleraie, and there she died 
in 1650, and, in the words of Tallemant des Reaux, 'On la 
vit morte, durant vingt-quatre heures, sur son lit, avec une 
couronne de pucelle.' 

With the comparative lawlessness of the times, though 
Louis XIII. had issued severe ordinances for the repression 
of duelling, not only were duels of frequent occurrence in 



i8 2 PARIS 

the Place Royale, but the balconies and windows of the 
square used to be filled with spectators to witness them, like 
a theatrical representation in broad daylight. Six of the 
noblest young gentlemen of the Court fought thus, with 
fatal results, on May 12, 1627. A duel in the Place Royale 
between the Due de Guise and the Comte de Coligny, in 
December 1643, to decide the hereditary quarrels of their 
two houses, ended fatally for the latter. On July 30, 1652, 
Charles Amadeus of Savoy, Due de Nemours, was slain here 
in a duel by his own brother-in-law, Frangois de Vendome, 
Due de Beaufort 'le roi des halles.' As a warning and a 
menace to duellists, Richelieu erected, in the centre of the 
square, a statue by Biard fils of Louis XIII. ' le tres-grand, 
tres invincible, Louis le Juste,' 'armed after the mode of 
his age, and his plume of feathers on his head-piece,' as the 
traveller Lister described it (1698). The figure was placed 
upon a horse which had been unemployed for three-quarters 
of a century, but was the work of Daniele Ricciarelli da 
Volterra. This famous statue, which stood on a pedestal 
with proud inscriptions by the cardinal in honour of his 
master, was melted down for cannon in the Revolution 
of 1793. In 1701 a magnificent iron grille, bearing the 
emblems of Louis XIV., had been placed around the 
gardens. Even the Revolution itself respected its beauty ; 
but, in spite of the eloquent remonstrances of Victor Hugo 
(who was then living at No. 6, the house where Marion de 
Lorme died), it was removed in the reign of Louis Philippe 
to make way for a cast-iron railing in the commonplace taste 
of the time. 

' Que d'evenements publics et domestiques n'a pas vus cette place 
pendant tout le dix-septieme siecle ! Que de nobles tournois, que de 
fiers duels, que d'aimables rendez-vous ! Quels d'entretiens n'a-t-elle 
pas entendus, dignes de ceux du D^cameron^ que Corneille a recueillis 
dans une de ses premieres comedies, la Place Royale., et dans plusieurs 
actes du Mentettr! Que de gracieuses creatures ont habite ces 
pavilions ! Quels somptueux ameublements, que de tresors de luxe 
elegant n'avaient-elles pas rassembles? Que d'illustres personnages 



PLACE DBS VOSGES 



183 



de tons genres avaient monte ces beaux escaliers ! Richelieu et Conde, 
Corneille et Moliere ont cent fois passe par la. C'est en se promenant 
sous cette galerie que Descartes, causant avec Pascal, lui a suggere 
1'idee de ses belles experiences sur la pesanteur de 1'air : c'est la aussi 
qu'un soir, en sortant de chez Mme. de Guemenee, le melancolique de 
Thou regut de Cinq-Mars 1'involontaire confidence de la conspiration 
que devait mener tous deux a 1'echafaud ; c'est la, enfin, que naquit 
Mme. de Sevigne, et c'est a cote qu'elle habitait.' Victor Cousin, 
' Lajeunesse de Mme. de Longueville.'' 

Many of the hotels of the Place Royale were like 




^ 



PLACE DES VOSGES. 



museums of historic relics and works of art, especially that 
of Richelieu and that of the Marquis de Dangeau. The 
ceilings of the hotel of M. de Nouveau were painted by 
Lebrun and Mignard. Houses were furnished with the 
utmost magnificence by the Comte de Tresmes, the Marquis 
de Breteuil, and the Marquis de Canillac ; but most of 
these hotels were already abandoned by their aristocratic 
owners at the time of the Revolution, when the Comte de 



1 84 PARIS 

Favras, who had only lately settled in the Place Royale, was 
accused of plotting against the Government, and hanged like 
a common malefactor. Many think that the golden period 
of the Place did not arrive till it became the centre of the 
Society of the Nouvelles Precieuses (deserters from the 
superior literary atmosphere of the Hotel de Rambouillet), 
which Moliere satirises in his comedy of the Precieuses 
ridicules. One of the leaders of this society was Mile, de 
Scudery, authoress of the long allegorical romance of Cyrus, 
who came to settle in the Rue de Beauce, and whose Satur- 
days soon became the fashion, ' pour rencontrer des beaux 
esprits.' For thirty years, under the name of Sapho, she 
ruled as a queen in the second-class literary salons of the 
Marais, which were known as Leolie or PEolie in the 
dialect of the Precieuses^ when the Place Dorique, as they 
called the Place Royale, was inhabited by Artemise or Mile. 
Aragonois, Roxane or Mile. Robineau, Glicerie or the beau- 
tiful Mile. Legendre; whilst Le grand Dictionnaire des 
Precieuses (1661) informs us that Crisolis or Mile, de 
Chavigny, and Nidalie or Mile, de PEnclos, lived close by. 
Moliere had full opportunity of studying the eccentricities 
of this society whilst living in the quarter of the Arsenal 
in 1645. 

' Nos heros et nos heroines ne s'attacherent qu'aux madrigaux. 
Jamais il n'en fut tant fait, ni si promptement. A peine celui-ci venoit- 
il d'en prononcer un, que celui-la en sentoit un autre qui lui fourmilloit 
dans la tete. Ici, on recitoit quatre vers ; la, on en ecrivoit douze. 
Tout s'y faisoit gaiement et sans grimace. Personne n'en rognoit ses 
ongles' et n'en perdoit le rire et le parler.' Pellisson, ( Chroniqtt.es 
du SamediS 

The Place Royale, with its high-roofed houses of red 
brick coped with stone, surmounted by high roofs, and 
supported by arcades the famous arcades where Corneille 
places the scene of one of his comedies has never changed 
its ancient aspect. No. 21 was the house of Richelieu. 
In No. 9, which she had furnished splendidly, the great 



RUE DBS TOURNELLES 185 

comedienne, Mme. Rachel, lay in state, and before it vast 
multitudes collected at her funeral. 

* II y avait foule partout, et les arbres memes de la Place Royale 
etaient surcharges de curieux. " En nous enfonfant dans celte mer 
humaine," dit Alexandre" Dumas, dans son compte rendu de la cere- 
monie, "nous avons rencontre le Comte Daru. Depuis vingt minutes 
il luttait pour se frayer un chemin ; de guerre lasse il s'en allait vaincu, 
en nous pirant de constater sa presence et 1'inutilite de ses efforts." 
Dejazet, en grand deuil, tenant a la main un gros bouquet de violettes 
qu'elle voulait jeter dans la fosse, se trouvait aux c6tes de Mile. Judith. 
Elle etait tres emue : " Pauvre femme 1 ah! la pauvre femme," s'ecria- 
t-elle a diverses reprises. Puis un peu plus tard, voyant cette foule 
enorme. " C'est moi," dit elle encore a Mile. Judith, " qui serais joliment 
fiere d'en avoir la moitie a mon enterrement ! " On sait que les funerailles 
de Dejazet ont etc plus populaires et encore plus suivies d'une foule 
immense et sympathique que les funerailles meme de Rachel.' Georges 
d* Hylli) 'Journal Intime de la Comtdie Franfaise.' 

No. 6 was inhabited by Marion Delorme, and afterwards 
by Victor Hugo. 

A statue of Louis XIII. by Cortot, on a horse by Dupaty, 
now occupies the centre of the square an excellent example 
of the most deplorable statuary. Many of the old con- 
temporary hotels which occupied the precincts of the Place 
have been destroyed. The Hotel de Guemenee can no 
longer be distinguished from an ordinary house. 

Running east from the upper side of the square is the 
Rue des Vosges, till recently Rue Pas-de-la-Mule. Here 
Gilles le Maistre, first president of the Parliament of Paris, 
was daily seen passing on his mule, followed by his wife in 
a cart, and a servant on an ass. 

On the farther side of the Rue des Tournelles (which 
runs behind the houses on the east side of the Place des 
Vosges) we may still visit (No. 28) the handsome Hotel 
of Ninon de PEnclos 1'Eternelle Ninon the friend of 
S. Evremond and the Duchesse de Mazarin, at whose 
beautiful feet three generations of the proud house of 
Sevigne knelt in turn, and who may be regarded as the 



1 86 PARIS 

last of the Pretieuses of the Marais and Place Royale. The 
house was built by Jules Hardouin Mansart, and has two 
ceilings attributed to Mignard. The vestibule retains its 
masks and caryatides ; the boudoir its painted ceiling ; the 
staircase has only changed its stone balustrade for one 
of wood, and a well-preserved medallion of Louis XIV. 
remains in its place ; the salon on the first floor, in which 
Moliere first read Tartuffe, has a ceiling-painting of Apollo 
surrounded by the nine muses, by a pupil of Lebrun. 

1 Ninon, courtisane fameuse, et depuis que 1'age lui cut fait quitter 
le metier, connue sous le nom de Mile, de 1'Enclos, fut un exemple 
nouveau du triomphe du vice conduit avec esprit, et repare de quelques 
vertus. La bruit qu'elle fit, et plus encore le desordre qu'elle causa 
parmi la plus haute et la plus brilliante jeunesse, fora 1'extreme 
indulgence que, non sans cause, la reine-mere avait pour les personnes 
galantes et plus que galantes, de lui envoyer un ordre de se retirer dans 
un couvent. Un de ces exempts de Paris lui porta la lettre de cachet, 
ella la lut, et remarquant qu'il n'y avait pas de couvent designe en 
particulier : "Monsieur," dit-elle a 1'exempt, sans se deconcerter, 
"puisque la reine a tant de bonte pour moi que de me laisser le 
choix du couvent ou elle veut que je me retire, je vous prie de lui 
dire que je choisis celui des grands cordeliers de Paris ; " et lui 
rendit la lettre de cachet avec une belle reverence. L'exempt, stupe- 
fait de cette effronterie sans pareille, n'eut pas un mot a repliquer, 
et la reine la trouva si plaisante qu'elle la laissa en repos. 

' Ninon eut des amis illustres de toutes les sortes, et cut tant d'esprit 
qu'elle les conserva tous, et qu'elle les tint unis entre eux, ou pour le 
moins sans le moindre bruit. Tout se passait chez elle avec un respect 
et une decence exterieure que les plus hautes princesses soutiennent 
rarement avec des faiblesses. Elle eut de la sorte pour amis tout ce 
qu'il y avait de plus trie et de plus eleve a la cour, tellement qu'il 
devint a la mode d'etre re9u chez elle, et qu'on avait raison de le desirer 
par les liaisons qui s'y formaient. Jamais ni jeu, ni ris eleves, ni 
disputes, ni propos de religion ou de gouvernement ; beaucoup d'esprit 
et fort orne, des nouvelles anciennes et modernes, des nouvelles de 
galanteries, et toutefois sans ouvrir la porte a la medisance ; tout y 
etait delicat, leger, mesure, et formait les conversations qu'elle sut 
soutenir par son esprit, et par tout ce qu'elle savait de faits de tout age. 
La consideration, chose etrange, qu'elle s'etait acquise, le nombre et 
la distinction de ses amis et de ses connaissances continuerent a lui 
attirer du monde quand les charmes eurent cesse, et quand la bien- 



PLACE DE LA BASTILLE 187 

seance et la mode lui defendirent de plus meler le corps avec 1'esprit. 
Elle savait toutes les intrigues de 1'ancienne et de la nouvelle cour, 
serieuses et autres ; sa conversation etait charmante ; desinteressee, 
fidele, secrete, sure au dernier point, et a la faiblesse pres, on pouvait 
dire qu'elle etait vertueuse et pleine de probiteV S. Simon. 

' L'indulgence et sage nature 
A forme 1'ame de Ninon, 
De la volupte d' Epicure 

Et de la vertu de Caton.' S. Evremond. 

(From hence the Boulevard Beaumarchais, remarkable 
for its antiquity shops, and the Boulevard des Filles du 
Calvaire, named from a monastery founded 1633 by Pere 
Joseph, the friend of Richelieu, and suppressed 1790, run 
north-west to join the Boulevard du Temple.) 

The south end of the Rue des Tournelles (where there 
is a statue of Beaumarchais by Clausade) falls into the 
Place de la Bastille, containing La Colonne de Juillet, 
erected 1832-1840. The statue of Liberty surmounting 
it is by Dumont, the lion at its base by Barye. The 
column marks the site of the famous castle-prison of 
the Bastille, which for four centuries and a half terrified 
Paris, and which has left a name to the quarter it 
frowned upon. Hugues Aubriot, Mayor of Paris, built 
it under Charles V. to defend the suburb which con- 
tained the royal palace of S. Paul. Unpopular from the 
excess of his devotion to his royal master, Aubriot was the 
first prisoner in his own prison. Perhaps the most cele- 
brated of the long list of after captives were the Conne'table 
de S. Pol and Jacques d'Armagnac, Due de Nemours, 
taken thence for execution to the Place de Greve under 
Louis XL; Charles de Gontaut, Due de Biron, executed 
within the walls of the fortress under Henri IV.; and the 
' Man with the Iron Mask,' brought hither mysteriously, 
September 18, 1698, and who died in the Bastille, Novem- 
ber 19, 1703. The list of prisoners shows that, as a rule, 
instead of being the emblem of royal tyranny, the Bastille 



1 88 PARIS 

was the prison where the enemies of the people, turbulent 
and restless nobles, were usually confined ; and instead of 
being (as asserted at the Revolution) a place where atro- 
cious cruelties were practised, it was one in which the 
prisoners were especially cared for, and whither those im- 
prisoned elsewhere constantly petitioned to be removed. 
Latude, who was imprisoned in the Bastille for fifteen 
years, had a room to himself. His food was abundant, if 
not delicate; he had a bottle of wine a day; he had at 
his disposal writing materials, and the means of knowing 
what was going on outside the walls ; and, finally, he was 
allowed a valet and a companion. 

A thousand engravings show us the Bastille as it was 
as a fort-bastide built on the line of the city walls just to 
the south of the Porte S. Antoine, and surrounded by its own 
moat. It consisted of eight round towers, each bearing a 
characteristic name, connected by massive walls, ten feet 
thick, pierced with narrow slits by which the cells were 
lighted. In early times it had entrances on three sides, but 
after 1580 only one, with a drawbridge over the moat on 
the side towards the river, which led to outer courts and a 
second drawbridge, and wound by a defended passage to 
an outer entrance opposite the Rue des Tournelles. 1 

' I had no ill-will to the Bastille : on the contrary, it was a curious 
example of an ancient Castellan dungeon, which the good folks, the 
founders, took for palaces. Yet I always hated to drive by it, knowing 
the miseries it contained. Of itself it did not gobble up miseries to 
glut its maw, but received them by command. The destruction of it 
was silly, and agreeable to the ideas of a mob who do not know stones 
or bars and bolts from a Lettre de Cachet. If the country remains free 
the Bastille would be as tame as a ducking-stool, now that there is no 
such a thing as a scold. If despotism recovers the Bastille will rise 
from its ashes.' Horace Walpole to Mrs. Moore, Sept. 1789. 

Close beside the Bastille, to the north, rose the Porte 
S. Antoine, approached over the city fosse by its own 

1 See the plans and views in Paris a travers les ages. 



THE BASTILLE 189 

bridge, at the outer end of which was a triumphal arch 
built on the return of Henri III. from Poland in 1573. 
Both gate and arch were restored for the triumphal entry of 
Louis XIV. in 1667; but the gate (before which Etienne 
Marcel had been killed, July 1358) was pulled down in 1674. 
The Bastille was taken by the people, July 14, 1789. 
The reports circulated of horrors discovered there were 
entirely imaginary. Only seven prisoners altogether were 
found within its walls, four of whom were awaiting trial for 
forgery ; but more fuss was made about them than about 
the two hundred thousand prisoners of the Committee of 
Public Safety. There was no trace of oubliettes, torture- 
chambers, &C. 1 Whilst the National Assembly was de- 
creeing the demolition of the building, Marat was blaming 
the stupidity of the people in destroying a place used for 
the punishment of their oppressors. 

'Vers onze heures 1'attaque devint serieuse, et le peuple avait 
abattu le premier pont. Alors M. de Launay, gouverneur de la 
Bastille, donna 1'ordre de tirer : il fut obei, et cette decharge dispersa 
la multitude. Elle revint bientot, exasperee et plus nombreuse. On 
tira sur elle un coup de canon a mitraille qui 1'eloigna de nouveau ; 
mais 1'arrivee d'un detachement des gardes fra^aises, qui se mit au 
nombre des assaillants, ebranla le courage de la garnison, qui parla de 
se rendre. M. de Flue, commandant des trente-deux soldats de Sails, 
declara qu'il preferait la mort. M. de Launay, voyant que la garnison 
etait prete a 1'abandonner, prit la meche d'un des canons, pour mettre 
le feu aux poudres, ce qui eut fait sauter une partie du faubourg 
S. Antoine. Deux sous-officiers Ten empecherent. Dans un conseil 
qu'il assembla sur-le-champ, il proposa de faire sauter la forteresse, 
plutot que tomber entre les mains d'une populace furieuse qui egor- 
gerait la garnison. Cette proposition fut rejetee. M. de Flue fit 
demander aux assiegeants une capitulation, promettant de baisser les 
ponts-levis, et de deposer les armes, si on accordait la vie aux assieges. 
Un officier du regiment de la reine, 1'un des commandants et des plus 
avances pres de la forteresse, promit sur son honneur. Les ponts 
furent aussit6t baisses et le peuple entra sans difficulte. Son premier 
soin fut de rechercher le gouverneur. On s'empara de lui ; et, au 

1 See Bingham's History of the Bastille. 



190 PARIS 

mepris de la capitulation, depuis la Bastille jusqu'a 1'arcade S. Jean, 
sous laquelle il fut massacre, cet infortune fut accable d'outrages et de 
mauvais traitements.' Details donngs par M. d'Agay. 

The massive circular pedestal upon which the Colonne 
de Juillet now rests was intended by Napoleon I. to support 
a gigantic fountain in the form of an elephant, instead of the 
column which, after the destruction of the Bastille, the * tiers 
etat ' of Paris had asked to erect ' a Louis XVI., restaurateur 
de la liberte publique.' It is characteristic of the Parisians 
that on the very same spot the throne, of Louis Philippe 
was publicly burnt, February 24, 1848. The model for the 
intended elephant existed here till the middle of the reign 
of Louis Philippe, and is depicted by Victor Hugo as the 
lodging of ' Le petit Gavroche.' 

' Ce monument, rude, trapu, pesant, apre, austere, presque difforme, 
mais a coup sur majestueux et empreint d'une sorte de gravite magnifique 
et sauvage, a disparu pour laisser regner en paix 1'espece de poele 
gigantesque, orne de son tuyau, qui a remplace la sombre forteresse a 
neuf tours, a peu pres comme la bourgeoisie remplace la feodalite. II 
est tout simple qu'un poele soit le symbole d'une epoque dont une 
marmite contient la puissance. 

' L'architecte de 1'elephant avec du platre etait parvenu a faire du 
grand ; 1'architecte du tuyau de poele a reussi a faire du petit avec le 
bronze. 

' Ce tuyau de poele, ce monument manque d'une revolution avortee, 
1'on a baptise d'un nom sonore et nomme la colonne de Juillet.' a 
Les Mistrables. 

Looking on to the Bastille stood the Hotel de Beaumar- 
chais, built by the author of Le Alariage de Figaro, the 
famous satire upon the Court of Louis XVI., who, when he 
read it in MS., exclaimed, 'Si Ton jouait cette piece, il 
faudrait detruire la Bastille ! on ne la jouera jamais ! ' yet 
which all the great world witnessed immediately after at 
the Theatre Frangais. A picturesque pavilion at the corner 

1 Designed by Alavoine, executed by Due. 



BOULEVARD HENRI IV 191 

of the garden remained till recently, but the gardens of 
the hotel are now covered by warehouses. 

' The Hotel de Beaumarchais, erected on the designs of Le Moine, 
is, I believe, meant to be a perfect rus in urbe, for wildernesses, grottoes, 
subterranean caverns, and gurgling fountains, are all assembled in a 
space not much larger than that usually assigned to the flower-knot 
of an English villa. A very pretty temple is raised to the memory of 
Voltaire ; and under the shade of a willow, marked by an urn filled 
with the golden flowers of 1'immortelle, repose the ashes of Beau- 
marchais himself.' Lady Morgans ' France.' 

The Boulevard Henri IV., running south-west from the 
Place de la Bastille to the Quartier de 1' Arsenal, destroys 
many associations, besides cutting in two the old Convent 
of the Celestines. It is more interesting to reach the same 
point by a more circuitous route, re-entering the Marais by 
the picturesque Rue S. Antoine, which is on a direct line 
with the Rue de Rivoli. No street is more connected with 
the story of the different revolutions than this, and, from 
its neighbourhood to the two royal hotels of Des Tournelles 
and S. Paul, none is more associated with the early history 
of France. It was here that Henry II., tilting in a tourna- 
ment, received his death-wound. 

' Les bruits joyeux a 1'occasion du double manage des princesses de 
France allaient s'eteindre dans le silence de mort ! Le 20 juin, madame 
Elisabeth de France avait ete epousee a Xotre-Dame par le due d'Albe, 
procureur du roi d'Espagne ; le 27, fut signe le contrat du due de 
Savoie et de madame Marguerite. Une lice splendide avait ete etabli au 
bout de la rue Saint-Antoine, devant 1'hotel royal des Tournelles et 
presque au pied de la Bastille, ou etaient enfermes les magistrals 
arraches de leurs sieges : depuis trois jours les princes et les seigneurs 
y joutaient en presence des dames ; le 29 juin, les tenants du tournoi 
furent les dues de Guise et de Nemours, le fils du due de Ferrare et le 
roi en personne, portant les couleurs de sa dame sexagenaire, la livree 
noire et blanche des veuves, que Diane n'avait jamais quittee. Comme 
le pas d'armes finissait, le roi, qui avait fourni quelques courses " en 
roide et adroit cavalier," voulut rompre encore une lance avant de se 
retirer, et, malgre les prieres de la reine, il ordonna au comte de 
Montgommeri de courir centre lui. C'etait le capitaine des grades 



I 9 2 PARIS 

qui avail mene du Bourg et du Faur a la Bastille. Montgommeri 
voulut en vain s'excuser. Les deux jouteurs se heurterent violemment 
en rompirent leurs lances avec dexterite ; mais Montgommeri oublia de 
jeter a 1'instant, selon 1'usage, le tronfon demeure dans sa main ; il en 
frappa involontairement le casque du roi, lui releva la visiere et lui 
fit entrer un eclat du bois dans 1'oeil ! Le roi tomba sur le cou de son 
cheval, qui 1'emporta jusqu'au bout de la carriere ; ses ecuyers le 
re^urent dans leurs bras ; on le reporta aux Tournelles, au milieu 
d'une confusion et d'un effroi indicibles. Tous les secours de 1'art 
furent inutiles ; le bois avait penetre dans la cervelle ; 1'illustre Vesale 
accourut en vain de Bruxelles, sur 1'ordre de Philippe II. Henri 
languit onze jours et expira, le 10 juillet, apres avoir, la veille de sa 
mort, fait celebrer dans sa chambre le mariage de sa soeur Marguerite 
avec le due de Savoie. II etait age de quarante ans et quelques mois. 
Toute 1'Europe protestante salua le bras du Seigneur dans ce coup de 
foudre qui venait de frapper le roi persecuteur parmi les fetes des 
"impies."' Henri Martin, 'Hist, de France? 

On the left is the former Church of the Visitation, 
adding everywhere to the picturesqueness of the street by 
the marvellous grace of its outline, now, as the Temple 
S. Marie, given to the Calvinists. The Visitandines were 
brought from Annecy to Paris by Sainte Marie Chantal. 
They bought the Hotel de Cosse, where their admirable 
domed church was begun by Frangois Mansart in 1632, and 
dedicated, in 1634, to Notre Dame des Anges. Andre 
Fremiot, Archbishop of Bourges, brother of the foundress, 
Baronne de Chantal, rested in one of its chapels ; in another 
lay the minister Fouquet, celebrated for his sudden disgrace 
and imprisonment in 1680; in its crypt were a number of 
coffins of the house of Sevigne. The church occupies the 
site of the Hotel de Boissy, where for thirty-three days 
Henri III. watched by his dying * Mignon ' Quelus, mortally 
wounded in the great duel of April 27, 1578, promising 
100,000 francs to the surgeons in attendance if they could 
save the life of one to whom he bore 'une merveilleuse 
amitieV But it was of no use, and when Quelus had 
breathed his last, crying out, ' Oh, mon roi, mon roi ! ' it 
was the king who, with his own hands, took out the ear- 



HOTEL DE SULLY 193 

rings he had given him, and cut off his long chestnut 
hair. 

The chaste and beautiful Louise de la Fayette, the 
platonic friend of Louis XIII., who preferred a life of 
seclusion to the temptations of a court, took the veil in 
the convent of the Visitandines in 1637, to escape at once 
from the insults of Marie de Hautefort, of Cardinal de 
Richelieu, and of Anne of Austria, who dreaded her in- 
fluence over the king. In the month of July which fol- 
lowed her departure, the king went to see her in her 
convent, where she bore the name of Mere Angelique. He 
talked to her for three hours through the grille of the 
parloir, and it was during this conversation that she per- 
suaded him to consecrate the kingdom of France to the 
Virgin. The letters patent of the loth of February 1638 
gave official and public effect to the vow of Louis XIII. 1 
Louise de la Fayette died, as superior of the Visitandines 
in 1665. 

Within two doors of the church (No. 212) is the Hdte. 
de Mayenne, or d* Ormesson, or du Petit- Muse, a very hand- 
some house, built by Du Cerceau for the Due de 
Mayenne, and afterwards inhabited by the President 
d'Ormesson. It now belongs to the Freres des Ecoles 
Chre'tiennes. 

A little farther down the street, on the right (No. 143), 
is the finest of all the ancient hotels which still remain in 
the neighbourhood of the Place Royale, that of the great 
minister who superintended its erection. The Hotel de 
Sully or de Bethune was built from the designs of Androuet 
du Cerceau for Maximilien de Bethune, Due de Sully, the 
friend and minister of Henri IV., upon part of the site of 
the Hotel des Tournelles, with the fortune he made in the 
king's service. 

' "Donnez-moi," lui ecrivait le roi, "votre foi et votre parole 
d'etre aussi bon menager de mon bien a mon profit que je vous 1'ai 

1 See Les Bourbons de France, by De Cesena. 
VOL. I. N 



194 PARIS 

toujours vu etre de votre, et de ne desirer de faire vos affaires que de 
mon su et par ma pur liberalite, qui sera assez ample pour un homme 
de bien et un esprit regie comme le votre." ' (Economies royales, 
i. 207. 

The rich front of the hotel still looks down upon the 
Rue S. Antoine, and the four sides of its stately court are 
magnificently adorned with sculptures of armour and figures 
of the Four Seasons ; masques and leaves decorate its win- 
dows. The noble saloon on the first floor has remains of 
the monogram of Sully; in another room is an ancient 
mosaic pavement. After Sully, the hotel belonged to Turgot, 
then to Boisgelin, by whose name it is still often known. 
Two other ancient hotels remain in this part of the Rue S. 
Antoine. One is the picturesque Hotel de Beauvais (No. 
62), built by Antoine Lepautre for Pierre de Beauvais. His 
wife, Catherine Bellier, who was first waiting-woman to 
Anne of Austria, is commemorated in the heads of rams 
(tetes de better) which alternate with those of lions in the 
decorations. Catherine owed so much to Anne of Austria 
that it used to be a saying that she had taken the stones of 
the Louvre to build her house with. The oval court has 
masks and pilasters ; the vestibule has doric columns sus- 
taining trophies ; a staircase, with corinthian columns, bas- 
reliefs, and a rich balustrade, leads to the principal rooms 
on the first floor, from one of which, on August 26, 1660, 
Anne of Austria, with Queen Henrietta Maria of Eng- 
land and her daughter, 1 watched the triumphal entrance 
into the capital of Louis XIV. and Marie Therese. At 
No. 162 is the Passage S. Pierre, on the site of the prison 
of the Grange S. Eloy. On its way to the Rue de S. Paul 
it traverses part of the ancient XV. c. cloisters of S. Paul, 
supported by solid buttresses, and ceiled with timber in 
panels. 

Besides these houses, No. 88 Rue S. Antoine has a 

1 See Memoires de Mlle.\de Montpensier. 



QU ARTIER DE S. PAUL 



195 



remarkable balcony. No. 104 has a portal dating from 
Henri III. No. 126 is XV. c. No. 134 has still a sign 
carved in stone 'Truie qui pile." 

Opposite the Hotel de Sully, the Rue de S. Paul leads 
from the Rue S. Antoine into the ancient Quartier de S. 
Paul, which, with the adjoining Quartier de 1* Arsenal, were 
suburbs of the city before they were included within the 




HOTEL DE SULLY. 



walls of Charles V. and thus united to the northern part of 
the town. The quarter was chiefly inhabited by those who 
were ' hommes d'eau,' or persons whose interests lay in the 
part of the Seine upon which it abutted, being the place 
where all the boats coming from the upper Seine and the 
Marne were moored for the lading and unlading of their 
merchandise. The great Porte de S. Paul took its name 



196 PARIS 

from a church, which dated from the VII. c., and it was 
divided into several smaller ports, each of which had its 
own name and destination, under the superintendence of 
the confraternity of Marchands de feau. In this mercantile 
quarter three great religious establishments were situated 
the church of S. Paul, the convent of Ave Maria, and the 
convent of the Celestins. The church was founded in 633 
by S. Eloy, prime minister of the Merovingian King Dago- 
bert. But his building, which contained the tomb of the 
sainted abbot Quintilianus, was only a chapel on the site of 
the existing Rue de S. Paul, in a spot once called Grange 
de S. Eloy. Its cemetery, which extended as far as the 
Rue Beautreillis, was intended as a burial-place for the nuns 
of the great monastery of S. Martial, which S. Eloy had 
founded in the Cite, for, at that time, in accordance with 
the pagan custom, all burials took place outside the town. 
It was only at the end of the XI. c. that the church of 
S. Paul les Champs became parochial. Charles V. re- 
built it in the severe gothic style, and it was reconsecrated 
with great magnificence in 1431. Its entrance, on the Rue 
S. Paul, had three gothic portals, beneath a tower sur- 
mounted by a lofty spire. Its windows were of great 
beauty, and were not finished till the close of Charles 
VI I. 's reign, for amongst the personages represented in 
them was the Maid of Orleans, with the legend, Et moy 
le Roy. Through its neighbourhood to Vincennes and 
afterwards to the Hotel de S. Paul and the Hotel des 
Tournelles, the royal church of S. Paul was for several 
centuries the paroisse du roi. All the dauphins, from the 
reign of Philippe de Valois to that of Louis XI., were 
baptized there, in a font which still exists at Medan, near 
Poissy, whither it was removed by one Henri Perdrier, 
Alderman of Paris, when the old church was rebuilt. It 
became a point of ambition with the illustrious persons of 
the Court to be buried either in its cemetery or in its side 
chapels, which they had themselves adorned with sculpture, 



S. PAUL LES CHAMPS 



197 



hangings, or stained glass. The cloisters were approached 
by an avenue (the present Passage S. Pierre) and exhibited 
in themselves all the different periods of gothic architecture, 
as these buildings were only completed in the XVI. c. : 
decorations were even added to them under Louis XIV. 




IN THE RUE DE S. PAUL, NO. 



Their galleries had stained windows by Pinaigrier, Porcher, 
and Nicolas Desangives. In the church the earliest re- 
corded epitaph is that of Denisette la Bertichiere, laundry- 
maid to the king, 131 r. The splendid Chapelle de la 
Communion was the burial-place of the House of Noailles. 



I 9 8 PARIS 

The name Serail des Mignons was at one time given to 
the church from the mignons of Henry III. Quelus, 
Maugiron, and Saint-Megrin J buried there. The king 
erected magnificent tombs to them ; but their statues were 
destroyed in 1588 by the people, led on by the preaching 
of the monks, who were infuriated at the murder of the 
Guises. In the choir lay Robert Ceneau (Cenalis), Bishop 
of Avranches, who died, April 27, 1560, 'en expurgant les 
heresies.' Nicole Gilles, the author of the Annales de 
France, was buried in the chapel of S. Louis, which he 
had built de ses deniers. Pierre Biard, sculptor and archi- 
tect; the famous architect Francois Mansart, and his 
nephew Jules Hardouin ; Jean Nicot, ambassador of 
France in Portugal, and the importer of tobacco, called 
at first la nicotiana in his honour ; the philosopher Pierre 
Sylvain Regis, and Adrien Baillet, the learned librarian 
of the President de Lamoignon, were also buried here. 
Isaac de Bourges, writing in 1700, mentions 'le magnifique 
tombeau du Due de Noailles ' as existing here. Under an 
old fig-tree in the cemetery was the grave of Francois 
Rabelais, cure of Meudon, who died (April 9, 1553) in 
the Rue des Jardins, and was laid here because he was 
connected with the parish as priest or canon of the collegiate 
church of S. Maur des Fosses. 

* Rabelais re9ut humblement le viatique avant de mourir ; mais, 
au moment de 1'extreme-onction, il ne put s'empecher de dire qu'on 
lui graissait les bottes pour le grand voyage. II laissa, assure-1'on, sous 
forme de scelle, cette maniere de testament : "Je n'ai rien vaillant, je 
dois beaucoup ; je donne le reste aux pauvres." On lui attribue deux 
autres mots, qui sont bien dans son caractere : "Je vais chercher un 
grand peut-etre." Et enfin, avec un eclat de rire : "Tirez le rideau, 
la farce est jouee." ' P. Barrere, ' Les tcrivains JranfaisS 

The body of Charles de Gontaut, Due de Biron, executed 

1 Saint-Me'grin, who was looked upon as the mignon of the Duchesse de Guise, 
was murdered by her brother-in-law, the Due de Mayenne, in the Rue S. Honore", 
July 21, 1578. 



CONVENT OF AVE MARIA 199 

in the Bastille under Henri IV., was brought to the church- 
yard of S. Paul, with that of the ' Man with the Iron Mask,' 
who died in the Bastille in 1703; and here also were 
buried the four skeletons which were affirmed to have 
been found chained in the dungeons of the Bastille in 
June 1790, but which were more probably dug up in the 
garden of the Arsenal, where non-Catholic prisoners who 
died in the Bastille were buried. 1 One year more and 
both church and cemetery were closed; they were sold 
as national property in December 1794, and two years 
afterwards they were demolished for house-building. The 
crowded bodies which formed the foundation were not 
removed before the hurried erection of Nos. 30, 32, 34 
of the Rue de S. Paul, for fifty years later the proprietors, 
making new cellars, came upon masses of bones, and even 
entire coffins, in lead and wood. 

The Convent of Ave Maria only received that name 
under Louis XL It was originally occupied by Beguines, 
brought by Lous IX. from Nivelle in Flanders in 1230. 
Gradually the number of these uncloistered nuns (who took 
their name from S. Bague, daughter of a maire du palais of 
King Sigebert) amounted to four hundred, known in Paris 
as Devotes, though, according to the poet Thomas Chantpre, 
they led by no means an exemplary life. When they after- 
wards dwindled in numbers, Louis XL gave their convent, 
under the name of Ave Maria, to the poor Clares, who 
flourished greatly under the patronage of his widow, Queen 
Charlotte. Their house was entered from the Rue des 
Barres by a gateway bearing statues of Louis XL and 
Charlotte de Savoie, and their church was full of tombs 
of great ladies, including those of Jeanne de Vivonne, 
daughter of the lord of Chastaigneraie ; of Catherine de la 
Tremoille, and Claude Catherine de Clermont, Duchesse 
de Retz. The President Mole and his wife, Renee de 
Nicolai, reposed alone in the chapter-house. At the 

1 See Bingham's History of the Bastille. 



200 PARIS 

Revolution the convent was turned into a cavalry bar- 
rack ; this gave place to a market ; now nothing is left. 

Opposite the main entrance of the Ave Maria was the 
Jeu de Paume de la Croix Noire, on the ramparts of the 
town. After the Jeu de Paume became unfashionable, at 
the end of the reign of Louis XIII., its place was taken 
here for a short time by the Illustre Theatre, where Moliere 
was chief actor, and whence, having made himself respon- 
sible for the debts of the company, he was soon carried 
off to prison in the Grand Chatelet. The door, of the 
XVI. c., at which he was arrested, still remains at No. 1 5 
Rue de FAve Maria. The site occupied by the Jeu de 
Paume had originally been a convent of Carmelites, called 
Barres, on account of their long mantles, divided into 
checks of black and white. It was these nuns who gave 
a name to the Rue des Barres. 

The Carmelites were removed by S. Louis to the Rue 
du Petit-Muse, and afterwards they moved to the Quartier 
S. Jacques, selling their land in the Quartier de S. Paul 
to Jacques Marcel, merchant of Paris, whose son, Gamier 
Marcel, bestowed it in 1352 upon the Celestins, established 
here under the patronage of the dauphin Charles, during 
the captivity of his father, King Jean, in England. As 
Charles V., he built them a magnificent church, whose 
portal bore his statue and that of his wife, Jeanne de 
Bourbon (now at S. Denis). Henceforth the Celestins 
became the especial royal foundation, and its monks were 
spoken of by the kings as their bien-aimes chapelains et 
serviteurs de Dieu. From the XIV. c. to the XVI. c. 
benefactors of the convent were dressed in the Celestin 
habit before receiving the last sacraments, and thus they 
were represented upon their tombs in the pavement of 
the church. Amongst the sepulchral inscriptions here 
were those of the family of Marcel; of Jean Lhuiller, 
counsellor of parliament, and of the famous doctor, Odo 
de Creil (1373). In the choir were many cenotaphs, 



LES CELESTINS 201 

containing only the hearts of the princesses of France buried 
at S. Denis, but it was also adorned by the tombs of 
Jeanne de Bourbon, wife of Charles V., 1377 (now at S. 
Denis); of Leon de Lusignan, last king of Armenia, 1393 
(at S. Denis); and of Anne de Bourgogne, Duchess of 
Bedford, 1432 (now at the Louvre). 1 Annexed to the 
church by the Confrerie des dix mi lie martyrs in the XV. c. 
was the chapel which became the burial-place of the united 
families of Gesvres and Beaune, and contained the body 
of Jacques de Beaune, lord of Semblangay, Controller of 
Finances under Frangois I., unjustly hanged on a gallows 
at Montfaucon in 1543. Near his forgotten grave rose 
the magnificent monuments of the Potier des Gesvres and 
de Luxembourg, with their kneeling figures. Three little 
chapels, communicating with the Chapelle des Gesvres, 
belonged to other families that of Rochefort, which pro- 
duced two chancellors of France in the reigns of Louis XL, 
Charles VIII., and Charles XII., of whom one, Guy de 
Rochefort, had a curious tomb; that of the family of 
Zamet, which began with the financier Sebastien Zamet, 
who died in 1614 in his magnificent hotel of the Rue 
de la Cerisaie, and which ended with his son Jean 
Zamet, governor of the Chateau of Fontainebleau, who 
died in battle in 1622 ; and that of Charles de Maigne, 
gentleman of the chamber to Henri II., with a beau- 
tiful statue by the Florentine Paolo Poncio, now in the 
Louvre. 

A more magnificent building, like a succursale to S. 
Denis, rose attached to the Celestins the great Chapelle 
d'Orleans, built in 1393 by Louis d'Orleans, the younger 
son of Charles V. (who was murdered in the Rue Barbette), 
in fulfilment of a vow of his wife, Valentine de Milan, for 
his escape from perishing by fire in the terrible masquerade 
called le ballet des ardents, given in the old hotel of Blanche 

1 On the destruction of the church, her remains being those of the daughter of 
Jean sans Peur were removed to S. Be'nigne at Dijon. 



202 PARIS 

of Castille. Here, in the monastery which he had richly 
endowed, he was buried with his wife (who only survived 
him a short time), and all his descendants ; and here his 
grandson, Louis XII., erected a magnificent monument 
(now at S. Denis) to his memory and that of his sons. 
Beside it stood the urn (also at S. Denis) which contained 
the heart of Frangois II., and the beautiful group of the 
three Graces by Germain Pilon (now at the Louvre) which 
upheld the bronze urn holding the hearts of Henri II., 
Catherine de Medicis, Charles IX., and his brother, Fran- 
ois de Valois, Due d'Anjou, the suitor of Queen Eliza- 
beth. Near this rose a pyramid in honour of the house 
of Longueville, and two sarcophagi which contained the 
hearts of a Comte de Cosse-Brissac and a Due de Rohan. 
Here also was the tomb, with a seated statue, of Philippe 
de Chabot, and that of the Marechal Anne de Mont- 
morency, by Barthelemy Prieur (both now in the Louvre). 
All the precious contents of the Celestins, except the few 
statues now in the galleries, perished in the Revolution. 
The Boulevard Henri IV. passes over the site of the con- 
vent. Its church served as a barn and stable for half a 
century, and was destroyed in 1849. Amongst the coffins 
thrown up at this time was that of Anne, Duchess of 
Bedford, daughter of Jean sans Peur. She was buried 
here, because after her death her husband recollected 
how, one night 'qu'elle s'esbattoit a jeux honnestes' 
with the gentlemen and ladies of her household, she heard 
the bells of the Celestins sound for matins, and rising 
up, and inviting her ladies to follow her, went at once 
to the church, and assisted at the holy office, by the tomb 
of that Due d'Orleans whom her father had caused to be 
assassinated. 

Whilst Jean le Bon was a prisoner in England, his son, 
afterwards Charles V., was oppressed by the growing power 
of the Confrerie des Bourgeois, the municipal authorities of 
Paris. Under their formidable provost, Etienne Marcel, 



HdTEL DE S. PAUL 203 

they had broken into the Louvre and murdered his two 
favourite ministers in his presence, his own life only being 
saved by his consenting to put on the red and green cap of 
the republican leader, and giving him his own of cloth of 
gold, arrayed in which he showed himself triumphantly to 
the people. The king for the time escaped from Paris, and 
after Marcel had been killed, July 31, 1358, at the Bastille 
S. Antoine, he determined to seek a more secure residence 
with the Association de la Marchandise de Veau, which had 
always been submissive and devoted to the royal authority. 
Every preceding king had held his Court either in the Cite 
or at the Louvre, but Charles now bought, near the Port de 
S. Paul, the hotel of the Comte d'Etampes, which occupied 
the whole space between the Rue S. Antoine and the Ceme- 
tery of S. Paul. In 1363 he added to his purchase the 
hotel of the Archbishop of Sens, with gardens which reached 
to the Port, and he had also become the owner of the 
smaller hotels d'Estomesnil and de Pute-y-Muce, and of 
that of the abbots of S. Maur, who built another for them- 
selves in the Rue des Barres. By an edict of July 1364, 
Charles V., after coming to the throne, declared the Hotel 
de S. Paul to be for ever part of the domain of the Crown 
the hotel where ' he had enjoyed many pleasures, endured 
and recovered from many illnesses, and which therefore he 
regarded with singular pleasure and affection.' No plan of 
the Hotel de S. Paul has come down to us, but we know 
that it was rather a group of palaces than a single building, 
the Hotel de Sens being the royal dwelling-place ; the Hotel 
de S. Maur, under the name of Hotel de la Conciergerie, 
being the residence of the Due d'Orleans, Due de Bourgogne, 
and other princes of the royal family ; the Hotel d'Etampes 
being called Hotel de la Reine, afterwards Hotel de Beau- 
treillis ; whilst, on the other side of the Rue du Petit-Muse, 
were the Hotel du Petit-Muse, and Maison du Pont-Perrin, 
probably occupied by Court officials. The palace, as a 
whole, was surrounded by high walls, inclosing six meadows, 



204 PARIS 

eight gardens, twelve galleries, and a number of courts. 
We know many of the names of the royal dwelling-rooms, 
such as the Chambre de Charlemagne, so called from its 
tapestries ; the Galerie des Courges ; the Chambre de 
Theseus ; the Chambre Lambrissee ; the Chambre Verte ; 
Chambre des Grandes Aulnoires, &c. The garden walks 
were shaded by trellises covered with vines, which pro- 
duced annually a large quantity of Vin de V Hotel. In their 
shade Charles V. amused himself by keeping a menagerie, 
and many accounts exist of sums disbursed to those who 
brought him rare animals. Here the queen and her ladies 
appeared in the new dress of the time, in which their own 
arms were always embroidered on one side of their gown, 
and their husbands' on the other. 

From his twelfth year to his death at fifty - four, 
Charles VI. lived constantly at the Hotel de S. Paul; 
there he found himself practically a prisoner in the hands 
of the provost of the merchants, whom his father had come 
thither specially to avoid, and there, in 1392, he showed the 
first symptoms of the insanity which returned, with intervals 
of calm and sense, till his death ; there his twelve children 
by Isabeau de Baviere were born, most of them during his 
madness ; there he several times saw his palace attacked by 
a mob, and his relations and courtiers arrested without being 
able to help them ; and there, abandoned by his wife and 
children, he died, Oct. 20, 1422, being only cared for by 
a mistress, Odette de Champdivers, nicknamed la petite 
reine. For thirteen years after her husband's death, Isabeau 
de Baviere remained shut up from the detestation of the 
French, in the Hotel de S. Paul. * Even her body was so 
despised,' says Brantome, * that it was transported from her 
hotel, in a little boat on the Seine, without any kind of 
ceremony or pomp, and was thus carried to her grave at 
S. Denis, just as if she had been a simple demoiselle.' 
From this time the Hotel de S. Paul was deserted by royalty. 
When Charles VII. returned victorious to Paris he would 



HdTEL DE S. PAUL 205 

not lodge even in the Hotel des Tournelles, contaminated 
for him by the residence of the Duke of Bedford, and, 
whenever he was in Paris, he stayed at the Hotel Neuf, 
which is sometimes supposed to have been the same as the 
Hotel du Petit-Muse, afterwards (when given by Charles VIII. 
to Anne of Brittany) known as Hotel de Bretagne. In spite 
of the letters-patent of Charles V. declaring the Hotel de 
S. Paul inalienable from the domains of the Crown, Louis XI. 
bestowed several of the satellite hotels dependent on the 
palace upon his friends, and during the reign of Francois I. 
the Rues des Lions, Beautreillis, and de la Cerisaie, recalling 
by their names the ancient sites they occupied, had invaded 
the precincts of the palace. A great part of the buildings 
and land extending from the Rue des Barres to the Rue du 
Petit-Muse, with the great royal palace 'fort vague et 
ruineux,' was alienated in 1516 for the benefit of Jacques 
de Geroilhac, grand-master and captain-general of the 
artillery of France, in reward for his public service, especially 
at the battle of Marignan ; finally, in 1542, all the rest of the 
royal domain in the Quartier de S. Paul, comprising a great 
number of hotels under different illustrious names, was 
sold, and the sites were soon occupied by fresh buildings. 
Scarcely any fragments of the vast royal palace remain. 
A tourelle, which may have belonged to one of the minor 
hotels of the royal colony, still exists at the corner of the 
Rue de S. Paul and Rue des Lions. 

'Cette rue prit son nom du bailment et des cours ou etoient ren- 
fermes les grands et les petits lions du roi. Un jour que Francois I. 
s'amusoit a regarder au combat de ses lions, une dame ayant laisse 
tomber son gant, dit a De Lorges, " Si vous voulez que je croye que 
vous m'aimez autant que vous me le jurez tous les jours, allez ramasser 
mon gant." De Lorges descend, ramasse le gant au milieu de ces 
terribles animaux ; remonte, le jette au nez de la dame; et depuis, 
malgre toutes les avances et les agaceries qu'elle lui faisoit, ne voulut 
jamais la voir.' De Saint- Foix, ' Essais sur Paris J 



In the Rue des Lions, No. 3 has a fountain of Louis XV. 



206 PARIS 

in its court; No. 10 has admirable buildings of Louis XIII.; 
Nos. 12 and 13 fine dormer windows. In the Rue Beau- 
treillis, No. 7 has a curious staircase; No. 10 was the Hotel 
de Valentinois ; No. 14 is the Hotel de Lyonne, with a fine 
court; No. 20 is part of the Hotel de Charny of 1676, and 
has an admirable staircase; No. 22 is the Hotel Mau- 
pertuiS) with chimneys and internal decorations of pure 
Louis XIII. 

The Hotel de Vieuville is named from the Marquis de 
Vieuville, Surintendant des Finances under Louis XIII. 
Its courtyard opens on the left at the angle of the Rue de 
S. Paul and the Quai des Celestins, but, picturesque as it is 
in its high dormer windows of brick, dates only from the 
time of Henri III. It appears in the plan of Gomboust 
of 1652. 

The old hotel behind the Hotel de Vieuville is the 
Hotel des Lions du Roi> which was appropriated by Jacques 
de Geroilhac as his residence, in his quality of grand ecuyer, 
because it adjoined the vast royal stables, which still exist, 
surmounted by granaries, lighted by lofty ornamented win- 
dows. The hotel has long been an establishment for dis- 
tilled waters, but it retains some of its halls with painted 
ceilings, and walls decorated in stucco. Its entrance from 
the Quai des Celestins, much altered, is perhaps the main 
entrance to the royal palace of S. Paul, but a row of houses 
has taken the place of the fortified wall which protected 
the royal residence towards the river. 

Opening from the Rue de S. Paul to the east is the 
Rue Charles 7., where No. 10, partly rebuilt in the begin- 
ning of the XVIII. c., was the Hotel de Maille^ and No. 12 
was the Hotel d'Aubray^ inhabited by the Marquise de 
Brinvilliers, the famous murderess. During her trial, Mme. 
de Sevigne wrote 



t) 1676. L'affaire de la Brinvilliers va toujours son train ; 
elle empoisonnoit de certaines tourtes de pigeonnaux, dont plusieurs 






RUE DB LA CERISAIB 207 

mouroient ; ce n'etoit pas qu'elle cut des raisons pour s'en defaire, 
c'etoient de simples experiences pour s'assurer de 1'effet de ses poisons. 
Le Chevalier du Guet, qui avoit de ces jolis repas, s'en nieurt depuis 
deux ou trois ans ; elle demandoit 1'autre jour s'il etoit mort ; on dit 
que non ; elle dit en se tournant : " II a la vie bien dure." 

And, after her execution 

' 17 Juillety 1676. Enfin, e'en est fait. La Brinvilliers est en 1'air ; 
son pauvre petit corps a etc jete, apres 1'execution, dans un fort-grand 
feu, et ses cendres au vent ; de sorte que nous la respirons, et par la 
communication des petits esprits, il nous prendra quelqu'humeur em- 
poisonnante, dont nous serons tous etonnes. 

4 La Brinvilliers est morte corhme elle a vecu, c'est-a-dire, resolu- 
ment. Elle entra dans le lieu ou 1'on devoit lui donner la question ; 
et voyant trois seaux d'eau, elle dit : " C'est assurement pour me 
noyer; car de la taille dont je suis, on ne pretend pas que je boive 
tout cela." Elle ecouta son arret des le matin, sans frayeur et sans 
foiblesse, et sur le fin elle fit recommencer, disant que ce tombereau 
1'avoit frappee d'abord, et qu'elle en avoit perdu 1'attention pour le 
reste. Elle dit a son confesseur, par le chemin, de faire mettre le 
bourreau devant elle, afin, dit-elle, de ne point voir ce coquin de 
Desgrais, qui m'a prise. Desgrais etoit a cheval devant le tombereau. 
Son confesseur la reprit de ce sentiment ; elle dit, " Ah, mon Dieu ! 
je vous en demande pardon, qu'on me laisse cette etrange vue." Elle 
monta seule et nuds pieds sur 1'echelle et sur 1'echafaud, et rut un 
quart-d'heure mirode'e, rasee, dressee et redressee par le bourreau ; ce 
fut un grand murmure et une grande cruaute. Le lendemain, on 
cherchoit ses os, parce que le peuple croyoit qu'elle etoit sainte. 
Elle avoit, disoit-elle, deux confesseurs, 1'un soutenoit qu'il falloit 
tout avouer, et 1'autre non ; elle rioit de cette diversite, disant, " Je 
puis faire en conscience ce qu'il me plaira " : i] lui a plu de ne rien 
avouer.' 

The Rue Charles V. leads to the Rue de la Cerisaie, 
where, at No. 21, are remains of the house which Philibert 
Delorme built for himself, and which he intended as a 
specimen of his finished work. His book, Nouvelles inven- 
tions pour bien bastir, draws attention to it as a model 
'estant le tout propose par maniere d'exemple et pour 
montrer comme Ton doit appliquer les fenetres et portes.' 
At the back of the garden of No. 22 is the facade of the 



208 PARIS 

back part of the house, with a winding staircase of massive 
stone. 

Turning along the quay, at the angle of the Rue du 
Petit-Muse, No. 2 is the Hotel de Lavalette, formerly Hotel 
Fieubet, built by Hardouin Mansart for Gaspard de Fieubet, 
Chancellor of Queen Marie Therese stately and beautiful, 
and decorated with paintings by Lesueur, though over- 
charged with ornament by Le Gros for its possessor since 
the Revolution. 

' H6tel Fieubet n'est pas aussi ancien que 1'hotel de la Vieuville ; 
il n'avait pas change de physionomie, avant que M. A. de Lavalette 
cut 1'idee de la remanier entierement, en le surchargeant de sculptures 
qui lui donnent un caractere hybride, quoique tres-pittoresque. Ce 
bel h6tel fut construit, sous la regence d'Anne d'Autriche, pour un 
chancelier de cette reine, Gaspard Fieubet, qui devint conseiller d'Etat 
pendant le regne de Louis XIV., et qui tenait plus aux choses de 
1'esprit qu'aux vanites de cour ; il rassemblait dans son hotel une 
societe choisie, et faisait concurrence aux samedis de Mile, de Scudery. 
Les poetes avaient le pas sur les prosateurs, chez Gaspard Fieubet, 
qui se melait de faire des vers et qui fut 1'ami de la Fontaine.' Paris 
a travers les dges. 

At No. 4 Quai des Celestins the sculptor Barye died in 
1875. No. 10 is the Hotel de Nicoldi. No. 14 is the Petit 
Hotel Beaumarchais. On No. 32 an inscription marks the 
site of the Tour Barbeau. 

Behind the Boulevard Henri IV., on the west, was 
the Hotel de Lesdiguieres, built by the Italian financier 
Sebastien Zamet, the friend of Henri IV., who constantly 
came with Gabrielle d'Estrees to this hotel, called by the 
people le palais d* amour du roi. It was after a supper here 
that Gabrielle first felt the pangs of which she died (1599), 
and which are supposed to have been caused by poison. 
After the death of Sebastien Zamet, in 1614, the hotel was 
sold to the Constable de Lesdiguieres, who gave his name 
to it. A century later, 1717, the Czar Peter I. of Russia 
lodged there during his visit to Paris. The hotel has long 
been destroyed, but the formation of the boulevard disclosed 



THE ARSENAL 



209 



the sculptured tomb of a cat of Frangoise Marguerite de 
Gondy, Duchesse de Lesdiguieres, inscribed 

' Cy-gist une chatte jolie ; 
Sa maitresse, qui n'aima rien, 
L'aima jusques a la folie . . . 
Pourquoi le dire? On le voit bien.' 

The Quai Henry IF., beyond the Quai des Celestins, 
occupies the site of the He Louviers, united to the main- 
land, c. 1840. 




HOTEL DE LAVALETTE. 



At the entrance of the Boulevard Henri IV., opposite 
the Hotel de Lavalette, is the entrance of the Rue de Sully ^ 
bordered on the right by the building still called the Arsenal, 
though no cannon have been cast in Paris since the reign 
of Louis XIV. From the time of Philippe Auguste all 
weapons of war were made in the Louvre, till Charles V., 
for security, transferred the seat of government to the Hotel 
VOL. i. o 



210 PARIS 

de S. Paul. After this, weapons were manufactured within 
the walls of the hotel in the Marais, and were laid up in the 
great round Tour de Billy, which stood outside the city, 
beyond the Celestins. 

Sully was made Grand Master of Artillery by Henri IV., 
who was constantly coming hither from the Louvre to visit 
him, and who, whilst Sully was looking after his magazines 
and foundries, delighted to improve the residence and 
gardens of his favourite minister. Sully built for the king 
Le Cabinet de Henri IV., a charming summer pavilion, 
containing one good chamber, with an oratory attached, 
looking upon the He Louviers. But one day, on his way 
to Sully at the Arsenal, the king was murdered. 

Marie de Cosse-Brissac, wife of the Grand Master Due 
de la Meilleraie, entrusted the internal decoration of the 
Cabinet de Henri IV. which had never been completed 
some say to Simon Vouet, others to Claude Vignon. 

' La grande piece du cabinet de Henri IV., que la duchesse de- 
stinait a devenir sa chambre a coucher, se trouvait divisee en deux 
parties distinctes, par le sujet meme des tableaux qui en faisaient 1'orne- 
ment : ici, dans la partie la plus ample, le plafond et les lambris re- 
presentaient allegoriquement les principaux faits d'armes du marechal 
de la Meilleraie, entre autres le siege de la Rochelle et celui de 
Hesdin, avec la prise de plusieurs villes du Roussillon. II est done 
incontestable que ces peintures ont ete faites en 1643 ou 1644. Un 
tableau, qui parait original et qui peut remonter a 1'epoque de Sully, 
represente 1'entree de Henri IV. a Paris, en 1594, quand le due de 
Brissac lui en ouvrit les portes. Ce tableau est un souvenir de famille, 
que Marie Cosse, duchesse de la Meilleraie, devait tenir a faire figurer 
au milieu des trophees militaires de son mari. Dans la partie la plus 
exigue du cabinet, laquelle formait la ruelle et contenait le lit d'honneur 
de la duchesse, 1'artiste a execute des peintures analogues a la destina- 
tion d'une chambre a coucher : c'est le dieu du sommeil, entoure des 
songes heureux. La petite chambre qui fait suite au cabinet de 
Henri IV. annonce, par les peintures qui la decorent, qu'elle servait 
d'oratoire : on y voit aussi, sous un plafond qui offre des sujets 
empruntes a la gloire celeste, les femmes fortes de la Bible, auxquelles 
le peintre s'est permis d'ajouter la Pucelle d'Orleans et la duchesse de 
la Meilleraie elle-meme, dont on a du noircir plus tard le costume en 



THE ARSENAL 211 

habits de veuve, lorsqu'elle cut perdu son mari, que son fils rempla9a 
comme grand-maitre de 1'artillerie, a 1'Arsenal.' P. L. Jacob, ' Paris 
a t ravers les dges.' 

The Arsenal was the scene, in 1661, of the trial of 
Nicolas Fouquet, the dishonest Surintendant des Finances 
under the presidency of Seguier. 

The office of Grand Master of the Artillery was always 
given to the greatest personages of the Court. The Due de 
la Meilleraie was succeeded by his son the Due de Mazarin ; 
then followed the Due de Lude, 1669; and the Due 
d'Humieres, 1683. At this time the Arsenal was the seat 
of an extraordinary criminal tribunal, to inquire into the 
crimes of magic and poisoning, concerning which terrible 
revelations were made during the trial of the Marquise de 
Brinvilliers, and which involved the Comtesse de Soissons 
and many others of the greatest ladies in France. In 1694, 
Louis XIV. gave the office of Grand Master of Artillery to 
the Due de Maine (his much-indulged son by Mme. de 
Montespan) ; and his wife, Anne Louise de Bourbon-Conde, 
established herself there for a time, and inserted her por- 
trait, as a nymph, byy. B. Vanloo, over the chimney-piece 
of the Cabinet de Henri IV. ' L'arsenal etait renverse pour 
y batir un beau logement pour le Due de Maine,' says 
S. Simon. The last Grand Master was his brother, the 
Comte de Toulouse. 

The old hotel of the Grand Master was rebuilt under 
the Regent d'Orleans by Boffrand, but he preserved all that 
was interesting in the house, only encasing the outer walls 
which contained the rooms of Sully and Henri IV. When 
the office of Grand Master of Artillery was suppressed, that 
of Governor of the Arsenal remained, and to this Marc- 
Antoine Rene Voyer de Paulmy, son of the Marquis 
d'Argenson, was appointed. He cared nothing about 
cannons, but devoted his whole time and fortune to the 
acquisition of a magnificent library, which comprised 
100,000 printed works and 3000 MSS. Just before his 



212 PARIS 

death he sold his library to the Comte d'Artois, who, by 
purchase, added to it the library of the Prince de Soubise. 
At the Revolution, the collection was seized and became 
a Public Library, and at the Restoration, when urged to 
claim what was his own, the Comte d'Artois refused to 
do so, only stipulating that the Library should be called 
Bibliotheque de Monsieur. The Library (open daily from 
10 to 3, except on Sundays and holidays) is well worth 
visiting. Its collection now amounts to about 360,000 
volumes, and is generally known as the Bibliotheque de 
Paulmy. It is especially rich in early French poetry. 

In the Rue de Figuier, behind the Hotel de S. Paul, 
will be found the remains of the Hotel de Sens, once en- 
woven with the immense pile of buildings which formed the 
royal residence. Jean le Bon, returning from his captivity in 
London, was here for some time as the guest of the Arch- 
bishop of Sens. Charles V. bought the hotel from Arch- 
bishop Guillaume de Melun, but upon the destruction of the 
rest of the palace, that part which had belonged to them was 
restored to the Archbishops of Sens. In the beginning of 
the XVI. c. the hotel was rebuilt by Archbishop Tristan 
de Salazar. 

Under Henri IV., the palace was inhabited for a time by 
Marguerite de Valois (daughter of Henri II.), the licentious 
Reine Margot, when, after her divorce, she left Auvergne, 
and obtained the king's permission to establish herself 
in Paris. Here it is said she used to sleep habitually 
in a bed with black satin sheets, in order to give greater 
effect to the whiteness of her skin. She came to the 
hotel in August 1605, and left it before a year was over, 
because, as she was returning from mass at the Celestins, 
her page and favourite Julien was shot dead at the portiere 
of her carriage, in a fit of jealousy, by Vermond, one of her 
former lovers. The queen swore that she would neither 
eat nor drink till she was revenged on the assassin, and he 
was beheaded two days after, in her presence, opposite the 



HdTEL DE SENS 



213 



hotel. That evening she left Paris, never to return, as the 
people were singing under her windows 

1 La Royne- Venus demi-morte 
De voir mourir devant sa porte, 
Son Adonis, son cher Amour, 
Pour vengeance a devant sa face 
Fait defaire en la mesme place 
L'assassin presque au mesme jour.' 




HOTEL DE SENS. 



It was within the walls of the Hotel de Sens, addition- 
ally decorated by Cardinal Dupont, that Cardinal de Pelleve, 
Archbishop of Sens, one of the principal chiefs of the Ligue, 
united the leaders of the Catholic party, and there he died, 
March 22, 1594, whilst a Te Deum was being chanted at 
Notre Dame for the entry of the king to Paris. 



214 PARIS 

After the archbishops of Sens ceased to be metropolitans 
of Paris (which was raised from a bishopric to an arch- 
bishopric in 1622), they deserted their hotel, though they 
were only dispossessed as proprietors by the Revolution. 
In the last century the hotel became a diligence office ; now 
a fabrique de confitures occupies the chamber of la galante 
reine, but the building is still a beautiful and important 
specimen of the first years of the XVI. c., and no one 
should fail to visit its gothic gateway, defended by two 
encorbelled tourelles with high peaked roofs. A porch, 
with vaulting irregular in plan, but exquisite in execution ; 
its brick chimneys, great halls, the square donjon tower at 
the back of the court, and the winding stair of the tourelle, 
remain entire; only the chapel has been destroyed. On 
the left of the entrance is an eight-pounder ball, which 
lodged in the wall, July 28, 1830, during the attack on the 
convent of Ave Maria. The house is despoiled of its 
chimney-pieces and carved woodwork, sold to collectors in 
1891. 

No. 5 Rue du Figuier has a curious well with a sculp- 
tured rim. No. 8 is said to have been the residence of 
Rabelais, who died in the Rue des Jardins. 

A short distance hence, facing the Rue S. Antoine, is 
the Jesuit Church of S. Paul and S. Louis (commonly called 
Les Grands Jesuitcs\ erected 162 7-41, by Francois Derand 
for Louis XIII., who laid the first stone, on the site of a 
Jesuit church built (1580) on ground formerly occupied 
by the hotel of the Cardinal de Bourbon. Ravaillac, the 
murderer of Henri IV., declared that the Jesuit d'Aubigne 
met him in this earlier church and instigated his crime. 
The first mass in the present church was celebrated by 
Cardinal de Richelieu. The munificence of Louis XIII., 
who paid for the existing church, was commemorated by 
the Jesuits in a medal inscribed Vicit ut David, aedificat ut 
Salomon. Richelieu added the portal, from designs of 
the Jesuit Marcel Ange. The church has a reminiscence 



55. PAUL BT LOUIS 215 

of S. Andrea della Valle and S. Ignazio at Rome, but is 
greatly their inferior. It is cruciform, with a very handsome 
dome. Two inscriptions on black marble against the last 
pillars of the nave commemorate Bourdaloue ('Hie jacet 
Bourdaloue'), 1704, and Huet, Bishop of Avranches, 1721, 
buried here. 

* Le Bourdaloue preche, comme un ange du ciel. ' Mme. de Stvigng. 
'n Mars 1670. Le Pere Bourdaloue preche : bon Dieu ! tout est 
au-dessous des louanges qu'il merite.' Memoires de Madame. 

The interesting monuments in this church, destroyed 
in the Revolution, included those of the great Conde' and 
his father Henri de Bourbon, by Sarazin, also that of the 
cruel Chancellor Rene de Birague, now in the Louvre. 
The heart of Louis XIII. was also preserved here in a 
golden urn supported by silver angels by Sarazin, and the 
heart of Louis XIV., brought hither in 1715, in a case by 
Coustou le Jeune. A magnificent mausoleum, erected by 
President Perault, the intendant of the great Conde, con- 
tained the heart of that prince, with those of several of his 
descendants. The pulpit was given by Gaston de France, 
brother of Louis XIII. 1 The high altar is ornamented 
by a relief the Pilgrims of Emmaus by Michel Auguier. 
In a chapel on the left is a Madonna by Germain Pilon. 
In the left transept is Christ in the garden of Olives, an 
early work of Eugene Delacroix. A representation of the 
Abbey of Longchamps is said to be by Philippe de Cham- 
paigne. In the right transept a picture of S. Isabelle 
(sister of S. Louis) offering that abbey to the Virgin is 
perhaps by the same hand. The crucifix in the sacristy 
comes from the old chapel of the Bastille. The shells 
which serve as benitiers were given by Victor Hugo when 
his first child was baptized. The name of S. Paul was 
added to that of S. Louis when the old church of S. Paul 
was destroyed in 1796. 

1 See Isaac de Bourges, 1700. 



216 PARIS 

Around the fountain opposite the church, the Cour des 
Aides and the Chambre des Comptes fought for precedence 
at the funeral of Cardinal de Birague. 

At No. 102, Rue S. Antoine, is the entrance of the Pas- 
sage Charlemagne, which crosses the courtyard of the Hotei 
du Prevot de Paris, sometimes called Hotel de Graville, 
Hotel Aubryot, or du Pore-epic, which belonged to Hugues 
Aubryot, founder of the Bastille. We hear of his residing, 
not at the Petit Chatelet, the official residence of the 
provosts, but (1381) at his hotel, called Pore-epic 'a la 
poterne Saint-Pol.' Having incurred the hatred of the 
University by his stern repression of its disorders, he was 
accused of hesesy and favouring the Jews (a terrible crime 
at that time), and condemned, on a scaffold before Notre 
Dame, to pass the rest of his life ' on the bread and water 
of affliction ' in the dungeons of For 1'Eveque, whence he 
was transferred to the Bastille, but, being set free in a 
popular insurrection, escaped to Burgundy. After the time 
of Aubryot, the hotel became a sejour of Louis d'Orleans, 
the builder of Pierrefonds, who created the order of Pore- 
epic. Then followed J. de Montaigu, the Connetable de 
Richemont, Estouteville, the Admiral de Graville and the 
Connetable de Montmorency, whose widow sold it to the 
Cardinal de Bourbon, by whom it was bequeathed to the 
Jesuits, after which it became a dependance of their college, 
now Lycee Charlemagne. 

' Dans une cour noire, verte d'humidite, et qui est comme un puits, 
on voit encore 1'ennuyeux bailment (aujourd'hui College Charlemagne). 
Les corridors etroits et monotones, perces de portes basses, vous 
mettent dans des chambres nues, tristement blanchies a la chaux. Dans 
une de ces chambres se trouvait un vieux cuistre, le P. Tellier, durci, 
recuit, dont 1'ame fiel jaunissait ses yeux louches. S'il ne les eiit baisses, 
on n'eut pu supporter son regard de travers, faux, menteur, et pourtant 
d'un fou furieux.' Michelet, 'Hist, au Dix-Septieme Siecle? 

In the plan of Paris of 1570, attributed to Du 
Cerceau, this hotel is inscribed as ' Logis du Preuost 



HdTEL DU PR&V6T 



217 



de Paris.' The buildings are of the time of Francois I. 
They are very little known and have therefore happily 
escaped 'restoration,' so that their colour is glorious. 
In the dark arcades of the court, the delicate friezes, 
broadly over-hanging eaves, arched doorways, twisted 




H&TEL DU PR^VOT DE PARIS. 



staircase, brilliant flowers in the windows, bright glints of 
green seen through dark entries, and figures and costumes full 
of colour for such are still to be seen in the Marais an 
artist may find at least a dozen subjects worthy of his skill. 
The southern side of the Hotel du Prevot opens upon 



218 



PARIS 



the Rue Charlemagne, formerly Rue des Jardins S. Paul, 
where there is much to repay a student of street archi- 
tecture. In this street Rabelais died and Moliere passed 
the first years of his dramatic apprenticeship. In the 
court of the barrack is a tower given by Charles VIII. to 




IN THE HOTEL D'AUMONT. 



the nuns of the Ave Maria. Crossing the Itue des Non- 
nains cFHyeres, so called from an offshoot of the Abbey oi 
Hyeres established here in 1182 (and where No. 5 has a 
curious bas-relief of painted stone representing a knife- 
grinder), we reach the Rue de Jouy, where the Abbot of 



HdTEL D'AUMONT 



219 



Jouy had his residence. Its site is now occupied by the 
Hotel cTAumont, built by Frangois Mansart for the Due 
d'Aumont. It afterwards belonged to the Abbe Terray. 
The courtyard is magnificent, and there are several richly- 
decorated rooms, though the splendid ceiling on which 




GATE OF HOTEL DE LUXEMBOURG. 



Lebrun represented the apotheosis of Romulus is gone. 
Altogether this is one of the finest hotels of the period 
in France. It is now occupied as the Pharmade Generale. 
In the garden was once a Venus couchee^ regarded as a 
masterpiece of Auguier. The hotel at No. 9 dates from 
1684. 



220 PARIS 

On the left opens the Rue Geoffroy (TAsnier, where 
we find (No. 26) the Hotel de Chalons- Luxembourg, built 
for the Connetable de Montmorency, and restored in the 
XVII. c., with an entrance gate of noble proportions. Its 
little courtyard of brick and stone is very richly decorated 
with masks and pilasters after the fashion of the time. 
The entrance is preceded by a perron, and the court has 
a pavilion of the time of Louis XIII. , with paintings by 
Boucher and Oudry. No. 19, of the XVII. c., was the 
Hotel de Preuilly. 

Almost opposite the Hotel de Chalons, down a narrow 
entry, we have a most picturesque view of the back of the 
old Church of S. Gervais : though at the end of the alley, as 
we emerge into sunshine, we seem to enter upon a younger 
Paris, and leave the narrow historic streets of the Marais. 
The last of these, however, at the back of the church, is the 
Rue des Barres, where the handsome Louis de Bourdon, 
one of the lovers of Queen Isabeau de Baviere, was met 
by Charles VI., as he was on his way to his mistress. The 
king ordered Tannegui du Chatel to arrest him, and he 
was tried that night, sewn up in a sack, and thrown into 
the Seine, with these words upon the sack ' Laissez 
passer la justice du roi.' 1 No. 4 Rue des Barres is the 
Hotel Charny. 

The church of SS. Gervais and Protais? founded under 
Childebert I. in the VI. c., is chiefly XVI. c. The Grecian 
portico, intensely admired at the time of its erection, was 
added in 1616 by Salomon de Brosse. 

' Debrosse depensa des facultes tres-distinguees en essais malheureux 
pour marier les trois ordres grecs superposes a un principe de construc- 
tion incompatible avec la systeme antique : le portail de S. Gervais 
plaque centre une eglise ogivale n'a pu etre admire qu'a une epoque 
ou Ton avait perdu la notion de 1'harmonie dans Part.' Martin, ' Hist, 
de France.'' 

' S. Gervais, qu'un portail de bon gout a gate.' Victor Hugo. 

i Monstrelet, p. 244. 2 Martyred at Milan under Nero. 



SS. GERVAIS ET PROTAIS 221 

The gothic tower on the north had a classical storey 
added at the same time with the portico. The interior is 
one of the best specimens of gothic architecture in Paris. 
The XVIII. c. ornaments of the high-altar belonged to 
the abbey church of S. Genevieve. The XVI. c. stalls 
are the only ones of the kind in Paris. The subjects on 
the misericordes are exceedingly curious. The second 
chapel of the choir contains a fine (restored) window 
by Robert Pinaigrier, 1531. Only fragments remain of 
glorious windows by Jean Cousin. In the chapel, right 
of the apse, is the tomb, by Mazeline and Hurtelle, of 
the Chancellor Michel le Tellier, 1685, preserved in the 
museum of the Petits-Augustins during the Revolution. 
His son, the Archbishop of Reims, the chancellors Louis 
Boucherat and Charles Voysin, the painter Philippe de 
Champaigne, the philosopher Ducange, and the poet 
Crebillon, were buried here in the vaults, but their tombs 
are destroyed. The Lady Chapel, of 1417, is a beautiful 
specimen of flamboyant gothic, spoilt by paint and gilding. 
The three windows of the apse are attributed to Pinaigrier. 
The vaulting is a chtf-cfceuvre. 

' Sans nous arreter davantage aux clefs pendantes, ni aux petits 
anges qui se tiennent suspendus aux retombees, nous devons citer la 
couronne tout evidee a jour qui semble descendre de la voiite, comme 
un splendide embleme de celle que la Vierge a re9ue dans le ciel. 
Elle a six pieds de diametre et trois pieds six pouces de saillie. 
Nous savons bien que le fer est ici venu en aide a 1'adresse du con- 
structeur. Mais il fallait encore beaucoup d'habilite pratique, meme 
avec ce secours, pour surmonter les difficultes de la taille et de la pose 
d'une semblable decoration, comme 1'ont fait les freres Jacquet, qui 
passaient d'ailleurs pour les plus ingenieux ma9ons de leur temps. 
Le date de 1547 se lit en lettres de relief sur les bords de la couronne. 
Un donjon fortifie et des etoiles rappellent les titres de Tour de David 
et d'Etoile du matin, que les litanies donnent a la mere de Jesus.' 
De Guilhermy. 

The chapel of S. Denis (left transept) has a picture 
(1500), of many compartments, representing the Passion and 



222 PARIS 

Crucifixion, by Aldegrever (1502-1562), a pupil of Albert 
Diirer. From the first chapel of the nave (descending) is 
entered the beautiful oratory, called the Chapelk de Scarron, 
built by Jacques Betaud, President de la Cour des Comptes 
(1684), and adorned by Francks with scriptural subjects, 
the saints being represented in periwigs. Paul Scarron, first 
husband of Mme. de Maintenon, was buried here. In the 
chapel of S. Philomene the saint is represented in a grotto. 
The altar-piece of the chapel of S. Laurence is XVI. c. ; 
but all the best pictures of the church have been carried 
off to the Louvre. S. Gervais was one of the especial 
scenes of the Fete de la Raison. 

* A S. Gervais, la ceremonie se fit sans banquet ; les femmes 
du marche S. Jean y entroient avec leurs eventaires ; toute 1'eglise 
sentoit le hareng. Des marchands de ptisanne tintoient leurs gobe- 
lets, pour apaiser la soif du met sale. II y avoit bal dans la chapelle 
de la Vierge ; quelques lumignons, qui repandoient plus de fumee 
que de lumiere, servoient de lustres. En effet, pour ne point laisser 
un seul instant a la pudeur, on ajouta la nuit a la depravation afin 
qu'au milieu de la confusion de ces assemblies, les abominables desirs, 
allumes pendant le jour, s'assouvissent librement durant les tenebres.' 
Afercier, f Le nouveau Paris? 

A house, now pulled down, which concealed the view of 
the portico of S. Gervais, was long inhabited by Voltaire. 

The open space in front of S. Gervais was long known 
as Place du Martroy. This name, with that of the Rue du 
Martroy (from martreium, martyrium\ commemorated the 
many executions which took place there, beginning with a 
priest and a woman burnt for heresy, and a relapsed Jew- 
under Philippe le Bel; followed (April 1314) by the hor- 
rible execution of Philippe and Gauthier d'Aulnay, the sup- 
posed lovers of Marguerite and Blanche, wives of Louis le 
Hutin and his brother and successor Charles roasted, 
mutilated, and finally beheaded. 

In the Rue Francois Miron, which runs E. from S. Ger- 
vais just S. of the Rue de Rivoli. No. 13 is an ancient 



HOTEL DE VILLE 



223 



gabled house ; Nos. 36 and 38 have interesting decorations ; 
No. 42 has dormer windows of XV. and XVI. c. ; Nos. 52-56 
were formerly a stately hotel. In the Rue Bourg Tibourg, 
on the N. of the Rue de Rivoli, Nos. 5 to 19 formed the 




AT THE BACK OF S. GEKVAIS. 



Hotel Nicolai, and No. 32 was the hotel of the Dues de 
Vendome, sons and grandsons of Henri IV. In the Rue 
des Juifs, No. 20 has a good XVI. c. court and fagade. 

We now reach the Hotel de Ville> the centre of the muni- 
cipal life of Paris, rebuilt by Ballu and Deperthes after the 



224 PARIS 

destruction (May 24, 1871) of its more magnificent pre- 
decessor during the reign of the Commune, which had been 
proclaimed there on the 26th of the preceding March. 
The present building is a noble specimen of French renais- 
sance, and is adorned with statues of eminent Frenchmen 
of all ages. The name of the Salle S.Jean is all that 
recalls the existence of the old church of S. Jean-en-Greve, 1 
once the baptistery of S. Gervais, where the miraculous 
Host of the Rue des Billettes was constantly adored, and 
which was afterwards swallowed up in the buildings of the 
municipal palace. 

From Roman times Paris, or Lutece, as a municipal 
town, had administrators elected by the chief citizens, with 
a prefet named by government, who afterwards took the 
name of comte, then of vicomte. These early prefets 
resided on the Isle de la Cite, and the earliest municipal 
council appears to have been the College des Nautes 
(Bateliers), which held its meetings on the island, on the 
site afterwards occupied by the Hotel des Ursins. It is 
supposed, however, that the first building erected as a kind 
of Hotel de Ville was an old edifice (only destroyed in 1 744) 
near the Petit Pont. At the same time Le Parloir aux 
Bourgeois, which existed in the Rue S. Jacques, was a 
tribunal of commerce. 

It was Etienne Marcel, mayor of Paris, who first esta- 
blished the municipal council at the Place de Greve, at that 
time the only large square in Paris. In July 1357 he pur- 
chased as un Hostel de Ville the Maison aux Piliers, which 
had been inhabited by Clemence d'Hongrie, widow of Louis 
le Hutin, and which afterwards took the name of Maison 
du Dauphin (' Domus domini Delphini in Grieve') from her 
nephew and heir, Guy, Dauphin de Viennois. In 1532 a 



1 Famous in 1508 for the revivalist sermons of Frere Maillard, the Savonarola of 
France. His vigorous, fearless discourses (JMaillardi Seruiones) are well worth 
examining, as an exposure of the luxury and licentiousness of the time, especially 
amongst the clergy. 



HOTEL DE VILLE 225 

new Hotel de Ville was begun, and finished by the architect 
Marin de la Valle'e, in the reign of Henri IV. This was so 
much altered by successive restorations and revolutions that 
only a staircase, two monumental chimney-pieces in the 
Salle du Trone, and some sculptured doorways and other 
details remained from the interior decorations in the old 
building at the time of its destruction. 

Till the time of Louis XVI. the history of the Hotel de 
Ville was entirely local ; after that it became the history of 
France. It was there that Louis XVI. received the tri- 
coloured cockade from Bailly, mayor of Paris, July 17, 1789 ; 
and there, in the chamber called, from its hangings, Le 
Cabinet Vert, 1 that Robespierre was arrested, in the name 
of the Convention, during one of the meetings of the Com- 
mune, July 27, 1794. 

' Here, in the great hall, the Robespierrists awaited in silence the 
result of the appeal to the sections. Robespierre and his more imme- 
diate friends had withdrawn to an adjoining room for private conversa- 
tion. Suddenly several shots were heard in the hall, and a terrible 
report spread like wildfire that Robespierre had taken his own life. 
On receiving the intelligence that the National Guard had everywhere 
decided for the Convention, S. Just and Lebas called on their chief 
to go forth in person and lead his few faithful followers to attack the 
Convention. When Robespierre, broken in spirit, refused compliance, 
Lebas, who on the previous day had already expected an unfavourable 
issue, cried, "Well, then, there is nothing left for us but to die." He 
had a pair of pistols with him, one of which he handed to Robes- 
pierre, and shot himself with the other at the same moment. S. Just 
remained on this occasion and during the whole day in a state of 
gloomy repose, but Robespierre put his weapon to his mouth and 
pulled the trigger . with an unsteady finger ; in his hesitation he 
shattered his chin, but did not wound himself mortally. Almost at the 
same moment Leonard Bourdon led his troops into the Hotel de Ville, 
where the city party, in their wild confusion and despair, were unable 
to decide on any common course of action. The younger brother of 
Robespierre jumped out of the window to the pavement, but was still 
alive when he was seized below. Henriot was shot through the panes 

1 This famous room was pulled down before the destruction of the late Hotel de 
Ville. 

VOL. i. p 



226 PARIS 

by one of his own party who was enraged at his want of self-posses- 
sion, and fell upon a heap of rubbish only slightly wounded. They 
were all arrested within a few minutes. After the declaration of out- 
lawry there was no need of any further judicial proceedings, but it 
was not until the afternoon that the preparations for their execution 
had been completed. Robespierre had been laid on a table, with a box 
under his wounded head ; he remained still and silent, and only moved 
to wipe the blood, which flowed copiously from his face, with pieces of 
paper ; he heard nothing about him but words of wrath and triumph, 
yet he never moved a muscle, and regarded his persecutors with fixed 
and glassy eyes. At last the carts arrived to bear him and his twenty- 
one companions to the place of execution. On the scaffold the execu- 
tioner tore away the scanty bandage from his head, and then he uttered 
a shrill cry of pain, the first sound which had proceeded from him 
since his arrest, and the last. On the following day seventy-one 
members of the municipality followed him to death : the Reign of 
Terror ended in a terrible sea of blood.' Heinrich von Sybel, 'Hist, 
of the Revolution? 

After the fall of Robespierre it was seriously proposed 
to pull down the Hotel de Ville, because it had been his 
last asylum 'Le Louvre de Robespierre.' It was only 
saved by the common-sense of Leonard Bourdon. 

But most of all, in the popular recollection, is the Hotel 
de Ville connected with public fetes with those on the 
second marriage of Napoleon I. (1810), on the entry of 
Louis XVIII. (1814), on the coronation of Charles X. 
(1825), on the marriage of the Duke of Orleans (1837), on 
the visits of different foreign potentates to Napoleon III. 
Here also was the Republic proclaimed, September 4, 1870. 

It was in one of the windows of the Hotel de Ville that 
Louis Philippe embraced Lafayette (August 1 830) in sight 
of the people, to evince the union of the July monarchy 
with the bourgeoisie. On the steps of the building Louis 
Blanc proclaimed the Republic, February 24, 1848. From 
September 4, 1870, to February 28, 1871, the hotel was the 
seat of the * gouvernement de la defense nationale,' and 
from March 19 to May 22, 1871, that of the pretended 
'Comite du salut public' of the Communists. On May 24 



PLACE DE UHOTEL DE VILLE 227 

it was burnt by its savage defenders, many of whom happily 
perished in the flames. 

The Place de r Hotel de Ville is so modernised that it 
retains nothing of the Place de Greve but its terrible his- 
toric associations. Amongst the many fearful executions 
here, it is only necessary to recall that of Jean Hardi, torn 
to pieces by four horses (March 30, 1473) on an accusation 
of trying to poison Louis XI. ; that of the Comte de S. Pol 
(December 19, 1475), long commemorated by a pillar; 
those of a long list of Protestants, opened by the auto-da-fe 
of Jacques de Povanes, student of the University, in 1525 ; 
that of Nicolas de Salcede, Sieur d'Auvillers, torn to pieces 
by four horses in the presence of the king and queens^ for 
conspiracy to murder the Due d'Anjou, youngest son of 
Catherine de Medicis. More terrible still was the execution 
of Ravaillac (May 27, 1610), murderer of Henri IV. 

' Le bourreau lui trancha la main d'un coup de hache, et la jeta au 
feu avec le couteau meurtrier ; il le tenailla aux mamelles, aux bras, 
aux jambes, et versa dans les plaies ouvertes de 1'huile bouillante 
et du plomb fondu. Ensuite il fut demembre par quatre forts chevaux 
qui ne tirerent pas moins d'une heure entiere. Us ne demembrerent 
qirun cadavre. "II avait expire," dit 1'Estoile, "a la deuxieme ou 
troisieme tirade ! Quand le bourreau dut Jeter les membres dans le 
bucher, pour que les cendres, suivant la sentence, en fussent livrees 
au vent, la foule entiere se precipita pour les lui disputer." "Mais," 
dit le meme chroniqueur, " le peuple se ruant impetueusement dessus, 
n'y cut fils de bonne mere qui n'en vouliit avoir sa piece, jusqu'aux 
enfants, qui en firent du feu au coin des rues." ' Paris a travers 
les dges. 

The next great execution here was that of Leonora 
Galiga'i, Marechale d'Ancre, foster-sister of Marie de Medi- 
cis, beheaded, crying, * Oime poveretta ! ' Then came three 
noble young men, a Montmorency, a Bouteville, and a 
Des Chapelles, executed for having fought in the duel of 
three against three, June 27, 1627. The Marechal de 
Marillac, executed by Richelieu, was allowed to suffer upon 
a scaffold on the steps of the Hotel de Ville. Under 



228 PARIS 

Louis XIV. came the execution of the Marquise de Brin- 
villiers, of whom Mme. de Sevigne wrote (in allusion to her 
ashes being thrown to the winds) : ' Enfin, e'en est fait, 
la Brinvilliers est en 1'air.' March 28, 1757, was marked 
by the horrible execution of Damiens, the fanatic who tried 
to kill Louis XV. 

' Le dit condamne, lisons-nous dans le proces-verbal du greffier, a 
etc lie sur 1'echafaud, ou d'abord il a eu la main briilee, tenant en icelle 
le couteau avec lequel il a commis son parricide, . . . il a ete tenaille 
aux mamelles, bras, cuisses et gras des jambes, el sur les dits endroits 
a ete jete du plomb fondu, de 1'huile bouillanle, de la poix resine, et 
du souffre fondu ensemble, pendant tout lequel supplice le condamne 
s'est eerie a plusieurs fois : " Mon Dieu, la force, la force ! Seigneur, 
mon Dieu, ayez pitie de moi I Seigneur, mon Dieu, que je souffre ! 
Seigneur, mon Dieu, donnez-moi la patience ! " Ensuite, il a ete 
tire a quatre chevaux, et apres plusieurs secousses a ete demembre, et 
ses membres et corps mort jetes sur le biicher.' Paris & Iravers les 
Ages. 

After the capture of the Bastille, its brave governor, 
M. de Launay, was beheaded on the steps of the Hotel de 
Ville, and his major, M. de Losme-Salbray, was massacred 
under the Arcade S. Jean. t These were the first victims of 
the Revolution, Foulon, Intendant du Commerce, suffered 
here soon afterwards, hung from the cords by which a 
lamp was suspended, whence the expression, which soon 
resounded in many a popular refrain, of ' mettre les aris- 
tocrats a la lanterne' especially in the famous 'carillon 

national ' : 1 

' Ah ! 9a ira, $a. ira, 9a ira, 
Les aristocrate' a la lanterne ! 
Ah ! ^a ira, 9a ira, 9a ira, 
Les aristocrate', on les pendra.' 

'On avait conduit 1'ex-ministre Foulon a 1'hotel de ville. II etait 
abhorre du peuple ; on lui reprochait les malversations dans la guerre 
de sept ans, une grande durete de caractere et ce propos invraisem- 
blable "que le peuple serait trop heureux qu'on lui donnat du foin a 

1 Sung at 'la premiere Fd6ration,' July 14, 1790. 



PONT D'ARCOLE 229 

manger." . . . On voit par le proces-verbal des electeurs quels 
furent les efforts de La Fayette pour soustraire ce malheureux a 1'inex- 
primable rage de la multitude, et il est impossible de savoir ce qui serait 
arrive, lorsque les cris les plus effrayants sont partis de la place de 
1'hotel de ville. Plusieurs voix, a 1'extremite de la salle, ont annonce 
que le Palais-Royal et le faubourg S. Antoine venaient enlever le 
prisonnier. Les escaliers et tous les passages de 1'hotel de ville ont 
retenti des cris epouvantables. Une foule nouvelle est venue presser la 
foule qui remplissait deja la grande salle ; tous se sont ebranles a la 
fois, tous se sont portes avec impetuosite vers le bureau et vers la table 
sur laquelle M. Foulon etait assis. La chaise s'ebranlait ; elle etait 
renversee ; lorsque M. de la Fayette a prononce a haute voix : " Qu'on 
le conduise en prison ! " 

'A ce recit, qui est exact, il faut ajouter que La Fayette, apres 
avoir essaye encore une fois d'apaiser la multitude, obtenait des ap- 
plaudissements tumultueux, quand Foulon eut la funeste idee d'applaudir 
lui-meme. Une voix s'ecria : " Voyez-vous, ils s'entendent ! " A ces 
mots, Foulon, arrache aux mains des electeurs qui 1'entouraient et 
cherchaient a le garantir, fut entraine et massacre a la Greve sans qu'il 
y eut pour La Fayette la possibilite physique, je ne dis pas de le pro- 
teger, mais meme de se faire entendre.' La Fayette, ' Me'moires.' 1 

Louvel, the murderer of the Due de Berry, was the last 
person executed at the Place de Greve, his last request 
having been granted, that he might go into mourning for 
himself ! 

It was here that a pig ran between the legs of the horse 
which the young king Philippe (son of Louis le Gros) was 
riding, and caused the fall of which he died the next day 
(October 1131), in consequence of which it was forbidden 
to any one to let his pigs wander in the streets, those of 
the abbey of S. Antoine only being excepted, out of respect 
to their patron saint. 1 

The Pont de la Greve is now the Pont d'Arcole. 

' Le 28 juillet, 1830, lors de 1'attaque de I'hotel de ville par les 
Parisiens, un jeune homme, faisant partie d'un groupe de combattants 
qui tiraient de la Cite sur la place de Greve, s'elanca sur le pont et 
presque aussitot tomba mortellement frappe, en s'ecriant : " Souvenez- 

1 Saint- Foix, Essais hist, sur Paris. 



230 PARIS 

vous que je mappelle cFArcole ! Verite ou legende improvisee par 
1'imagination populaire, ce fait a valu au pont le nom qu'il porte 
encore.' Frederic Lock. 

No. 34, on the Quai de 1'Hotel de Ville, is an interesting 
house of 1643, with a beautiful wooden XVII. c. staircase. 

Now the magnificent Tour de S. Jacques rises before us. 
It is the only remnant of a great church S. Jacques de 
la Boucherie, which formerly gave sanctuary to murderers. 
The church dated from the XL c. to the XV. c., but was 
sold and pulled down during the Revolution. The tower 
(which dates from the reign of Louis XIL), 1508-22, is the 
finest in Paris. It looked far better, however, when rising 
from a group of houses, than on the meaningless platform 
which now surrounds it, and, unfortunately, instead of 
restoring the old chapel of S. Quentin, which formerly 
existed beneath it, the tower has been used as a canopy 
for a feeble Statue of Pascal by Cavelier, placed here 
because from hence he continued his experiments on the 
weight of the air, begun in the Puy-de-D6me. There is a 
fine view from the summit of the tower, where the north- 
west pinnacle is surmounted by a statue of S. James the 
Great by Chenillon, a pupil of David d' Angers (replacing 
an older work by Rault), the others by the mystic animals 
of the Evangelists ; a spire thirty feet high once crowned 
the whole. Different confraternities had their chapels in 
the church. In that of the spur-makers, on both the 
windows and cornice, were representations of the XV. c. 
philanthropist Nicolas Flamel, who was buried here (1417) 
with his wife Perenelle (1397); his curious gravestone is 
now in the Hotel de Cluny, with an epitaph ending in 
the lines 

'De terre je suis venu et en terre retorne, 
L'ame rends a toi J.H.S. qui les pechies pardonne.' * 

1 It was long believed in Paris that Nicolas and Pe'renelle were not really dead. 
It was said that they had feigned sickness, caused two logs of wood to be buried in 
their place, and escaped to Switzerland, thence to Asia Minor, where Paul Lucas, a 






LE GRAND CHATELET 231 

The Boulevard de Sebastopol now leads past the tower 
to the Place du Chatelet, where the ugly Fontaine de la 
Victoire marks the site of the picturesque and curious 
old fortress of Le Grand Chatelet, through which a 
vaulted passage formed the approach to the Rue S. Denis 
from the Pont du Change, formerly lined with houses. 
The fortress, which had a massive tower at the north- 
east angle, was of considerable size, and enclosed several 
courtyards, surrounded by prisons, known by familiar and 
often very terrible names. The horrors of the prisons and 
of the torture-chamber of the Chatelet were portrayed in 
the verses of Clement Marot and in endless engravings 
and ballads, through a long course of years. In the crypt, 
under 'le pere des lettres,' Francois I., 'on donnait aux 
imprimeurs relaps la question a seize crans.' On Sep- 
tember 2, 1792, 214 prisoners were massacred in the 
Chatelet. Within the vaulted passage, on entering from 
the river, was a morgue, predecessor of that now existing 
on the island. 

Between the Chatelet and the bridge, on the east side, 
were, first, a ' Parloir aux Bourgeois,' in which municipal 
meetings were held, and then the church of S. Leuffroi, 
which dated from 1113. The monks of the abbey of 
S. Croix de Leuffroi in the diocese of Evreux, had brought 
hither the bodies of SS. Leuffroi and Thuriaf to preserve 
them from the Normans. When the danger was over they 
reclaimed their relics, but could only obtain an arm of 
S. Thuriaf. The church was rebuilt in the XIV. c., but 
was pulled down in 1684 to enlarge the prisons of the 
Chatelet. In the last century a narrow street called Rue 
Trop-va-qui-dure (an inexplicable name) ran between the 
front of the Chatelet with its great round towers, and a 
block of buildings called the Pointe du Pont au Change, 

traveller of the end of the XVII. c., affirms that he met a dervish who had recently 
seen them and knew them intimately. See Voyage de Paul Lucas dans I'Asie- 
Mineure, vol. ii. ch. 12. 



232 PARIS 

on the front of which, facing down the bridge, was a curious 
monument to Louis XIII. , on which he was represented 
with Anne of Austria and Louis XIV. as an infant. 

The money-changers took possession of the Grand 
Pont in the middle of the XII. c., after which it received 
the name of the Pont au Change. Here, in accordance 
with an old custom, when a sovereign made his first public 
entry into Paris, the bird-sellers were bound to give liberty 
to 2400 birds, 'so that the air was darkened by the beating 
of their wings.' The bridge was rebuilt in 1639, and again 
in 1859, and is the widest of the Parisian bridges. 

The Avenue Victoria, which runs behind the site of the 
Chatelet, crosses (a little to the north-west) the site of the 
Hotel du Chevalier du Guet, a curious gothic building, 
dating from the time of S. Louis, and used as a mairie, till 
its most deplorable destruction in 1864. A little further, 
in the Rue des Orfevres, a narrow street between this and 
S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, stood the Chapelle S. Eloy, dating 
from 1403, but rebuilt by Philibert Delorme, with orna- 
ments by Germain Pilon. It was sold during the Revolution. 

A house behind the Quai de la Megisserie, at the corner 
of Rue Bertin-Poiree and Rue S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, 
stands on the substructions of For 1'Eveque (Forum Epis- 
copi), 1 the seat of the temporal jurisdiction of the bishops 
of Paris. Here the bishop's provost inflicted his sentences. 
If people were to be burned alive, it must be outside the 
banlieue of Paris ; but if the order was only that their ears 
were to be cut off, it would be executed at the Place du 
Trahoir. Du Chastel, who tried to murder Henri IV. at the 
Hotel du Bouchage, was imprisoned here. For 1'Eveque 
was suppressed under Louis XVI. by the advice of Necker. 

The Fontaine du Chatelet, or de la Victoire, is a feeble 
work of Bralle, decorated by Boizot and later by Jacque- 
mart. In the Place du Chatelet are the Theatre Lyrique 

i Adrian de Valois says that the name came from the Four 1'Eveque, because 
there was an oven here whither the bishop's vassals came to bake their bread. 



LES EGOUTS 233 

and the Theatre du Chatelet (with an immense stage well 
adapted for the development of military pieces and spec- 
tacular dramas) ; of both Davioud is the architect. 

The Place du Chatelet is the point where curious visitors 
assemble to enter Subterranean Paris, with its vast system 
of sewers (tgouts). They are generally shown once every 
week in summer. Visitors must make a written application 
to the Prefet de la Seine, who will send a card of admittance 
announcing the time and starting-point. Once assembled, 
those who have the official permit are ranged in two ranks. 
The one descends in the Place du Chatelet, to re-issue in 
the Place S. Augustin, where the second party descend in 
their turn and take their place on the travelling wagons, 
which will bring them to the Place du Chatelet, after having 
crossed in a boat, at the level of the Place de la Concorde, 
the great collecting sewers of the right bank. The rami- 
fications of the vast system by which the drainage of Paris 
is conducted are a very curious sight, and evil odours are 
not much to be dreaded. 

' Le creusement de 1'egout de Paris n'a pas ete une petite besogne. 
Les dix derniers siecles y ont travaille sans le pouvoir terminer, pas 
plus qu'ils n'ont pu finir Paris. L'egout, en effet, recoit tous les contre- 
coups de la croissance de Paris. C'est, dans la terre, une sorte de 
polype sous en meme temps que la ville dessus. Chaque fois que la 
ville perce une rue, 1'egout allonge un bras. La vieille monarchic 
n'avait construit que vingt-trois mille trois cents metres d'egouts ; c'est 
la que Paris en etait le i er Janvier 1806. A partir de cette epoque, 
1'oeuvre a ete utilement et energiquement reprise et continuee ; Napoleon 
a bati, les chiffres sont curieux, quatre mille huit cent quatre metres ; 
Louis XVIII., cinq mille sept cent neuf ; Charles X., dix mille huit 
cent trente-six ; Louis-Philippe, quatre-vingt-neuf mille vingt ; la 
republique de 1848, vingt-trois mille trois cent quatre-vingt-un ; le 
regime actuel [1862], soixante-dix mille cinq cents; en tout, a 1'heure 
qu'il est, deux cent vingt-six mille six cent dix metres ; soixante lieues 
d'egouts ; entrailles enormes de Paris. Ramification obscure toujours 
en travail ; construction ignoree et immense. 

'Aujourd'hui 1'egout est propre, froid, droit, correct. II realise 
presque 1'ideal de ce qu'on entend en Angleterre par le mot "respect- 
able." II est convenable et grisatre ; tire au cordeau ; on pourrait 



234 PARIS 

presque dire a quatre epingles. II ressemble a un fournisseur devenu 
conseiller d'Etat. On y voit presque clair. La fange s'y comporte 
decemment. Au premier abord, on le prendrait volontiers pour un de 
ces corridors souterrains si communs jadis et si utiles aux fuites des 
monarques et des princes, dans cet ancien temps "ou le peuple aimait 
ses rois." L'egout actuel est un bel egout ; le style pur, chasse de la 
poesie, parait s'etre refugie dans 1'architecture, semble mele a toutes 
les pierres de cette longue voute tenebreuse et blanch atre ; chaque 
degorgeoir est une arcade ; la rue de Rivoli fait ecole jusque dans le 
cloaque. Au reste, si la ligne geometrique est quelque part a sa 
place, c'est a coup sur dans la tranchee stercoraire d'une grande 
ville. La, tout doit etre subordonne au chemin le plus court. 
L'egout a pris aujourd'hui un certain aspect officiel. Les rapports 
memes de police dont il est quelquefois 1'objet ne lui manquent 
plus de respect. Les mots qui le caracterisent dans le langage 
administratif sont releves et dignes. Ce qu'on appelait boyau, on 
1'appelle galerie ; ce qu'on appelait trou, on Pappelle regard. Ce 
reseau de caves a bien toujours son immemoriale population de ron- 
geurs, plus pullulante que jamais ; de temps en temps, un rat, vieille 
moustache, risque sa tete a la fenetre de 1'egout et examine les Parisiens ; 
mais cette vermine elle-meme s'apprivoise, satisfaite qu'elle est de son 
palais souterrain. Le cloaque n'a plus rien de sa ferocite primitive. 
La pluie, qui salissait 1'egout d'autrefois, lave 1'egout d'a present. Ne 
vous fiez pas trop pourtant. Les miasmes 1'habitent encore. II est 
plutdt hypocrite qu'irreprochable. La prefecture de police et la com- 
mission de salubrite ont eu beau faire. En depit de tons les precedes 
d'assainissement, il exhale une vague odeur suspecte, comme Tartufe 
apres la confession.' Victor faigo, ' Les Miserables? 

Zola describes the marvellous effects of sunset which so 
many will have admired from the quays on this side of the 
Seine. 

' Par les jours de ciel clair, des qu'ils debouchaient du pont Louis- 
Philippe, toute la trouee des quais, immense, a 1'infini, se deroulait. 
D'un bout a 1'autre, le soleil oblique chauffait d'une poussiere d'or les 
maisons de la rive droite ; tandis que la rive gauche, les iles, les 
edifices, se decoupaient en une ligne noire, sur la gloire enflammee du 
couchant. Entre cette marge eclatante et cette marge sombre, la Seine 
pailletee luisait, coupee des barres minces de ses ponts, les cinq arches 
du pont Notre-Dame sous 1'arche unique du pont d'Arcole, puis le 
pont au Change, puis le Pont-Neuf, de plus en plus fins, montrant 
chacun, au dela de son ombre, un vif coup de lumiere, une eau en 






THE QUAYS OF THE SEINE 235 

satin bleu, blanchissant dans un reflet de miroir ; et, pendant que les 
decoupures crepusculaires de gauche se terminaient par la silhouette 
des tours pointues du Palais-de-Justice, charbonnees durement sur le 
vide, une courbe molle s'arrondissait a droite dans la clarte, si allongee 
et si perdue, que le pavilion de Flore, tout la-bas, qui s'avan$ait comme 
une citadelle, a 1'extreme pointe, semblait un chateau du reve, bleuatre, 
leger et tremblant, au milieu des fumees roses de 1'horizon. Mais eux, 
baignes de soleil sous les platanes sans feuilles, detournaient les yeux 
de cet eblouissement, s'egayaient a certains coins, toujours les memes, 
un surtout, le pate de maisons tres-vieilles, au-dessus du Mail ; en bas, 
de petites boutiques de quincaillerie et d'articles de peche a un etage, 
surmontees de terrasses, fleuries de lauriers et de vignes vierges, et, 
par derriere, des maisons plus ha*utes, delabrees, etalant des linges aux 
fenetres, tout un entassement de constructions baroques, un enchevetre- 
ment de planches et de maconneries, de murs croulants et de jardins 
suspendues, ou des boules de verre allumaient des etoiles. Us mar- 
chaient, ils laissaient bientot les grands batiments qui suivaient, la 
caserne, PH6tel-de-Ville, pour s'interesser, de 1'autre c6te du fleuve, 
a la Cite, serree dans ses murailles droites et lisses, sans berge. Au- 
dessus des maisons assombries, les tours de N6tre-Dame, resplendis- 
santes, etaient comme dorees a neuf. Des boites de bouquinistes com- 
men9aient a envahir les parapets ; une peniche, chargee de charbon, 
luttait centre le courant terrible, sous une arche du pont Notre-Dame. 
Et la, les jours de marche aux fleurs, malgre la rudesse de la saison, 
ils s'arretaient a respirer les premieres violettes et les giroflees hatives. 
Sur la gauche, cependant, la rive se decouvrait et se prolongeait ; au 
dela des poivrieres du Palais-de-Justice, avaient paru les petites maisons 
blafardes du quai de 1'Horloge, jusqu'a la touffe d'arbres du terre- 
plein ; puis, a mesure qu'ils avancaient, d'autres quais sortaient de 
la brume, tres loin, le quai Voltaire, le quai Malaquais, la coupole de 
1'Institut, le batiment carre de la Monnaie, une longue barre grise de 
facades dont on ne distinguait pas meme les fenetres, un promontoire 
de toitures que les poteries des cheminees faisaient ressembler a une 
falaise rocheuse, s'enfon9ant au milieu d'une mer phosphorescente. 
En face, au contraire, le pavilion de Flore sortait du reve, et se solidi- 
fiait dans la flambee derniere de 1'astre. Alors, a droite, a gauche, aux 
deux bords de 1'eau, c'etaient les profondes perspectives du boulevard 
Sebastopol et du boulevard du Palais ; c'etaient les batisses neuves du 
quai de la Megisserie, la nouvelle Prefecture de police en face, le vieux 
Pont-Neuf, avec la tache d'encre de sa statue ; c'etaient le Louvre, les 
Tuileries, puis, au pont, par-dessus Crenelle, les loin tains sans borne, 
les coteaux de Sevres, la campagne noyee d'un ruissellement de rayons.' 
L' (Euvre. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE FAUBOURG S. ANTOINE AND 
PERE-LACHAISE. 

HP HE Faubourg S. Antoine has always borne an active 
part in the different revolutions. It was at the 
entrance of the street bearing the name, on the left of the 
Place de la Bastille, that the great barricade of June 1848 
was erected. 

' La barricade Saint- Antoine etait monstreuse ; elle etait haute de 
trois etages et large de sept cents pieds. Elle barrait d'un angle a 1'autre 
la vaste embouchure du faubourg, c'est-a-dire trois rues ; ravinee, 
dechiquetee, dentelee, hachee, crenelee d'une immense dechirure, 
contre-buttee de monceaux qui etaient eux-memes des bastions, poussant 
des caps 93. et la, puissamment adossee aux deux grands promontoires de 
maisons de faubourg, elle surgissait comme une levee cyclopeenne au 
fond de la redoutable place qui a vu le 14 juillet. Dix-neuf barricades 
s'etageaient dans la profondeur des rues derriere cette barricade-mere. 
Rien qu'a la voir, on sentait dans le faubourg 1'immense souffrance 
agonisante, arrivee a- cette minute extreme ou une detresse veut devenir 
une catastrophe. De quoi etait faite cette barricade ? De 1'ecroulement 
de trois maisons a six etages, demolies expres, disaient les uns. Du 
prodige de toutes les coleres, disaient les autres. Elle avait 1'aspect 
lamentable de toutes les constructions de la haine : la Ruine. On 
pouvait dire : Qui a bad cela ? On pouvait dire aussi : Qui a detruit 
cela? C'etait 1'improvisation du bouillonnement. Tiens ! cette porte ! 
cette grille ! cet auvent ! ce chambranle ! ce rechaud brise ! cette 
marmite felee ! Donnez tout ! jetez tout ! poussez, roulez, piochez, 
demantelez, bouleversez, ecroulez tout ! C'etait la collaboration du 
pave, du moellon, de la poutre, de la barre de fer, du chiffon, du 
carreau defence, de la chaise depaillee, du trognon de choux, de la loque, 
de la guenille et de la malediction. C'etait grand et c'etait petit. 
C'etait 1'abime parodie sur place par le tohubohu. La masse pres de 
1'atome ; le pan de mur arrache et 1'ecuelle cassee ; une fraternisation 

236 



LE FAUBOURG S. ANTOINE 237 

menn5ante de tous les debris ; Sisyphe avait jete la son rocher et Job 
son tesson. En somme, terrible. C'etait 1'acropole des va-nu-pieds. 
Les charrettes renversees accidentaient le talus ; un immense baquet 
y etait etale, au travers, 1'essieu vers le ciel, et semblait une balafre sur 
cette fa$ade tumultueuse ; un omnibus, hisse gaiment a force de bras 
tout au sommet de 1'entassement, comme si les architectes de cette 
sauvagerie eussent voulu ajouter la gaminerie a 1'epouvante, offrait son 
timon detele a on ne sait quels chevaux de 1'air. Get amas gigantesque, 
alluvion de 1'emeute, figurait a 1'esprit un Ossa sur Pelion de toutes les 
revolutions ; 93 sur 89, le 9 thermidor sur le 10 aoiit, le 1 8 brumaire 
sur le 21 Janvier, vendemiaire sur prairial, 1848 sur 1830. La place en 
valait la peine, et cette barricade etait digne d'apparaitre a 1'endroit 
meme ou la Bastille avait disparu. Si 1'ocean faisait des digues, c'est ainsi 
qu'il les batirait. La furie du flot etait empreinte sur cet encombre- 
ment difforme. Quel flot ? La foule. On croyait voir le vacarme 
petrifie. On croyait entendre bourdonner, au-dessus de cette barricade, 
comme si elles eussent ete la sur leurs ruches, les enormes abeilles tene- 
breuses du progres violent. Etait-ce une broussaille? etait-ce une 
bacchanale ? etait-ce une forteresse ? Le vertige semblait avoir con- 
struit cela a coups d'aile. II y avait du cloaque dans cette recloute et 
quelque chose d'olympien dans ce fouillis. On y voyait, dans un pele- 
mele plein de desespoir, des chevrons de toits, des morceaux de man- 
sardes avec leur papier peint, des chassis de fenetres avec toutes leurs 
vitres plantes dans les decombres, attendant le canon, des cheminees 
descellees, des armoires, des tables, des banes, un sens dessus-dessous 
hurlant, et ces mille choses indigentes, rebuts meme du mendiant, qui 
contiennent a la fois de la fureur et du neant. On cut dit que c'etait 
le haillon d'un peuple, haillon de bois, cle fer, de bronze, de pierre, et 
que le faubourg Saint-Antoine 1'avait pousse la a sa porte d'un colossal 
coup de balai, faisant de sa misere sa barricade. Des blocs pareils a des 
billots, des chaines disloquees, des charpentes a tasseaux ayant forme de 
potences, des roues horizontales sortant des decombres, amalgamaient 
a cet edifice de 1'anarchie la sombre figure des vieux supplices soufferts 
par le peuple. La barricade Saint-Antoine faisait arme de tout ; tout 
ce que la guerre civile peut jeter a la tete de la societe sortait de la ; 
ce n'etait pas du combat, c'etait du paroxysme ; les carabines qui de- 
fendaient cette redoute, parmi lesquelles il y avait quelques espingoles, 
envoyaient des miettes de faience, des osselets, des boutons d'habit, 
jusqu'a des roulettes de tables de nuit, projectiles dangereux a cause 
du cuivre. Cette barricade etait forcenee ; elle jetait dans les nuees une 
clameur inexprimable ; a de certains moments, provoquant 1'armee, 
elle se couvrait de foule et de tempete ; une cohue de tetes flamboyantes 
la couronnait ; un fourmillement 1'emplissait ; elle avait une crete 
epineuse de fusils, de sabres, de batons, de haches, de piques et de 



238 PARIS 

ba'ionnettes ; un vaste drapeau rouge y claquait dans le vent ; on y 
entendait les cris du commandement, les chansons d'attaque, des roule- 
ments du tambour, des sanglots de femme et 1'eclat de rire tenebreux 
des meurt-de-faim. Elle etait demesuree et vivante ; et, comme du 
dos d'une bete elect.rique, il en sortait un petillement de foudres. 
L'esprit de revolution couvrait de son nuage le sommet ou grondait 
cette voix du peuple qui ressemble a la voix de Dieu ; une majeste 
etrange se degageait de cette titanique hottee de gravats. C'etait un 
tas d'ordures et c'etait le Sinai'.' Victor Hugo, f Les Miserable*? 

On the third day of the contest at the barricade, Arch- 
bishop Affre, whilst exhorting the people to peace, was 
killed on this spot by a ball from one of the insurgents. 
He was carried to the hospital of the Quinze-Vingts, escorted 
by some of the Gardes Mobiles. To one of these, whom 
he recognised as having fought with especial bravery one 
Fran9ois Delavriguiere the dying prelate gave a little 
crucifix* which he wore, saying, * Never part with this cross ; 
lay it on your heart ; it will make you happy.' * 

This same spot was one of the last strongholds of the 
Communists, and was only taken by the Versailles troops 
after a desperate conflict, May 25, 1871. 

' Ce vieux faubourg, peuple comme une fourmilliere, laborieux, 
courageux et colere comme une ruche, re9oit le contre-coup des crises 
commerciales, des faillites, des greves, des chomages, inherents aux 
grands ebranlements politiques. En temps de revolution la misere est 
a la fois cause et effet. Le coup qu'elle frappe lui revient. Cette popu- 
lation, pleine de vertu fiere, capable au plus haut point de calorique 
latent, toujours prete aux prises d'armes, prompte aux explosions, 
irritee, profonde, minee, semblait n'attendre que la chute d'une 
flammeche. Toutes les fois que de certaines etincelles flottent sur 
Phorizon, chassees par le vent des evenements, on ne peut s'empecher 
de songer au faubourg Saint- Antoine et au redoubtable hasard qui a place 
aux portes de Paris cette poudriere de souffrances et d'idees. 

' Les cabarets && faiibourg Antoine ont une notoriete historique. En 
temps de troubles on s'y enivre de paroles plus que de vin. Une sorte 
d'esprit prophetique et un effluve d'avenir y circulent, enflant les cceurs 
et grandissant les ames. 

' Le faubourg Saint-Antoine est un reservoir de peuple. L'ebranle- 

1 Constitutionnel. 



LA ROQUETTE 239 

ment revolutionnaire y fait des fissures par ou coule la souverainete 
populaire. Cette souverainete peut mal faire ; elle se trompe comme 
toute autre ; niais, meme fourvoyee, elle reste grande. On peut dire 
d'elle comme du cyclope aveugle, Ingens? Victor Hugo, ' Les 
Mistrables? 

From the Place de la Bastille, the Rue de la Roquette, 
containing (No. 90) the Hotel Montalembert, leads to the 
Cemetery of Pere-Lachaise, crossing the Place Voltaire, 
with a statue of Ledru Rollin. Just before reaching the 
cemetery we pass on the right the Prison of La Roquette^ or 
Nouveau Bicetre^ also called the ' De'pot des Condamnes.' 
Executions also take place on the space between the prison 
and the Rue de la Roquette. There are usually about 400 
prisoners here, who are generally obliged to work at a trade 
joinery, tool-making, shoe-making, tailoring and one 
half of what they have earned is paid to them when they 
are discharged. A marble slab in the prison records the 
brutal murder here of Archbishop Darboy ; Duguerry, Cure 
de la Madeleine ; the president Bonjean, and other hostages, 
by the Communists, May 24, 1871, at the moment when 
the troops of the Government were entering Paris. The 
cell of the archbishop is preserved as he left it for his 
execution. 

' L'archeveque passa le premier, descendit rapidement les cinq 
marches et se retourna. Lorsque ses compagnons de martyre furent 
tous sur les degres, il leva la main droite, les trois premiers doigts 
etendus, et il pronon9a la formule de ^absolution : Ego vos absolvo ab 
omnibus censtiris et peccatis! Puis, s'approchant de M. Bonjean, qui 
marchait avec peine, il lui offrit son bras. Toujours precede par le 
brigadier Ramain, entoure, derriere et sur les flancs, par les federes, 
le cortege prit a droite, et s'engagea dans le long premier chemin de 
ronde qui aboutit pres de la premiere cour de la prison. En tete, un 
peu en avant des autres, marchait 1'abbe Allard, agitant les mains au- 
dessus de son front. Un temoin, parlant ne lui,' a dit un mot d'une 
naivete atroce : "II allait vite, gesticulait e\. fredonnait quelque chose." 
Ce quelque chose etait la priere des agonisants que le malheureux 
murmurait a demi-voix. Tous les autres restaient silencieux. 

' On arriva a cette grille que 1'on appelle la grille des morts et qui 



2 4 o PARIS 

c!6t le premier chemin de ronde : elle etait fermee. Ramain, qui etait 
fort trouble, malgre qu'il en cut, cherchait vainement le clef an milieu 
du trousseau qu'il portait. A ce moment, M. Darboy, moins peut- 
etre pour disputer sa vie a ses bourreaux que pour leur epargner un crime, 
essaya de discuter avec eux. " J'ai toujours aime le peuple, j'ai toujours 
aime la liberte," disait-il. Un federe lui repondit : " Ta liberte n'est pas 
la notre : tu nous embetes ! " L'archeveque se tut et attendit patiemment 
que Ramain cut ouvert la grille. L'abbe Allard se retourna, regarda vers 
la fenetre de la quatrieme section et put apercevoir quelques detenus 
epouvantes qui les contemplaient en pleurant. On tourna a gauche, 
puis tout de suite encore a gauche, et Ton entra dans le second chemin 
de ronde, dont la haute muraille noire semblait en deuil. Au fond 
s'elevait le mur qui separe la prison des terrains adjacents a la rue de 
la Folie-Regnault. 

' L'endroit etait tres-bien choisi et ferme a tous les regards : c'etait 
une sorte de basse-fosse en plein air, propre aux guets-apens et aux 
assassinats. Ramain s'en etait alle. Les victimes et les bourreaux 
restaient seuls en* presence, sans temoin qui plus tard put parler a la 
justice. D'apres la place ou les corps ont etc retrouves, on sait que les 
otages furent disposes dans 1'ordre hierarchique qui avait preside a leur 
classement en cellules. On les rangea contre le mur, a droite, faisant 
face au peloton d'execution. Mgr. Darboy le premier, puis le president 
Bonjean, 1'abbe Deguerry, le pere Ducoudray, le pere Clerc, tous deux 
de la compagnie de Jesus, et enfin 1'abbe Allard, I'aumonier des ambu- 
lances, qui, pendant le siege et lors des premiers combats de la Commune, 
avaient rendu tant de services aux blesses. Le peloton s'etait arrete a 
trente pas de ces six hommes restes debout et resignes. On entendit 
deux feux de peloton successifs et quelques coups de fusil isoles. II 
etait alors huit heures moins un quart du soir.' Maxime du Camp, 
' Les convulsions de Paris? 



On the left of the road is the Maison Centrale <f Educa- 
tion Correctionnelle or Prison des Jeunes Detenus, intended 
for male offenders under the age of sixteen. They are 
taught twelve trades, to work at in their cells, which they 
never leave except to hear mass, to see their friends by 
permission in the parloir, or for an hour's walk in one of 
the courts; but the prisoners never meet, and they are 
only known even to the overseer by a number over the 
door of their cell. 

Pere-Lachaise is the largest and richest of the Parisian 



PERE-LACHAISE 241 

cemeteries. It occupies land formerly called Champ de 
1'Eveque, because it belonged to the Bishop of Paris. In 
the time of Louis XIV., under the name of Mont Louis, 
it became the headquarters of the Jesuits, and was much 
embellished by their superior, the celebrated Pere Lachaise, 
confessor of Louis XIV. '1'ennemi le plus acharne des 
reformes,' as ' Madame,' the Duchesse d'Orleans, calls him. 
After the expulsion of the Order, the land, sold to pay their 
debts, continued to bear his name, and was converted into 
a public cemetery in 1804. Brongniart, who was employed 
to lay out the ground for its new destination, spared the 
avenues of limes which led to the terrace of the old gardens, 
and the avenue of chestnuts at the top of the hill. The 
chapel occupies the site of the old chateau, and its orangery 
still exists, used as a dwelling for the guardians. 

Conducteurs are to be found in the small building at 
the entrance, and will be useful to those who wish to find 
any especial graves in this vast labyrinth. The monuments 
of eminent persons are kept in repair by a public grant. 

On entering the cemetery, the pagan character of the 
monuments will strike every one. It is exceedingly difficult 
to find any particular tomb, and, except in cases of personal 
interest, no visitor need waste his time in trying. All the 
tombs are hideous, all have exactly the same characteristics, 
and the chief of these is weight. It is as if every family 
tried to pile- as much stone, granite, or marble as possible 
upon their lost relatives. A few of the monuments are 
pyramids and columns; but the favourite design is a 
heavy little chapel with a gabled front, usually surmounted 
by a cross. Each bears the name of its owners, * Famille 
Henri,' 'Famille Cuchelet,' &c. Through the grating, or 
a glazed cross in the door, you may see inside a little 
altar with a crucifix and vases of artificial, or occasionally 
fresh, flowers, and sometimes a stained window at the 
back. There is often room for a prie-dieu or two chairs 
for the relations in the tiny space, and the steps of the 
VOL. I. Q " 



242 PA RIS 

altar are piled with wreaths, sometimes real, but generally 
of flowers made of black, white, and grey beads. Often, 
too, these wreaths are exhibited outside the tombs, or 
sometimes an immense Pensee in a round glass. If real 
flowers are planted on a humbler grave, it is a pleasant 
variety. 

' Le Pere Lachaise, a la bonne heure ! etre enterre au Pere 
Lachaise, c'est comme avoir les meubles en acajou. L'elegance se 
reconnait la.' Victor Hugo. 

The poor, who are buried gratuitously, are laid in Fosses 
Communes, containing forty or fifty coffins each ; but these 
now only exist in the cemeteries outside the city, at S. Ouen 
and Ivry. 150 fr. are paid for a concession temporaire, that 
the grave shall be undisturbed for ten years; 500 fr. for 
a concession a perpetuite. The spaces allowed for this sum 
are only 22\ square feet. 

Following the main avenue till it is divided by flower- 
beds, the path on the right passes the tomb of the astro- 
nomer Arago, member of the provisional government, 1848 ; 
on the left are those of Visconti, architect of the new 
Louvre, Rossini the mathematician, Louis Poinsot, and 
Alfred de Musset, engraved with a verse from one of his 
poems. Further on lies Roederer, one of the chiefs of 
the July Revolution, and opposite, on the other side of 
an avenue of limes, Marechal Grouchy. Ascending to the 
chapel by the left staircase, we pass the tombs of General 
Negre and the painter David. 

Returning towards the entrance by a lime avenue which 
leaves the great avenue to the right, we see the monuments 
of Auber, Potier, Beauvisage, c. Turning to the left be- 
yond the guardian's house, we reach the gate of the Jewish 
Cemetery (closed on Saturdays), containing the tombs of 
Mme. Rachel, the families of Rothschild and Fould, and the 
curious monument of one Jacob Robles. 

To the left of the Avenue Casimir-Perier, which makes 



PERE-LACHAISE 243 

a great curve before reaching the 'Rond Point,' are tombs 
of Bichat, Mile. Mars, Lesurques (executed for murder), 
Pigault-Lebrun, J. Chenier, Robertson the aeronaut, &c. 

To the right is the canopied gothic monument which 
covers the remains of Abelard, the poet-philosopher, who 
founded a doctrine in his twenty-third year, and Heloi'se, 
abbess of the Paraclete, heroine of the most famous love- 
story in the world. 

' Seul, le nom d'Abelard ne serait plus aujourd'hui connu que des 
lettres : uni au nom d'Heloise, 11 est dans toutes les memoires. Paris 
surtout, " la ville de toutes les gloires, mais aussi de tous les oublis," 
a garde au souvenir de la fille immortelle de la Cite une fidelite excep- 
tionelle et inalterable. Le dix-huitieme siecle et la Revolution, si 
impitoyables pour le moyen age, ont ravive cette tradition avec la 
meme passion qui les emportait a effacer tant d'autres souvenirs. Les 
enfants des disciples de Rousseau viennent encore en pelerinage au 
monument de la grande sainte de 1'amour, et chaque printemps voit 
des pieuses renouveler les couronnes de fleurs sur la tombe ou la Revo- 
lution a reuni les deux amants. 

''Abelard mourut au prieure de S. Marcel de Chalons, 21 avril, 
1142. Sa derniere volonte avait etc de reposer au Paraclet. ,11 avait 
pense du moins, en mourant, a celle qui n'avait jamais eu de pensee 
que pour lui. L'Eglise elle-meme respectait le lien mystique du 
philosophe et de la grande abbesse. Pierre-le-Venerable, qui avait 
ecrit pour Abelard une epitaphe ou il 1'appelait le Socrate gaulois le 
Platon et l''Aristote de 1'Occident, remit ses restes mortels a Heloi'se. 
' ' Le Seigneur," ecrivait-il a 1'abbesse du Paraclet, comme entrevoyant 
un autre ciel que celui des ascetes, " le Seigneur vous le garde pour 
vous le rendre par sa grace ! " Heloi'se survecut, en silence, jusqu'au 
16 mai 1164. Ce fut seulement au bout de vingt-deux ans qu'on 
I'inhuma pres de son epoux.' Martin, 'Hist, de France? 

' II n'est pas de souvenir plus populaire en France que celui de 
1'amante d'Abailard. C'est la seule qui ait survecu de toutes nos 
legendes d'amour.' Michelet. 

Part of the monument which we see was erected in 1779 
at the Abbey of the Paraclete, and was removed for safety 
to the Musee des Petits-Augustins during the Revolution. 
It was transported to Pere-Lachaise in 1817. The canopy 
is made to include a few ancient fragments from the Abbey 



244 PARIS 

of Nogent-sur-Seine, but, in itself, is quite modern. It 
encloses the tomb erected by Peter the Venerable at the 
Priory of S. Marcel. But the figure of Heloise is really 
that of a lady of the Dormans family, plundered from their 
interesting chapel in the old College de Beauvais. How- 
ever, all the world looks upon her as the beloved of Aboard, 
long severed in reality, united to him in the tomb. Perhaps 
when Dante wrote of Francesca di Rimini he had in his 
mind the words of Abelard in a letter to his friend : 
1 Nous ouvrions nos livres, mais nous avions plus de 
paroles d'amour que de lecture, plus de baisers que de 
phrases.' 

The centre of the Rond Point is occupied by a statue of 
Casimir-Perier, Prime Minister under Louis Philippe, 1832. 
On the left are a number of tombs of musicians, includ- 
ing Bellini, Cherubini, and Chopin ; then, behind these, 
Brongniart the mineralogist, Laharpe, Delille, Bernardin 
de S. Pierre, Denon of Egyptian reputation, and, nearer 
the chapel, Talma and Gericault. In the south part of the 
cemetery, between the Rond Point and the enclosing wall, 
are the chapel of General Maison ; the tomb of Lebrun, 
Due de Piacenza ; the monument erected by the town of 
Paris to soldiers killed in the insurrection of June 1832 ; 
that of Colonel Labedoyere, shot at the Restoration for 
having proclaimed Napoleon on his return from Elba ; and 
many others. Amongst the tombs on the hill behind the 
monument of Casimir-Perier, is that of the families Thiers 
and Dosne. On the right is the tomb of General Mac- 
donald, and that of Count Lavalette, with a relief repre- 
senting his rescue from prison by the devotion of his 
wife. 

On the other side of the avenue are the tombs of 
General Gobert, with reliefs by David d' Angers, and a group 
of Ney, Massena, Suchet, and other soldiers of the empire. 

4 Le faisceau de gloire forme par la reunion des grands dignitaires 
de la couronne imperiale sur une meme eminence eclipse toute autre 



PERE-LACHAISE 245 

splendent ; la magnificence de leurs mausolees atteste la verite de ce 
mot de Napoleon confirme par le peuple et 1'armee : " J'ai trop enrichi 
mes marechaux." ' Eiigbte Rock. 

Here, near Massena, in ' le quartier des marechaux,' rests 
Lefebvre, who said 

' Souvenez-vous que si je meurs a Paris je veux etre enterre la, pres 
de Massena. Nous vecumes ensemble dans les camps, dans les com- 
bats ; nos cendres doivent obtenir le meme asile.' 

On reaching the summit of the hill, the tomb of Eugene 
Scribe is amongst those on the left. Returning to the Rond 
Point by the north paths, we pass the tombs of Beau- 
marchais the dramatist, David d' Angers the sculptor, De 
Beranger, Benjamin Constant, General Foy (by David), 
Garnier-Pages, the two Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, Racine, the 
Princess Demidoff, Pradier, of Moliere and Lafontaine 
the first to be laid in Pere-Lachaise of Laplace the 
astronomer, Lussac the great chemist, S. Simon, Mme. de 
Genlis, Junot (Due d'Abrantes), and Ingres. 

' II y a temoignage de la foi saint simonienne sur vine tombe du 
Pere-Lachaise : une femme, Marie Simon, est morte dans cette croy- 
ance ; heureuse si cette formule de la doctrine put lui devoiler une 
vie future et la consoler du trepas : Dieu est tout ce qui est. , . . Tout 
est en lui, tout est par lui, rien n'est en dehors de lui ! Ses correligion- 
naires, en la quittant, lui ont dit pour dernier mot : " Esperance ! " 
et 1'ont laisse grave sur sa tombe.' Eugene Roch. 

On the highest ground a great crematorium has been 
erected. Where the Mahommedan cemetery opens, are 
tombs of Condore and Amedee Achard. Returning to- 
wards the chapel, amongst a crowd of minor celebrities we 
find Nodier, Casimir Delavigne the poet, Emile Souvestre, 
De Seze (the heroic advocate who defended Louis XVI.), 
the illustrious Balzac, the Due de Morny, the famous 
minister of Napoleon III., the 'Mora' in Daudet's Nabab, 
and Mme. d'Agoult (Daniel Stern). 



246 PARIS 

' L' admirable figure de le Pensee sculptee par Chapu pour son 
tombeau est un des chefs d'oeuvre de notre ecole contemporaire. Elle 
symbolise dignement le genie de Daniel Stern.' Lemerre^ ' Anthologie 
des Poctes Franfais du 19 Siecle.' 

Frederic Soulie and Michelet are buried in this part of 
the cemetery. 

(If the Cemetery of Picpus be visited on leaving Pere- 
Lachaise, take the tramways, turning left from the gate, 
to the Place de la Nation.) 

North of Pere-Lachaise is Menilmontant, once looked 
upon as a tempting place of residence. 

' Le Due [de Chaulnes] se flatte toujours qu'il aura le Menil- 
montant ; et la Duchesse y resiste toujours ; elle n'est pas bien 
raisonnable quelquefois, votre amie ; pour moi, voila ce que je chante 
tout haut, avec cette liber te que Dieu m'a donnee, et en depit de sa 
grosse moue. C'est au Due que je m'adresse. 

' Achetez le Menil-montant, 
C'est le repos de votre vie ; 
Avez-vous de 1'argent comptant, 
Achetez le Menil-montant. 
Madame n'en dit pas autant ; 
Mais satisfaites votre envie ; 
Achetez le Menil-montant, 
C'est le repos de votre vie. ' 

M. de Coulanges a Mine, de Stvigne> 1695. 

This was formerly the quarter of the S. Simonians, 
whose estate is now occupied by an orphanage. In the 
lower part of the Rue Menilmontant is the church of 
Notre Dame de la Croix, built 1865-70, by Heret. It 
stands on a double terrace, with flights of steps before it. 
The building, in the Roman style, and of monumental 
proportions, has an immense crypt. 

Turning to the left on leaving the Pere-Lachaise by the 
Avenue de Philippe-Auguste, and then turning to the left 
down the Rue Charonne, we reach the Church of S. Mar- 
guerite, of the XVII. c. and XVIII. c. The Chapelle des 



CIMETIERE DE S. MARGUERITE 247 

Ames du Purgatoire was designed by Louis, 1765. A 
portrait of Anne of Austria is by Frere Andre. Some 
pictures of the life of S. Vincent de Paul, brought from the 
Lazaristes, are interesting from the portraits they contain. 
A Descent from the Cross was sculptured for the destroyed 
Church of S. Landry, in La Cite, by Le Lorrain and 
Nourrisson, pupils of Girardon. The tomb of Antoine 
Fayet, Cure de S. Paul, was (c. 1737) formerly buried under 
the choir, on account of the nudity of the figures ! 

' Le II mai, 1792, on vit dans cette ville le premier exemple d'un 
pretre catholique se marier, et venir solennellement avouer cet acte 
conforme aux lois de la primitive Eglise. Le vicaire de S. Marguerite 
se presenta ce jour a la barre de 1'assemblee legislative, avec son epouse 
et son beau-pere, et y re9ut les applaudissements. II cut beaucoup 
d'imitateurs.' Dulaure^ 'Hist, de Paris.'' 

The Cimetiere de S. Marguerite is interesting because 
Louis XVII., who died in the prison of the Temple, June 
8, 1795, aged ten years and two months, was buried there, 
though in 1815 his uncle, Louis XVIII., vainly searched 
there for his remains. 

'La Convention, qui avait assure a Louis XVI., pres de mourir, 
que la nation fran9aise, toujours magnanime, pourvoirait au sort de sa 
famille, ordonna, pour premiere preuve de sa sollicitude, que Louis 
fut separe de sa mere. Alors commen9a le martyre du royal enfant. 
La Convention le remit entre les mains du cordonnier Simon et de 
sa femme, qu'elle qualifia derisoirement des titres (Tinstituteitr et de 
gouvernante. C'etaient la les plaisanteries de la Revolution. Cet 
execrable couple se montra digne de la confiance de la nation repre- 
sentee par les comites conventionnels, et mit tout en oeuvre pour 
degrader les facultes morales et physiques du fils de Louis XVI. On 
fremit en lisant le recit authentique des traitements barbares et infames 
auxquels il fut soumis. Non content de lui faire subir la faim, le froid 
et 1'humiliation, de 1'accabler de coups, de le priver d'air, de distrac- 
tion, d'exercice, et de le laisser dans le denument le plus penible, 
Simon prenait plaisir a lui faire boire des liqueurs fortes et a lui 
enseigner des chansons et des propos obscenes. Mais sa barbaric 
servait d'antidote a son immoralite. Le jeune prince donna plusieurs 



248 PA RIS 

fois des preuves d'une elevation de sentiments et d'idees bien etonnante 
pour son age, et dont la perversite de son gardien n'avait pu detruire 
au moins le germe. Simon lui ayant demande ce qu'il ferait si les 
Vendeens le delivraient : 

' " Je vous pardonnerais," repondit-il. 

'Le marasme fut le resultat naturel de la malproprete et des 
souffrances continuelles ou vivait le prince. Pendant plus d'un an, il 
fut prive de linge et depourvu des soins les plus indispensables. Le 
temps pendant lequel il resista prouve combien il etait fortement 
constitue. . . . La Convention, qui savait faire tomber les tetes des 
rois, ignorait comment on elevait leurs enfants ; et, en consequence, 
elle infligeait a ces enfants une agonie de plusieurs annees. Nous ne 
craignons pas de le dire : la morte lente et tenebreuse du jeune 
Louis XVII. est une tache plus horrible pour la France que la mort 
sanglante et eclatante du vertueux Louis XVI.' Balzac, ' Six rois de 
France. ' 

The uninteresting church of S. Germain de Charonne 
dates from the fifteenth century. 

From the Place de la Bastille, the Rue du Faubourg 
S. Antoine leads east to the Place de la Nation, formerly 
Place du Trone, commemorating in its name the throne 
placed here, upon which Louis XIV. was seated when he 
received the homage of all the different officials of Paris, 
upon his triumphant entry with Marie Therese. In the 
centre of the Place is a group by Dalon. Two of the 
pavilions called 'Des Fermiers Generaux' remain here, 
which were constructed at the gates of Paris by Ledoux. 1 
It was upon this spot that 1300 victims of the Reign of 
Terror died by the guillotine. 

' Plus de huit mille suspects encombraient les prisons de Paris. En 
une seule nuit, on y jeta trois cents families du faubourg Saint-Germain, 
tous les grands noms de la France historique, ir.ilitaire, parlementaire, 
episcopate. On ne se donnait pas 1'embarras de leur inventer un crime. 
Leur nom suffisait, leurs richesses les denon9aient, leur rang les 
livrait. On etait coupable par quartier, par rang, par fortune, par 
parente, par famille, par religion, par opinion, par sentiments presumes ; 
ou plutot il n'y avail plus ni innocents ni coupables, il n'y avait plus 

1 The only others are in the Place Denfert-Rochereau at La Villette, and at the 
Pare Monceau. 



PLACE DU TRdNE 249 

que des proscripteurs et des proscrits. f Ni 1'age, ni le sexe, ni la 
vieillesse, ni 1'enfance, ni les infirmites qui rendaient toute criminalite 
materiellement impossible ne sauvaient de 1'accusation et de la condem- 
nation. Les vieillards paralytiques suivaient leurs fils, les enfants leurs 
peres, les femmes leurs maris, les filles leurs meres. Celui-ci moura 
pour son nom, celui-la pour sa fortune ; tel pour avoir manifeste une 
opinion, tel pour son silence, tel pour avoir servi la royaute, tel pour 
avoir embrasse avec ostentation la republique, tel pour n'avoir pas 
adore Marat, tel pour avoir regrette les Girondins, tel pour avoir 
applaud! aux exces d'Hebert, tel pour avoir souri a la clemence de 
Danton, tel pour avoir emigre, tel pour etre reste dans sa demeure, tel 
pour avoir aflame le peuple en ne depensant pas son revenu, tel pour 
avoir affiche un luxe qui insultait a la misere publique. Raisons, 
soupgons, pretextes c'ontradictoires, tout etait bon. II suffisait de 
trouver des delateurs dans sa section, et la loi les encourageait en leur 
donnant une part dans les confiscations. 

' Les chars funebres rassemblaient souvent le mar! et la femme, le 
pere et le fils, la mere et les filles. Ces visages eplores qui se contem- 
plaient mutuellement avec la tendresse supreme du dernier regard, ces 
tetes de jeunes filles appuyees sur les genoux de leurs meres, ces fronts 
de femmes tombant, comme pour y trouver de la force, sur 1'epaule le 
leurs maris, les coeurs se pressant centre d'autres cceurs qui allaient 
cesser de battre, ces cheveux blancs, ces cheveux blonds coupes par les 
memes ciseaux, ces tetes venerables, ces tetes charmantes tout a 1'heure 
fauchees par le meme glaive, la marche lente du cortege, le bruit 
monotone des roues, les sabres des gendarmes formant une haie de fer 
autour des charrettes, les sanglots etouffes, les huees de la populace, 
cette vengeance froide et periodique qui s'allumait et qui s'eteignait, 
a heure fixe, dans les rues ou passait le cortege, imprimaient a ces im- 
molations quelque chose de plus sinistre que 1'assassinat, car c'etait 
1'assassinat donne en spectacle et en jouissance a tout un peuple. 

' Ainsi moururent, decimees dans leur elite, toutes les classes de 
la population, noblesse, Eglise, bourgeoisie, magistrature, commerce, 
peuple meme ; ainsi moururent tous les grands et obscurs citoyens qui 
representaient en France les rangs, les professions, les lumieres, les 
situations, les richesses, les industries, les opinions, les sentiments 
proscrits par la sanguinaire regeneration de la terreur. Ainsi tomberent, 
une a une, quatre mille tetes en quelques mois, parmi lesquelles les 
Montrnorency, les Noailles, les la Rochefoucauld, les Mailly, les 
Mouchy, les Lavoisier, les Nicola'i, les Sombreuil, les Brancas, les 
Broglie, les Boisgelin, les Beauvilliers, les Maille, les Montalembert, 
les Roquelaure, les Roucher, les Chenier, les Grammont, les 
Duchatelet, les Clermont-Tonnerre, les Thiard, les Moncrif, les Mole- 



250 PARIS 

Champlntreux. La democratic se faisait place avec de fer ; mais, en 
se faisant place, elle faisait horreur a 1'humaniteV Lamartine, ' Hist, 
des Girondins* 

The first side street on the left of the Faubourg S. 
Antoine, returning citywards from the Place du Trone, is 
the Rue de Picpus^ formerly Piquepuce, where the Ber- 
nardin-Benedictin Convent was situated, of which Victor 
Hugo has so much to tell us. 

* Le point de Paris situe entre le faubourg S. Antoine et la Rapee 
est un de ceux qu'ont transformes de fond en comble les travaux 
recents, enlaidissements selon les uns, transfiguration selon les autres. 
Les cultures, les chantiers et les vieilles batisses se sont effaces. II y a 
la aujourd'hui de grandes rues toutes neuves, des arenes, des cirques, 
des hippodromes, des embarcaderes de chemins de fer, une prison 
Mazas ; le progres, comme on voit, avec son correctif. 

' II y a un demi-siecle, dans cette langue usuelle populaire, toute 
faite de traditions, qui s'obstine a appeler 1'Institut les quatre Nations 
et 1'Opera-Comique Feydeati, cet endroit se nommait le Petit- Picpus. 
La porte S. Jacques, la porte Paris, la barriere des Sergents, les 
Porcherons, la Galiote, les Celestins, les Capucins, le Mail, la Bourbe, 
1'Arbre de Cracovie, la Petite Pologne, le Petit- Picpus, ce sont les 
noms du vieux Paris surnageant dans le nouveau. La memoire du 
peuple flotte sur ces epaves du passe. 

'Le couvent du Petit-Picpus-S.- Antoine emplissait presque entiere- 
ment le vaste trapeze qui resultait des intersections de la rue Polonceau, 
de la rue Droit-Mur, de la petite rue Picpus, et de la ruelle condamnee 
nominee dans les vieux plans rue Aumarais. Ces quatre rues 
entouraient ce trapeze comme ferait une fosse. Cette sainte maison 
avait etc batie precisement sur 1'emplacement d'un jeu de paume 
fameux du quatorzieme au seizieme siecle qu'on appelait le tripot des 
ouze milk diables. 

'Toutes ces rues du reste etaient des plus anciennes de Paris. 
Ces noms, Droit-Mur et Aumarais, sont bien vieux ; les rues qui les 
portent sont beaucoup plus vieilles encore. La ruelle Aumarais s'est 
appelee la ruelle Maugout ; la rue Droit-Mur s'est appele la rue des 
Eglantiers, car Dieu ouvrait les fleurs avant que l'homme taillat les 
pierres.' ' Les Mistrables? 

At No. 35 Rue de Picpus is a Convent of the Sacre 
Cceur. Visitors are admitted by the porter and taken 



CIMETIERE DE PICPUS 251 

through the long convent garden to visit the closed but 
most interesting Cimetiere de Picpus. Here only the repre- 
sentatives of those noble families whose ancestors perished 
on the guillotine have been laid ; and there are long lines 
of tombs of the De la Rochefoucauld, De Noailles, De 
Clermont-Tonnerre, De Rochefort, De la Mothe, De Boiselin, 
De Montboissier, De Talleyrand, &c. At the end are the 
tombs of General Lafayette and his wife. Here, through 
a grated door, you look upon the green enclosure of a 
little second cemetery, planted with cypresses, belonging 
to the German Prince of Salm Kyrbourg, whose ancestor 
was the last victim of the guillotine. Around his tomb 
lie no fewer than 1306 of his fellow sufferers * les victimes ' 
the flower of the French aristocracy. Close to the en- 
trance of the outer enclosure, near the tomb of a bishop 
who was founder of the ' Sainte Enfance,' and of the found- 
ress of the adjoining convent, is the tomb of Charles, Comte 
de Montalembert, 1870. 

' He was buried, by his own desire, not among the gaudy flowers 
and wreaths of an ordinary Parisian cemetery, but in the hallowed 
ground at the Picpus convent, where lie the victims of the Revolution, 
and where only those who are descended from those victims, or con- 
nected with them, can lie. Count de Montalembert had this privilege 
by right of his wife, and of the noble and saintly ladies guillotined 
under the Terror, from whom she was descended. He chose his last 
rest there by the side of the unfortunate, by those who had perished 
either for the sake of religion, or for their honourable adherence to a 
fallen cause ; as became one who never loved victorious causes, and 
who fought most of his life on the losing side, after the fashion of the 
earth's best and purest heroes.' Mrs. Olipfiant. 

On the left of the Rue du Faubourg S. Antoine (No. 184) 
is the Hopital S. Antoine, occupying the buildings of the 
famous Abbaye de S. Antoine, founded in 1 198 by Foulques, 
Cure de Neuilly, the preacher of the fourth crusade. The 
buildings were reconstructed by Lenoir in 1770, except the 
glorious gothic church (built by Blanche of Castille as 
a thank-offering for the birth of S. Louis, and containing 



252 



PARIS 



the tombs of Jeanne and Bonne de France, daughters of 
Charles V.), which was utterly destroyed at the Revolution. 

In the Rue de Charenton, the next parallel street south, 
the old Hotel des Mousquetaires Noirs is now occupied by 
the Hospice des Quinze Vingts^ founded by S. Louis in 1260, 
and removed hither by Cardinal de Rohan from the Rue 
S. Honore. The Rue de Charenton^ under its former name 
of Rue de la Planchette, was notorious for the unpunished 
massacre (Sept. 28, 1621) of several hundred Protestants, 
coming out of a church which they had built in the street. 
No. i P^aubourg S. Antoine, at the corner of the Place de 
la Bastille, was inhabited by Pepin, executed as an accom- 
plice of Fieschi against the life of Louis Philippe, 1835. 

On the Boulevard Mazas, at its junction with the Rue 
de Lyon, is the Prison of Mazas , where prisoners are 
placed in solitary confinement immediately upon their 
arrest, when the cases are not likely to be of long detention. 
Opposite is the Gare de Lyon, the terminus of the Paris- 
Lyon-Mediterranee Railway. 



INDEX 



Abbattoir, le Grand, ii. 246 

Abbaye aux Bois, ii. 175 

de Longchamp, ii. 217 
S. Genevieve, ii. 102 
S. Victor, ii. 91 

Acade"mie Franfaise, ii. 142 

de Me"decine, ii. 139, 

Academy, first literary, ii. 147 

Alle"e des Grangers, i. 26 

de 1'Observatoire, ii. 76 

Arc du Carrousel, i. 40 
de 1'Etoile, ii. 210 
de Nazareth, i. 172 

Archeveche', ii. 35, 181 

Archives Nationales, i. 142 

Arsenal, i. 209 

Auteuil, ii. 209 

Avenue de 1'Alma, ii. 209 

du Bois de Boulogne, ii. 
des Champs Elyse'es, ii. 
d'Eylau, ii. 215 
des Gobelins, ii. 64, 65 
d'ltalie, ii. 65 
Kleber, ii. 204 
Malakoff, ii. 215 
Monsouris, ii. 79 
Mon&lgne, ii. 204 
de Neuilly, ii. 211 
de Philippe Auguste, i. 
du Trocade'ro, ii. 207 
Victoria, i. 232 



B. 

Bagatelle, chateau de, ii. 218 
Bals Bullk-r, ii. 75 
Banque de France, ii. 258 
Barriere d'Enfer, ii. 76 



Barriere de Fontainebleau, ii. 75 

d'ltalie, ii. 65 
Bastille, the, i. 187 
Baths, Roman, ii. 122 
Beaux Arts, palais, etc. , ii. 139 
Belleville, ii. 249 
Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal, i. 211 

Mazarine, ii. 253 

141 Nationale, ii. 253 

de Paulmy, i. 212 
S. Genevieve, iii. 107 
de S. Germain des 

Pre"s, ii. 171 
des Travaux Histo- 

riques, i. 176 
Bice'tre, ii. 75 

Bon Marche", Magasins du, ii. 177 
Bois de Boulogne, ii. 215 
Boulevard Beaumarchais, i. 187 

Bonne Nouvelle, ii. 241, 
217 243 

201 des Capucines, ii. 228 

de Clichy, ii. 234 
des Filles de Calvaire, i. 

187 

Henri IV., i. 191, 202 
de 1'Hopital, ii. 63 
d'ltalie, ii. 63 
des Italiens, ii. 231 
de la Madeleine, ii. 228 
246 Magenta, ii. 246 

Malesherbes, ii. 221 
Mazas, i. 252 
Monceaux, ii. 221 
Montmartre, ii. 241 
Montparnasse, ii. 78, 162 
Montrouge, ii. 78 
Poissonniere, ii. 241 
du Port Royal, ii. 74 
S. Denis, ii. 248 
S. Germain, ii. 83, 87, 166 
253 



254 



INDEX 



Boulevard S. Marcel, ii. 63, 114 
S. Martin, ii. 249 
S. Michel, ii. 83, 126 
de Sevastopol, i. 132, 

231 ; ii. 246 
de Strasbourg, ii. 246 
du Temple, ii. 251 
Voltaire, ii. 252 
Boulogne, Bois de, ii. 215 
Bourse, La, ii. 252 
British Embassy, ii. 223 
Butte Chaumont, ii. 246 
Montmartre, ii. 236 
Mortemart, ii. 217 
S. Roch, ii. 262 



C. 



Cabaret du Roi Clovis, ii. 101 
Cafe" Parisien, ii. 249 
Procope, ii. 136 
Riche, ii. 232 
Carmes, Les, ii. 158 
Carrefour de la Croix Rouge, ii. 175 
Gaillon, ii. 230 
Longchamp, ii. 218 
Carre's d' Atalante, i. 26 
Carrousel, Place du, i. 46 
Caserne de la Cite", ii. 30 

des Pompiers, ii. 90 
Casino de Paris, ii. 230 
Catacombs, ii. 77 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, ii. 38 
Ceinture S. Eloi, ii. 30 
Chambre des De"pute"s, ii. 187 
Chambre des Martyrs, ii. 177 
Champeaux, i. 115 
Champ de Mai, ii. 186 
de Mars, ii. 186 
de Courses, ii. 217 
Champs Elystes, ii. 201 
Chapelle Expiatoire, ii. 224 

Expiatoire du Due de 

Berri, ii. 263 
des Carmes, ii. 160 
des Sceurs de Charite", ii. 

177 

Samte, 11. 22 
S. Eloy, i. 232 
S. Ferdinand, ii. 211 
S. Joseph, i. 125 
des Louanges, ii. 139 
S. Martin le Vieux, ii. 141 
S. Mathurin, ii. 122 



Chapelle S. Michel, i. 115 
S. Nicholas, ii. ii 
Notre Dame de 1'Etoile, 

ii. ii 

d'Orleans, i. 201 
S. Yves, ii. 87 

Chateau de Bagatelle, ii. 218 
d'Eau, ii. 251 
des Fleurs, ii. 210 
de la Muette, ii. 208 
Madrid, ii. 219 
de Neuilly, ii. 214 
Rouge, ii. 237 
Chatelet, le Grand, i. 231 

le Petit, ii. 85 
Chevaux de Marly, ii. 201 
Chimeres de Notre Dame, ii. 53 
Church. See Eglise 
Cimetiere 

des Innocents, i. 115 
S. Jean, i. 115 
S. Joseph, ii. 241 
de la Madeleine, ii. 224 
S. Marguerite, i. 247 
S. Me"dard, ii. 67 
Montmartre, ii. 234 
Montparnasse, ii. 78 
Pere-Lachaise, i. 240 
de Picpus, i. 251 
de Vaugirard, ii. 162 
Vert, i. 115 

Cite", island of La, i. 247 
Cloitre des Billettes, i. 145 
S. Benolt, ii. no 
des Carmes, ii. 95 
Notre Dame, ii. 36 
S. Se"verin, ii. 124 
Cluny, Hotel de, ii. 115 
College d'Arras, ii. 92 
d'Autun, ii. 128 
Ave Maria, ii. 95 
de Bayeux, ii. 114, 122 
S. Barbe, ii. 108 
de Beauvais, ii. 94 
de Boissi, ii. 128 
de Boncourt, ii. 95 
des Bons Enfants, ii. 91 
de Bourgogne, ii. 133 
de Cambrai, ii. no 
de Cardinal Lemoine, ii. 90 
de Chanac, ii. 88 
des Cholets, ii. 108 
de Clermont, ii. 109 
de Cluny, ii. 114 
SS. Come et Damien, ii, 114 



INDEX 



255 



College de Cornouailles, ii. 87 
de Dainville, ii. 133 
des Ecossais, ii. 101 
S. Etienne des Gres, ii. 109 
de Fortet, ii. 108 
de France, ii. no 
des Grassins, ii. 95 
d'Harcourt, ii. 114 
de Huban, ii. 95 
de Justice, ii. 114 
des Lombards, ii. 94 
Louis le Grand, ii. 109 
de Maltre Gervais, ii. 123 
de la Marche, ii. 95 
de Mans, ii. 109 
de Marmoutier, ii. 109 
de la Merci, ii. 95 
S. Michel, ii. 88 
de Mignon, ii. 129 
de Montaigu, ii. 107 
de Narbonne, ii. 119 
de Navarre, ii. 95 
de Plessis, ii. no 
de Pre'montre's, ii. 133 
de Presles, ii. 94 
de Reims, ii. 108 
de Secy, ii. 114 
Sorbonne, ii. in 
de Tournai, ii. 95 
de Tours, ii. 128 
de Tre"guier, ii. 1 10 
du Tre"sorier, ii. 114 
Colonnade du Louvre, ii. 39 
Colonne de la Halle de Ble", i. 

114 
de 1' Hotel de Soissons, i. 

114 

de Juillet, i. 187, 190 
de Venddme, ii. 191 
Come"die Fran9aise, i. 126 
Commanderie S. Jean de Latran, 

ii. 94 

Conciergerie, La, ii. 18 
Concorde, Place de la, ii. 194 
Conservatoire des Arts et Me" tiers, 

i-i35 

de Musique, ii. 241 
Cour d'Appel, ii. 18 

de Commerce, ii. 129 
des Comptes, ii. 28 
des Fermes, ii. 260 
de Mai, ii. 14, 17 
de Miracles, ii. 245 
du Murier, ii. 140 
de Rohan, ii. 129 



Couvent (Convent) 

des Augustines, ii. 194, 244 
Augustinians of Neuilly, ii. 

2I 5 

des Augustins de"chausse"s, ii. 

256 

Augustins (Grands), ii. 126 
de 1'Ave Maria, i. 199 
des Be'ne'dictins Anglais, ii. 

80 

des Bernardins, ii. 90 
des Capucines, ii. 228 
des Capucins, ii. 79, 227 

du Faubourg S. 
Jacques, ii. 70 
des Carmelites, ii. 72, 87 
des Carmes, ii. 95 
des Carmes (of the Rue de 

Vaugirard), ii. 158 
des Ceiestins, i. 191 
du Chardonnet, ii. 90 
des Chartreux, ii. 74 
des Cordeliers, ii. 130 
Dominicans, ii. 158 
des Feuillants, i. 26 ; ii. 190 
des Feuillantines, ii. 80 
Filles de S. Avoye, i. 138 
Filles du Calvaire, ii. 153 
Filles Dieu, ii. 245 
Freres de la Charite", ii. 139 
des Jacobins, ii. 106 
Jesuites, i. 214 
Les Mathurins, ii. 122 
Montmartre, ii. 239 
Notre Dame de Pente"mont, ii. 

180 

des Petits Augustins, ii. 139 
Picpus, i. 250 
Port Royal, ii. 74 
Redemptorists, ii. 123 
du Sacre" Coeur, i. 250 
S. Jean de Dieu, ii. 141 
S. Joseph, ii. 180 
Soeurs de Charite", ii. 177 
des Ursulines, ii. 80 
Croix Catelan, ii. 218 

du Trahoir, i. no. 
Cuisines de S. Louis, ii. 14 



D. 

Domus Marmosetorum, ii. 33 
Duval, Restaurants, {.15 



2 5 6 



INDEX 



E. 



Ecole des Arts et Manufactures, i. 

157 

des Beaux Arts, ii. 139 
de Dessin, ii. 132 
de Droit, ii. 94 
de Me"decine, ii. 133 
Militaire, ii. 186 
Polytechnique, ii. 95 
des Fonts et Chausse'es, ii. 

139 

Eglise (Church) 
American, ii. 209 
Sacr6 Cceur, ii. 238 
S. Aignan, ii. 35 
S. Andre" des Arts, ii. 127 
de 1'Assomption, ii. 194 
S. Augustin, ii. 221 
des Augustins, ii. 126 
S. Barthe"lemy, ii. 29 
S. Benoit, ii. no 
des Biilettes, i. 145 
S. Catherine, ii. 29 

du Val des Eco- 

liers, i. 175 
S. Clotilde, ii. 180 
des Cordeliers, ii. 130 
S. Denis de la Chartre, ii. 20 
du Sacrement, i. 176 
S. Elisabeth, i. 157 
S. Eloi, ii. 30 
S. Etienne du Mont, ii. 96 
des Gres, ii. 109 
S. Eustache, i. 119 
S. Franfois Xavier, ii. 177 
S. Genevieve, ii. 103 

des Ar dents, ii. 

37 

S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, i. 98 
des Pro's, ii. 166 
le Vieux, ii. 32 

SS. Gervais et Protais, i. 220 

S. Hilaire, ii. 95 

S. Innocents, i. 115 

S. Jacques du Haut Pas, ii. 81 
de la Bftcherie, i. 230 
1'Hopital, ii. 244 

S. Jean Baptiste, ii. 249 

S. Jean en Greve, ii. 224 
le Rond, ii. 57 

SS. Jean et Franfois, i. 145 

S. Julien le Pauvre, ii. 85 

S. Landry, ii. 37, 247 

S. Laurent, ii. 246 



Eglise (Church) 

SS. Leu et Gilles, i. 130 

S. Louis des Invalides, ii. 182 

en 1'Isle, ii. 38 
S. Luc, ii. 33 
La Madeleine, ii. 225 

on the Island, 

ii. 30 

S. Magloire, i. 131 
S. Marcel, ii. 61 
S. Marguerite, i. 246 
S. Marie 1'Egyptienne, i. 125 
S. Marine, ii. 35 
S. Me"dard, ii. 65 
S. Merri, i. 132 
des Minimes, i. 177 
S. Nicolas des Champs, i. 135 
du Chardonnet, ii. 

88 
Notre Dame, ii. 38 

des Anges, i. 192 
des Blancs Man- 

teaux, ii. 234 
des Carmelites, 

ii. 72 

de la Croix, i. 246 
de Lorette, ii. 233 
de Vauvert, ii. 74 
des Victoires, ii. 

156 

L'Oratoire, i. 109 
Sacre" Cceur, ii. 238 
SS. Paul et Louis, i. 214 
S. Paul des Champs, i. 196 
S. Philippe du Roule, ii. 222 
S. Pierre aux Boeufs, ii. 35 

deMontmartre.ii. 238 
S. Roch, i. 106 
S. Sauveur, ii. 244 
S. Se"verin, ii. 123 
S. Sulpice, ii. 163 
S. Symphorien, ii. 20 
De laSorbonne, ii. 112 
S. -Thomas d'Aquin, ii. 179 
du Louvre, i. 40 
La Trinite", ii. 229 
Val de Grace, ii. 70 
S. Vincent de Paul, ii. 242 
Visitation, i. 192 
Egouts, Les, i. 233 
Elephant of the Bastille, i. 190 
Eiffel Tower, ii. 186 
Elys<e, Palais de 1', ii. 222 
Embassy, British, ii. 223 
Esplanade des Invalides, ii. 186 



INDEX 



257 



F. 



Faubourg S. Antoine, i. 236 
S. Germain, ii. 137 
S. Honore", ii. 221 
S. Marcel, ii. 61 

Folies Bergere, Les, ii. 241 

Fontaine (Fountain) 

du Chatelet, i. 232 

de la Croix du Trahoir, 

i. no 

Gaillon, ii. 230 
de Grenelle, ii. 179 
des Innocents, i. 118 
Louvois, ii. 262 
Maubude, {.134 
de Medicis, ii. 154 
S. Michel, ii. 126 
Moliere, ii. 263 
Notre Dame, ii. 55 
du Palais, ii. 30 
de la Samaritaine, ii. 4 
S. Sulpice, ii. 166 
de la Victoire, i. 231 

For 1'Eveque, i. 232 



G. 

Galerie Marchande, ii. 16 

Mazarine, ii. 255 

S. Louis, ii. 16 
Garde-Meuble, ii. 186 
Gare de Lyon, i. 252 

du Chemin de Fer du Nord, 

ii. 242 
du Chemin de Fer de 1'Est, ii. 

242 

Gobelins, des, ii. 64 
Grand Jeusneur, Le, ii. 37 
Grande Orberie, ii. 32 
Grange Bateliere, ii. 242 

S. Eloy, i. 196 
Grenouilliere, La, ii. 187 
Guichets des S. Peres, i. 39 



H. 

Halle de Beauce, ii. 31 
au Ble", i. 112 
aux Vins, ii. 61 
Halles Centrales, i. 115 
Hippodrome de Longchamp, ii. 
218 
VOL. I. 



Hopital (Hospital ) 
Bice"tre, ii. 75 
La Charite", ii. 141 
des Enfants-Trouvds, ii. 37 
de 1' Hotel Dieu, ii. 36 
des Invalides, ii. 181 
Lariboisiere, ii. 242 
de la Maternite", ii. 75 
des Manages, ii. 176 
des Petites Maisons, ii. 176 
de la Pitie", ii. 62 
des Quinze-Vingts, i. 252 
S. Antoine, i. 251 
S. Louis, ii. 250 
de la Salpe-triere, ii. 62 
des Sourds-Muets, ii. 81 
Val de Grace, ii. 71 
des Ve"ne"riens, ii. 79 

Hotel d'Affry, ii. 139 
Aguado, ii. 241 
d'Aligre", ii. 180 
d'Ambrun, ii. 59 
d'Angouleme, i. 168 
d'Aubray, i. 206 
d'Aubriot, i. 216 
d'Aumont, i. 39, 218 
de Bahaigue, i. 114 
Barbette, i. 161 
de Mme. du Barri, i. 125 
Basilewski, ii. 205 
Bayard, i. 145 
de Beauce, ii. 180 
Beaumarchais, i. 190 
Beautreillis, i. 203 
de Beauvais, i. 194 
Be"ranger, ii. 181 
de Bdthizy, i. in 
de Be'thune, i. 193 
de Bezenval, ii. 181 
de Biron, ii. 178 
de Boisboudrand, i. 148 
de Boissy, i. 192 
de Bouchage, i. 109 
de Boufflers, i. 148 
de Bouillon, ii. 137 
de Boulainvilliers, ii. 230 
de Bourbon, i. 39, 98 
de Bourgogne, ii. 126 
de Bragelonne, i. 160 
de Bretagne, ii. 205 
de Brissac, ii. 150 
de Bullion, i. 109 
de Canaleilles, ii. 179 
Carnavalet, i. 170 
de Castille, ii. 204 
R 



2 5 8 



INDEX 



Hotel de Caumartin, i. 139 
de Chabannes, ii. 139 
de Chalons-Luxembourg, 

i. 220 

de la Chancellerie, ii. 272 
Charny, i. 206 
Charost, ii. 223 
du Chatelet, ii. 181 
de Chatillon, ii. 177 
du Chevalier du Guet, i. 232 
Chivry, ii. 254 
de Choiseul, ii. 137 
de Clavigny, ii. 34 
de Cteramhault, i. 109 ; ii. 260 
de Clermont Tonnerre, ii. 

I7S 

de Clisson, i. 140 
de Cluny, ii. 115 
du Commandeur de Jars, ii. 

262 

des Comptes, ii. 28 
de la Conciergerie, i. 203 
de Cond, i. 98 ; ii. 260 
Conti, ii. 146 
Corberon, i. 165 
de la Cour des Comptes, ii. 

28 

de Cosse', i. 192 
des Coquilles, i. 129 
de Cr6qui, ii. 141 
Crozat, ii. 233 
de Dangeau, i. 183 
Dieu, ii. 32, 36 
du Due de Maine, i. 211 
de la Duchesse d'Orleans, ii. 

180 
de la Duchesse de Savoie, ii. 

162 

d'Ecquevilly, i. 176 
d'Emery, ii. 257 
de 1'Empereur Joseph, ii. 157 
de Duguesclin, i. 138 
d'Epernon, i. 158 
d'Estomesnil, i. 203 
d'Estrees, i. 165 
d'Etampes, i. 203 
de Fecamp, ii. 128 
des Fermes, i. 109 ; ii. 260 
de Ferriere, i. 109 
de Fleury, ii. 138 
Fieubet, i. 268 
de Fontenay, i. 158 
Forbin, ii. 180 
de la Force, i. 169 
Fould, ii. 223 



Hotel Furtado, ii. 223 

de Gaudier, i. 168 

Gondi, ii. 156 

de Grammont, ii. 180 

du Grand Prieur, i. 148 

de Graville, i. 216 

de Gum6ne"e, i. 185 

Gune"gaud, ii. 146 

de Guise, i. 148 

de Harcourt, i. 123 

de Harlay, i. no 

de Hennisdal, ii. 158 

d'Herbouville, i. 168 

d'Hercule, ii. 126 

d'Herwert, i. 109 

d'Hesselin, ii. 59 

de Hollande, i. 159 

of Queen Hortense, ii. 233 

de la Houze, i. 168 

de I'lnfantado, ii. 193 

de 1'Intendant Foucault, ii. 

262 

des Invalides, ii. 181 
Janson, ii. 180 
de Jean Bart, i. 139 
de Jeanne d'Albret, i. 166 

176 

de Juigne", ii. 137 
Lambert, ii. 38 
de Lamoignon, i. 167 
de Languedoc, i. 109 
Latriffe, ii. 137 
de Lauzun, ii. 59 
de Laval, i. 140, 142 
de Lavalette, i. 209 
Lepeletier S. Fargeau, i. 176 
de Lesdiguieres, i. 40, 208 
des Lions du Roi, i. 206 
de Lisieux, i. 112 
de Longueville, i. 41 
de Luynes, ii. 179 
de Lyonne, i. 206 
de Maille, i. 206 
de Mailly, ii. 137 
de Marboeuf, ii. 223 
de Marion de Lorme, i. 183 
du Marquis de 1'Hopital, i. 

125 

de Matignon, ii. 178 
Maupertuis, i. 206 
de S. Maur, i. 203 
de Mayenne, i. 193 
de Mazarin, ii. 141 
de Mercoeur, ii. 269 
de Mesmes, i. 139 



INDEX 



259 



Hotel de la Mise"ricorde, i. 140 

de Mme. de la Fayette, ii. 

157 

Monaco, ii. 178 
de la Monnaie, ii. 146 
Montalembert, i. 239 
de Montmorency, i. 139 
de Montpensier, i. -no 
des Mousquetaires Noirs, 

i. 252 

de Nesle, i. 113 
Nesmond, ii. 61 
Nicolai, i. 208, 223 
de Ninon de 1'Enclos, i. 185 
Neuf, i. 205 
Nivernais, ii. 157 
M. de Nouveau, i. 183 
de Noailles, i. 105 
d'Orle'ans, i. 114 
d'Ormesson, i. 193 
d'Orsay, ii. 178 
de Penthievre, ii. 259 
de Pe"rigord, ii. 180 
Peruchet, i. 125 
Petit Beaumarchais, i. 208 
Petit Bourbon, ii. 153 
Petit de Conti, ii. 147 
de Petit Lamoignon, i. 176 
du Petit Luxembourg, ii. 153 
du Petit-Muse, i. 193, 205 
Peyrusse, ii. 175 
de Pimodan, ii. 59 
Pompe"ien, ii. 204 
Pommereu, i. 159 
de Pons, ii. 139 
Pontchartrain, ii. 262 
de Ponthieu, i. 112 
du Porc-e"pic, i. 216 
des Postes, ii. 257 
Pourtales, ii. 227 
de Preuilly, i. 220 
de la Providence, i. 125 
du Pre"vot de Paris, i. 216 
des Princes, i. 114 
Pute-y-Muce, i. 203 
de Quincy, i. 176 
de Rambouillet, ii. 269 
des Ranes, ii. 141 
de la Reine, i. 203 
de la Reine- Mere, i. 114 
de Ren d'Argouges, ii. 163 
de la Reynie, i. 132 
de Richelieu, i. 183 
de Roche-Guyon, i. 140 
de Rohan, i. 140, 158 



Hotel de Royaumont, i. 124 

de S. Aignan, i. 138 

de S. Paul, i. 203 

de S. Pouange, ii. 261 

Sale", i. 158 

de Savoisi, i. 169 

Sebastiani, ii. 223 

Se"guier, ii. 261 

de Senneterre, ii. 257 

de Sens, i. 212 

de Soissons, i. 113 ; ii. 260 

de Soubise, i. 142 

de Sully, i. 193 

de Tallard, i. 157 

de Talleyrand, ii. 193 

de Torpane, ii. 89 

de Toulouse, ii. 175, 260 

de Tournelles, i. 178 

de la Tre"mouille, i. 114 ; ii. 
140 

de Tresmes, i. 176 

Tubeuf, ii. 253 

de Turenne, i. 177 ; ii. 162 

des Ursins, ii. 33 

Valentinois, i. 206 ; ii. 208 

de Valois, ii. 147 

de Vendome, i. 223 

des Ventes Mobilieres, ii. 241 

de Vibray, i. 160 

de Vieuville, i. 206 

de Ville, i. 223 

de Villequier, i. 39 

Villette, ii. 137 

de Vitry, i. 176, 177 

de la Vrilli&re, ii. 192 
House. See Maison 



Imprimerie Nationale, i. 158 
Institut de France, ii. 142 
Invalides, Hotel des, ii. 181 
Isle de la Cite", ii. i 
aux Javiaux, ii. i 
de la Gourdaine, ii. i 
S. Louis, ii. 58 
Louviers, ii. 210 
aux Treilles, ii. i, 7 



Jurdin d'Acclimatation, ii. 220 
du Carrousel, i. 23 



260 



INDEX 



Jardin des Plantes, ii. 61 

du Luxembovirg, ii. 154 
du Palais Royal, ii. 267 
des Tuileries, i. 23 

Jeu de Paume de la Croix Noire, 
i. 200 



Longchamp, ii. 217 
Louvre, the, i. 35-97 
Colonnade du, i. 39 
Escalier Daru, i. 81 
Galerie d'Apollon, i. 37, 49 
Grande, i. 62 
Mollien, i. 77 

Guichets des S. Pe"res, i. 39 
Muse"e des Antiquite"s Grec- 

ques, i. 82 
Assyrien, i. 95 
Campana, i. 81 
Gaze, La, i. 46 
de Chalcographie, i. 95 
Charles X. , i. 82 
Chinois, i. 84 
des Desseins, i. 84 
Egyptien, i. 82 
Ethnographique, i. 84 
Fran9aise, i. 89 
Fran^ais Moderne, i. 95 
de Gravure, i. 95 
de Marine, i. 84 
du Moyen Age, i. 83 
de la Renaissance, i. 83 
de Sculpture, i. 84 
de Sculpture Egyp- 

tienne, i. 94 
de Sculpture Moderne 

Fran9aise, i. 95 
de Sculpture du Moyen 

Age, i. 93 

des Souverains, i. 82 
Pavilion Denon, i. 54 
de Flore, i. 38 
des Lesdiguieres, i. 40 
de Rohan, i. 40 
du Roi, i. 37, 47 
Sully, i. 46 
. Salle d' Adonis, i. 88 

Andre" Beauneveu, i. 94 
des Antiquite"s Grecques, 

i. 82 

des Antonins, i. 85 
d'Apis . 95 



Louvre 

Salle Asiatique, i. 81 
des Auguier, i. 94 
d'Auguste, i. 85 
des Bronzes, i. 84 ; ii. 221 
des Cariatides, i. 88 
Carre", i. 50 
des Cent Suisses, i. 88 
de Chaudet, i. 97 
de Coustou, i. 96 
de Coysevox, i. 96 
d'Eustache Lesueur, i. 77 
des Fresques, i. 82 
de Henri II., i. 47 
du He"ros Combattant, i. 

86 

del' Hermaphrodite, i. 88 
de Houdon, i. 97 
de Jean Goujon, i. 89 
de Me"cene, i. 85 
de M<dee, i. 88 
de Melpomene, i. 86 
de Michel-Ange, i. 91 
Michel Colombe, i. 91 
de Pallas, i. 86 
Petite Italienne, i. 91 
Petite Moyen Age, i. 93 
de Phidias, i. 86 
de la Psyche", i. 87 
de Puget, i. 95 
des Rhytons, i. 82 
de la Rotonde, i. 85 
de Rude, i. 97 
des Saisons, i. 85 
des Stances, i. 46 
des Sept Chemine"es, i. 47 
de Septime Severe, i. 85 
des Sept Metres, i. 59 
du Tibre, i. 86 
des Terracottas, i. 81 
du Tombeau Lydien, i. 82 
des Vases Corinthiens, i. 

82 

des Vases Noires, i. 81 
des Vases a Figurines 

Noires, i. 82 
des Vases a Figurines 

Rouges, i. 82 
de Ve"nus de Milo, i. 87 

Lutece, ii. i 

Luxembourg, Palais de, ii. 147 

Lyce"e Henri IV. , ii. 102 
Imperiale, ii. 109 
Louis le Grand, ii. 109 
S. Louis, ii. 114 



INDEX 



261 



M. 

Madeleine, La, ii. 225 
Madrid, chateau de, ii. 219 
Magasin du Bon Marche", ii. 177 

du Petit S. Thomas, ii. 

177 
Mairie de 1'Arrondissement du 

Louvre, i. 102 
du VII me. Arrondissement, 

ii. 1 80 
de IX. Arrondissement, ii. 

241 
of XIII. Arrondissement, ii. 

63 

Maison (House) 

de 1'Abbe" de I'Epe'e, ii. 230, 263 

de Andre" Che"nier, ii. 258 

de Benjamin Constant, ii. 221 

de Berryer, ii. 261 

Blanche, ii. 65 

de Boileau, ii. 37 

de Bossuet, ii. 261 

de Cagliostro, ii. 257 

de Calvin, i. 103 

de Chateaubriand, ii. 176 

de Colbert, ii. 257 

de Comte, ii. 156 

de la Croix rouge, i. 128 

de Desmarteaux, ii. no 

de Diderot, ii. 256 

Dore'e, ii. 232 

du Doyen, i. 98 

Duplay, ii. 194 

d' Education Correctionelle, i. 

240 

d'Etienne Marcel, i. 103 
de M. d'Etoiles, ii. 244 
de Eugene Scribe, i. 131 
de Fieschi, ii. 251 
cle Fran9ois I. , ii. 204 
de Fran9ois Rayner, i. 109 
de Franklin, ii. 208 
de Gabrielle d'Estre'es, ii. 237 
des Goths, i. 134 
de la Harpe, ii. 57 
de Jacques Rousseau, i. 109 
de Jeanne d'Albret, i. 109 
de Jeanne Poisson, ii. 258 
de Jehan le Blanc, i. 159 
de Jouvenet, ii. 146 
de Jules Janin, ii. 208 
of the King of Hanover, ii. 204 
de La Fayette, ii. 221 
de Lafontaine, i. 109 



Maison (House) 

de Lamartine, ii. 208 

de Lauzun, ii. 208 

de Mme. Lebrun, ii. 257 

de Lecouvreur, ii. 163 

de Louis Napoleon, ii. 192 

de Lulli, ii. 261 

de Mme. Mohl, ii. 176 

de Marat, ii. 134 

duMarechal de Richelieu, ii. 230 

de Marion Delorme, i. 185 

de Michelet, i. 132 

de Mignard, ii. 262 

Moliere, ii. 262 

de Napoleon Bonaparte, ii. 
146 

du Paradis, ii. 31 

de Philobert Delorme, i. 207 

aux Piliers, i. 224 

de Prince Eugene, ii. 188 

de la Princesse de Lamballe, ii. 
208 

de Queen Hortense, ii. 233 

de Rabelais, i. 218 

de Racine, ii. 35, 37, 112, 141, 163 

de la Reine Blanche, ii. 65 

de Rigaud, ii. 220 

de Robespierre, ii. 194 

de Rollin, ii. 243 

de Rossini, ii. 208 

de Scarron, ii. 139 

de Sir R. Wallace, ii. 233 

de Sophie Arnauld, i. 112 

de M. Thiers, ii. 234 

de Vanloo, i. 112 

de Victor Hugo, i. 185 

de Voltaire, ii. 264 
Manege, La, ii. 190 
Manufacture des Gobelins, ii. 64 
des Tabacs, ii. 187 
Marais, i. 161 

Marche" des Blancs Manteaux, i. 159 
des Carmes, ii. 95 
aux Chevaux, ii. 63 
aux Fleurs, ii. 226 
aux Innocents, i. 116 
Neuf, ii. 32 
aux Pourceaux, ii. 233 
S. Germain, ii. 166 
S. Honord, i. 105 
Me"nilmontant, i. 246 
Micra Madiana, ii. 29 
Mills of Montmartre, ii. 236 
Ministere de Marine, ii. 194 
Missions Etrangeres, ii. 177 



262 



INDEX 



Monastere (Monastery) 

des Carmelites, ii. 74 

des Carmes, ii. 158 

S. Eloi, ii. 30 

des Feuillants, ii. 190 
Monceaux, Pare de, ii. 220 
Mons Cetardus, ii. 69 

Marty rum, ii. 235 
Montfaucon, ii. 247 
Mont de Piete", ii. 234 
Vaierien, ii. 215 
Montmartre, ii. 235 
Montparnasse, Cimetiere de, ii. 78 
Montrouge, ii. 78 
Monument of Danton, ii. 135 
of Gambetta, i. 23 
Morgue, ii. 35 
Muette, La, ii. 208 
Muse"e de 1'Anatomie Compares, ii. 

134 

des Archives, i. 142 
d'Artillerie, ii. 185 
Assyrien, i. 95 
des Bronzes et Medailles, 

ii. 256 

Campana, i. 81 
Carnavalet, i. 192 
Cernuschi, ii. 221 
Charles X. or des Antiquite's 

Grecques, i. 82 
Chinois, i. 84 
de Cluny, ii. 115 
des Dessins, i. 84 
Dupuytren, ii. 130 
Egyptienne, i. 94 
Ethnographique, ii. 205 
de Galliera, ii. 207 
de Gravure ou de Chalco- 

graphie, i. 95 
Grevin, ii. 241 
Guimet, ii. 207 
of Hydraulic Machinery, i. 

137 

La Caze, i. 46 
du Louvre, i. 44 
du Luxembourg, ii. 153 
de Marine, i. 84 
de la Monnaie, ii. 146. 
des Monuments Fran9ais, 

ii. 139 

des Moulages, ii. 205 
Moyen Age et Renaissance, 

i. 83 

Oiler, ii. 228 
de la Republique, i. 45 



Muse'e Sculpture Moderne Fran- 

faise, i. 95 
Sculpture du Moyen Age, 

i.8 9 

Sigillographique, i. 143 
des Souverains, i. 82 
des Thermes, i. 122 
des Voitures, i. 120 



N. 

Napoleon, tombeau, ii. 183 
Neuilly, ii. 213 
Notre Dame, ii. 38 
Nouvelle Athenes, La, ii. 234 



O. 



Obelisk of Place de la Concorde, 

ii. 200 
Observatoire, ii. 76 

Meteorologique, ii. 79 
Odeon, ii. 156 
Olympia, ii. 228 
Opera, ii. 229 
Oratoire, The, i. 109 

de S. Georges, i. 131 



P. 



Palais (Palace) 

of the Abbot of S. Germain des 

Pre"s, ii. 172 

Archiepiscopal, ii. 35, 181 
des Archives, i. 143 
des Beaux Arts, ii. 139 
Cardinal, i. 158 
de Castille, ii. 205 
de la Cite, ii. 10-18 
du Consulat, ii. 152 
du Corps Legislatif, ii. 187 
de 1'Elysee, ii. 222 
de 1' Industrie, ii. 204 
de 1'Institut, ii. 142 
of Julian the Apostate, ii. 10 
de Justice, ii. 18 
de la Legion d'Honneur, ii. 

187 

de Louvre, i. 35 
du Luxembourg, ii. 150 
de Madame Adelaide, ii. 215 
de la Pairie, ii. 152 



INDEX 



263 



Palais (Palace) 

Royal, ii. 264 

du Se"nat, ii. 152 

de S. Paul, i. 203 

Sport, ii. 204 

des Thermes, ii. 122 

des Tournelles, i. 178 

du Trocade"ro, ii. 205 

des Tuileries, i. 18 
Pantheon, ii. 103 
Pare des Buttes Chaumont, ii. 

247 
Monceaux, n. 220 

Monsouris, ii. 79 
des Tournelles, i. 178 
Parvis Notre Dame, ii. 37 
Passage de 1'Ancre, i. 134 
du Caire, ii. 245 
Charlemagne, i. 216 
Colbert, ii. 263 
S. Pierre, i. 194, 197 
Passy, ii. 207 
Pavilion de Flore, i. 38 

d'Hanovre, ii. 230 
de Lesdiguieres, i. 40 
de Rohan, i. 40 
Pays-Latin, ii. 83 
Pere-Lachaise, i. 240 
Petite Provence, i. 25 
Pharmacie Gne"rale, i. 219 
Picpus, Cimitiere de, i. 251 
Piliers aux Halles, i. 116 
Place de la Bastille, i. 187 
Baudoyer, i. 129 
de Bellechasse, ii. 181 
de la Bourse, ii. 251 
du Carrousel, i. 40 
du Chateau d'Eau, ii. 251 
du Chatelet, i. 231, 233 
de la Concorde, ii. 194 
des Conqueles, ii. 190 
Dauphine, ii. 8 
Dorique, i. 184 
de 1'Ecole, i. 103 
de Greve, i. 227 
de 1' Hotel de Ville, i. 227 
d'ltalie, ii. 63 
Jena, ii. 207 
Lafayette, ii. 242 
Louis XV., ii. 194 
Louvois, ii. 262 
du Martroy, i. 222 
Maubert, ii. 87 
de la Nation, i. 248 
Notre Dame, ii. 35 



Place de l'Ope"ra, ii. 228 

du Parvis Notre Dame, ii. 36 
du Palais Royal, ii. 272 
du Pantheon, ii. 107 
du Petit Pont, ii. 85 
de la Re"publique, ii. 251 
Royale, i. 180-185 
S. Andre" des Arts, ii. 128 
S. Georges, ii. 234 
S. Jacques, ii. 82 
S. Michel, ii. 126 
S. Sulpice, ii. 166 
du Temple, i. 156 
du Theatre Franfais, ii. 272 
du Trocaddro, ii. 204 
du Trone, i. 248 
Vendome, ii. 190 
des Victoires, ii. 257 
Voltaire, i. 239 ; ii. 252 
des Vosges, i. 178 
Point du Jour, ii. 209 
Pont d'Arcole, i. 229 
au Change, i. 232 
de la Concorde, ii. 187 
de la Greve, i. 229 
des Invalides, ii. 187 
Neuf, ii. 2 
de Neuilly, ii. 211 
Notre Dame, ii. 29 
Petit, ii. 84 
aux Pleurs, ii. 2 
Royale, i. 178 
S. Michel, ii. 126 
des S. Peres, ii. 137 
de Solferino, ii. 187 
de la Tournelle, ii. 59 
Port Maillot, ii. 211 
Port Royal de Paris, ii. 74 
Porte S. Antoine, i. 188 
S. Bernard, ii. 59 
de la Cite", ii. 29 
de la Conference, i. 24 
S. Denis, ii. 244 
S. Martin, ii. 248 
Montmartre, i. 125 
de la Muette, ii. 215 
de S. Paul, i. 195 
Post Office, ii. 257 
Pr aux Clercs, ii. 171, 181 
Priory of S. Martin des Champs, 

i. 136 
Prison de 1'Abbaye, ii. 172 

de la Conciergerie, ii. 18 
de la Force, i. 169 
de Glaucin, ii. 29 



264 



INDEX 



Prison des Jeunes Detenus, i. 240 

Mazas, i. 252 

Nouveau BicStre, i. 239 

La Roquette, i. 239 

S. Firmin, ii. 91 

S. Lazare, ii. 245 

S. Pelagic, ii. 63 
Provence, La Petite, i. 25 
Puits d' Amour, i. 131 



Q. 

Quai d'Anjou, ii. 59 

des Augustins, ii. 126 

de Bethune, ii. 59 

de Bourbon, ii. 59 

des Ce"lestins, i. 206 

Conti, ii. 146 

aux Fleurs, ii. 37 

Henri IV., i. 209 

de 1'Horloge, ii. 12, 37 

del' Hotel de Ville, i. 230 

Malaquais, ii. 137 

de la Me"gisserie, i. 232 

des Miramionnes, ii. 61 

des Orfevres, ii. 12 

d'Orsay, ii. 186 

de Passy, ii. 207 

de la Tournelle, ii. 61 

Voltaire, ii. 137 

Quarries of Montmartre, ii. 236 

Quartier Latin, ii. 84 

Mauconseil, i. 126 
de S. Paul, i. 195 



R. 



Reservoir de la Vanne, ii. 79 
Restaurants, i. 15 
Rond Point, ii. 204 
Rue de 1'Abbaye, ii. 172 

d'Aboukir, ii. 245 

des Amandiers, ii. 95 

de 1'Ancienne Come"die, ii. 129, 
136 

des Anglais, ii. 87 

d'Anjou S. Honore", ii. 224 

de 1'Arbre Sec, i. no 

des Archives, i. 144 

d'Argenteuil, i. 108 

d' Arras, ii. 92 

d'Artois, ii. 240 

1'Auxerrois. i. in 



Rue de 1'Ave Maria, i. 209 
de Babylone, ii. 177 
du Bac, ii. 176 
Barbette, i. 165 
de la Barillerie, ii. 30 
des Barre"s, i. 200, 220 
Bayard, ii. 204 
de Beaune, ii. 204 
de Beautreillis, i. 205, 206 
de Belleville, ii. 249 
des Bernardins, ii. 89 
de Berri, ii. 204 
Berlin- Poir^e, i. 232 
Berton, ii. 208 
de Be"thizy, i. in 
Bichat, ii. 250 
de Bi6vre, ii. 88 
des Billettes, i. 145 
Bonaparte, ii. 139 
de la Bonne, ii. 237 
des Bons Enfants, ii. 91 
du Bouloi, ii. 260 
des Bourdonnais, i. 114 
de Bourgogne, ii. 181 
Bourg Tibourg, i. 223 
de Boutebrie, ii. 123 
de Bretagne, i. 157 
de la Bucherie, ii. 85, 86 
de la Calandre, ii. 32 
Cambon, ii. 194 
des Capucins, ii. 79 
du Cardinal Lemoine, ii. 90 
des Carmes, ii. 94 
Casimir Pe"rier, ii. 180 
Cassette, ii. 158 
de Castiglione, ii. 190 
dela Cerisaie, i. 205, 207 
Cerutti, ii. 233 
des Chanoinesses, ii. 57 
Chante-Raine, ii. 243 
des Chantres, ii. 57 
de Charenton, i. 252 
Charlemagne, i. 218 
Charles V., i. 206 
de Chariot, i. 145 
de la Charpenterie, i. in 
de Chateaudun, ii. 234 
Chaume, i. 140 
Chausse"e d'Antin, ii. 229 
du Cherche-Midi, ii. 175 
du Chevet, ii. 35 
des Cholets, ii. 108 
de la Cite", ii. 28 
Claude Bernard, ii. 69 
de Cle"ry, ii. 257 



INDEX 



265 



Rue de Clichy, ii. 230 

Cloitre Notre Dame, ii. 56 

du Clos-Georgeau, ii. 263 

Clovis, ii. 101 

Cocatrix, ii. 36 

de Colombier, ii. 141 

de la Corderie, i. 146 

des Coutures S. Gervais, i. 157, 

i73 

Cujas, ii. 108 

Culture S. Catherine, i. 175 
Domat, ii. 87 
du Dragon, ii. 175 
de la Draperie, ii. 30 
Drouot, ii. 241 
Duphot, ii. 194 
de 1'Echelle, i. 108 
1'Ecole de Me'decine, ii. 115, 

i3> *34 

des Ecoles, ii. 83, 94, in 

Elzevir, i. 167 

des Enfants Rouges, i. 144 

d'Enfer, ii. 34, 71 

d'Enfer (on the Island), ii. 34 

de l'Epe"e de Bois, ii. 69 

du Faubourg S. Antoine, i. 248, 

250, 251 
S. Denis, ii. 245 
S. Honore", ii. 

221 

S. Martin, ii. 245, 

248 
Montmartre, ii. 

242 
Poissonniere, ii. 

241 

du Temple, ii. 249 
Fer-a-Moulin, ii. 63 
FeYou, ii. 157 
des Fermes, ii. 260 
de la Ferronnerie, i. 128 
des Feuillantines, ii. 80 
de Figuier, i. 212, 213 
Fontaine, ii. 234 

Moliere, ii. 263 
de la Fontenelle, ii. 240 
des Fosse's S. Bernard, ii. 91 
S. Germain, i. in 
S. Victor, ii. 91 
du Fouarre, ii. 86 
du Four, ii. 175 
Francois Miron,.i. 122 
des Francs Bourgeois, i. 161 
de Gaillon, ii. 262 
Galande, ii. 86 



Rue Garanciere, ii. 162 

Geoffrey d'Asnier, i. 220 
Geoffroy-Marie, ii. 242 
de Glatigny, ii. 33 
de Grammont, ii. 233 
du Grand Chantier, i. 144 
Grand Truanderie, i. 131 
des Grands Augustins, ii. 126 
de la Grange Bateliere, ii. 

243 

de Gravilliers, i. 145 
Gre"goire de Tours, ii. 166 
de Crenelle, ii. 179, 181 
Grenelle S. Honore", i. 108 
de Harlay, ii. 8 
de la Harpe, ii. 115 
Hautefeuille, ii. 128 
Hauteville, ii. 128 
du Haut Pave", ii. 88 
de Havre, ii. 227 
Haxo, ii. 249 
de 1'Homme Arme", i. 145 
Jacob, ii. 141 
Jardins S. Paul, i. 218 
du Jardinet, ii. 129 
de Jean Jacques Rousseau, i. 

108, 250 
du Jour, i. 124 
de Jouy, i. 218 
des Juifs, i. 223 
de la Juiverie, ii. 28, 32 
de la Jussienne, i. 125 
Lafayette, ii. 241 
Laffitte, ii. 233 
Lamarck, ii. 236 
de la Lanterne, ii. 28, 32 
Laplace, ii. 95 
Larrey, ii. 134 
de Licorne, ii. 31 
de Lille, ii. 188 
des Lions, i. 205 
Lobinot, ii. 166 
Louis le Grand, ii. 230 
du Louvre, i. 98 
de Lutece, ii. 28, 30 
de Luxembourg, ii. 194 
des Ma9ons, ii. 112 
de la Madeleine, ii. 225 
du Mail, ii. 257 
Marcel, i. 126 
du Marche", ii. 28 
Marche" S. Honor 6, i. 105 
du Marche" Palu, ii. 32 
des Marmousets, ii. 33 
de Martrov, i. 222 



266 



INDEX 



Rue Massillon, ii. 57 
Mathurin, ii. 123 
Maubue"e, i. 132, 134 
des Mauvais Galons, ii. 166 
Mazarin, ii. 146 
Me"nilmontant, i. 246 
de la Michodiere, ii. 230 
Micra Madiana, ii. 29 
Mignon, ii. 128 
des Minimes, i. 177 
Mondetour, i. 131 
Monge, ii. 83 
Monsieur le Prince, ii. 114, 

156 

de la Montagne, ii. 95 
Montmartre, i. 125 ; ii. 241 
Montmorency, i. 134 
Mont Thabor, ii. 190 
Mouffetard, ii. 69 
des Moulins, ii. 230, 262 
Neuve des Petits Champs, ii. 

261 

S. Etienne, ii. 243 
S. Roch, i. 1 06 
de Nevers, ii. 146 
Nicole, ii. 74 
des Nonnains d'Hyeres, i. 

218 

de Normandie, i. 177 
Notre Dame de Lorette, ii. 

234 

de 1'Oratoire, ii. 220 
d' Orleans, i. no 
de la Paix, ii. 228 
de Paradis, i. 140 
du Pare Royal, i. 181 
de la Parcheminerie, ii. 125 
Pas de Mule, i. 185 
Pavde, i. 168 
le Peletier, ii. 240 
de la Pelleterie, ii. 29 
du Petit Bourbon, ii. 156 
Petite Truanderie, i. 131 
de Picpus, i. 230 
Pirouette, i. 124 
de la Planchette, i. 252 
Platriere, i. 108 
de Poissy, ii. 90 
de Ponthieu, i. in 
Port S. Landry, ii. 35 
Pot de Per, ii. 139 
des Poulies, i. in 
Pourtales, ii. 243 
des Prouvaires, i. 114 
de Provence, ii. 241 



Rue du Puits 1'Hermite, ii. 63 
des Pyramides, i. 108 
de Quatre, i. 140 
Quincampoix, i. 132 
Radziwill, ii. 260 
Rambuteau, i. 139 
de Rennes, ii. 160 
de Richelieu, ii. 253 
Richer, ii. 241 
de Rivoli, ii. 189 
du Roi de Sicile, i. 176 
des Rosiers, ii. 239 
Royale, ii. 226 
Ruelle Sourdis, i. 145 
S. Andre" des Arts, ii. 126 
S. Anne, ii. 261 
S. Antoine, i. 191 
S. Avoye, i. 138 
S. Benoit, ii. no 
S. Claude, i. 178 
S. Denis, i. 130 

a Montmartre, ii. 238 
S. Dominique, ii. 180 
S. Etienne des Ores, ii. 109 
S. Eleuthere, ii. 237 
S. Faron, ii. 166 
S. Florentin, ii. 192 
S. Germain 1'Auxerrois, i. 232 
S. Hilaire, ii. 95 
S. Hippolyte, ii. 65 
S. Honore", i. 105, 128 
S. Jacques, ii. 69, 79, 80, 

109 

S. Jean de Beauvais, ii. 92 
S. Landry, ii. 37 
S. Louis aux Marais, i. 177 
S. Martin, i. 132 
de S. Paul, i. 195 
des SS. Peres, ii. 137 
S. Pierre aux Boeufs, ii. 35 
S. Roch, ii. 189 
S. Sepulchre, ii. 175 
de Sartine, i. 109 
Sauval, i. 112 
Scipion, ii. 63 
de la Seine, ii. 147 
du Sentier, ii. 244 
des Sept Voies, ii. 108 
Serpente, ii. 128 
de Se"vigne", i. 175 
de Sevres, ii. 175 
de Sommerard, ii. 115 
de la Sorbonne, ii. 115 
Soufflot, ii. 106 
de Sully, i. 209 






INDEX 



267 



Rue du Temple, .i. 138, 145, 146 
The"rese, ii. 263 
cle Thorigny, i. 167 
de la Tixeranderie, ii. 166 
de la Tonnellerie, i. 128 
des Tournelles, i. 185 
de Tournon, ii. 156 
de Tracy, i. 132 
du Trahoir, i. in 
Traversiere, i. 128 
Tronchet, if. 227 
de Turbigo, i. 125 
de Turenne, i. 176 
de 1' University, ii. 180 
des Ursins, ii. 33, 37 
des Ursulines, ii. 80 
Val de Grace, ii. 71 
de Valois, ii. 271 
Vanneau, ii. 179 
de Varennes, ii. 178 
de Vaugirard, ii. 157 
Velasquez, ii. 221 
de Vendome, i. 146 
de Venise, i. 134 
de la Verrerie, i. 132 
de la Vieille Draperie, ii. 30 
Vieille du Temple, i. 157 
des Vieilles Poulies, i. 166 
des Vieux Augustins, i. 125 
Visconti, ii. 141, 165 
Vivienne, ii. 252 
des Vosges, i. 185 
de la Vrilliere, ii. 258 

Ruelle Sourdis, i. 145 



Sainte Chapelle, ii. 22 
Salle des Pas Perdus, ii. 15 
Se"minaire S. Firmin, ii. 91 

S. Magloire, ii. 81 
Se"rail des Mignons, i. 198 
Sorbonne, ii. in 
Square du Carrousel, i. 40 
du Louvre, i. 40 
Montholon, ii. 242 
du Temple, i. 156 
Statue of Age sans Pitie, i. 156 
Beaumarchais, i. 187 
Beranger, i. 156 
Bernard Palissy, ii. 172 
Charlemagne, ii. 38 
Claude Chappe, i. 179 



Statue of Etienne Dolet, ii. 88 
Franjois Villon, ii. 90 
Gaspard de Coligny, i. 

I2O 

Le Harponneur, i. 156 
Henri IV., ii. 5-8 ' 
Jeanne Dare, i. 108 
Jean Oudry, ii. 90 
Larrey, ii. 71 
Ledru Rollin, i. 239 ; ii. 

252 
Louis XIII., i. 185; ii. 

126 

Louis XIV. , ii. 191 
Montyon, ii. 250 
Napoleon I., ii. 191 
Ney, ii. 76 
Pascal, i. 230 
P. de Viole, ii. 90 
Pinel, ii. 63 
the Republic, ii. 143 
Victory, i. 138 
Voltaire, by CaiHe", ii. 142 
by Houdon, ii. 
90 



T. 

Tavern, Pomme de Pin, ii. 31 

Temple, the, i. 146 

Terrasse des Feuillants, i. 24 

Theatre de Cluny, ii. 122 
du Chatelet, i. 233 
Come'die Fran9aise, i. 127 
des Folies Dramatiques, ii 
' 



. .. 

is, 11. 272 

de 1'Hdtel de Bourgogne, 

i. 126 
Illustre, i. 200 
Lyrique, i. 232 
du Marais, i. 176 
de TOddon, ii. 157 
du Palais Royal, ii. 269 
Petit Bourbon, i. 126 
Vaudeville, ii. 228 
Tombeau Napoleon, ii. 183 
Tour d' Argent, ii. 13 
de Ce"sar, ii. 12 
de 1'Horloge, ii. 12 
de Montgommery, ii. 12 
de Nesle, ii. 144 
de S. Genevieve, ii. 102 
de S. Jacques, i. 230 



268 



INDEX 



Tour du Temple, i. 147 
Tournelles, Palais des, i. 178 
Tribunal de Commerce, ii. 28 
Trocade'ro, Le, ii. 204 
Tuileries, the, i. 18 



U. 

University, ii. 83 

Catholique de Paris, ii. 

162 
of the Sorbonne, ii. in 



V. 

Val d'Amour, ii. 33 
de Grace, ii. 69 
Vauvert, ii. 71 
Venus of Milo, the, i. 87 
Villette, La, ii. 246 
Villiers, ii. 215 

W. 

Walls of Philippe Auguste, 
109 ; ii. 83, 91 



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